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BY KARL-HEINZ SCHOEPS Resistance to Hitler Within the Third Reich.

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1 BY KARL-HEINZ SCHOEPS Resistance to Hitler Within the Third Reich

2 Today’s Agenda Personal introduction Introduction to the topic About the course Historical background Definition of resistance Some music: Felix Mendelssohn Brief overview: examples of resistance not discussed in detail Plan for coming sessions

3 CHILDHOOD IN NAZI GERMANY STUDIED AT THE UNIVERSITIES OF FREIBURG, INNSBRUCK, BONN, LONDON (KING’S COLLEGE), KANSAS AND WISCONSIN STAATSEXAMEN BONN, 1962 PHD MADISON, WI, 1971 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, DEPARTMENT OF GERMANIC LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES 1971-2003, RETIRED IN 2000. SPECIAL AREAS OF INTEREST: GERMAN CULTURAL HISTORY, GERMAN 20 TH CENTURY LITERATURE, BERTOLT BRECHT, BRD, DDR, NS GERMANY First Sesion Personal Introduction

4 MY FATHER FOUGHT AND LOST WWI MY BROTHER FOUGHT AND LOST WWII I CAME TO THE USA AND BECAME AND BECAME AN AMERICAN CITIZEN (TO BE ON THE WINNING SIDE, FOR A CHANGE) Personal continued

5 Hans von Herwarth 1904-1999 Connections to 20 th July 1944 conspiracy Diplomat in German Embassy in Moscow 1931-1939 After WW II German ambassador in London and Rome

6 Hans von Herwarth

7 Introduction to the topic Topic long been ignored Change only in the last 20 to 30 years in Germany In the USA even more recently, especially with books on the Red Orchestra by Shareen Blair Brysac (2000) and Anne Nelson (2009) or the plot of 20 th July 1944 by Joachim Fest (1997) and Roger Moorhouse (2006) plus the film Valkyrie (2008)

8 TIME ALLOTTED 3 HOURS SO WE CAN SCREEN FILMS FROM A VARIETY OF SOURCES (YOU TUBE, AMAZON INSTANT FILM, RENTERTAINMENT, U OF I) I WILL PROVIDE CONTEXT AND ADDITIONAL MATERIAL DISCUSSIONS AFTER FILMS QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS ALWAYS WELCOME About the course

9 THERE WERE A GOOD NUMBER OF GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS RESISTING THE NAZIS RANGING FROM POLITICAL RIGHT TO LEFT. WE WILL DISCUSS A SELECTION OF THEM BUT I DO WANT TO BRIEFLY POINT TO OTHERS WHOM WE CANNOT COVER IN THIS COURSE Forms of resistance

10 1914-1918 WWI ENDING WITH TREATY OF VERSAILLES WEIMAR REPUBLIC 1918-1933 (“A REPUBLIC WITHOUT REPUBLICANS”) 1919 UNREST, COMMUNIST INSPIRED REVOLUTIONS 1920 FAILED KAPP-PUTSCH 1923 CURRENCY REFORM TO 1929 RELATIVE STABILITY 1929 WORLDWIDE ECONOMIC CRISIS Brief historical background

11 INCREASING POLITICAL TURMOIL, RIVALRY BETWEEN KPD AND NSDAP JANUARY 30 1933 HITLER NAMED REICHS- CHANCELLOR CONSOLIDATION OF POWER (“GLEICHSCHALTUNG, “ERMÄCHTIGUNGSGESETZ”); SS, SA, GESTAPO MARCH 1933 REICHSTAG FIRE AND FIRST KZ CAMPS 1934 RÖHM AFFAIR Brief historical overview continued

12 Brief historican overview continued 1935 Nurenberg Laws, military conscription 1936 Rheinland occupation March 1938 “Anschluss” Austria’s 9 Nov 1938 “Kristallnacht” Munich conference 29-30 November 1938, Chamberlain (peace secured) March 1939 destruction of Czechoslovakia 9/1/1939 beginning of WWII 6/22/1941 attack on SU May 9 end of WWII in Europe

13 Introduction to the Course Historical Background  Hitler-Putsch 1923 Bürgerbräukeller

14 Hitler Speaks Hitler speaks in the Bürgerbräukeller

15 Hitler leaves Bürgerbräukeller for a Demonstration March

16 WHAT CONSTITUTES RESISTANCE? ANYTHING THAT WAS COUNTER TO THE RIGOROUS REGIMENTATION (“GLEICHSCHALTUNG”) SUCH AS REFUSING HITLER GREETING (“HEIL HITLER”) LISTENING TO FORBIDDEN MUSIC DISTRIBUTING LEAFLETS HIDING PERSECUTED PERSONS (MAINLY JEWS) SABOTAGE ASSASSINATIONS (I DO NOT CONSIDER DIFFERENT FACTIONS OF NAZIS AS RESISTANCE (E.G. GREGOR AND OTTO STRASSER) DEFINITIONS OF “RESISTANCE”

17 FELIX MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY 1809-1847 LEIPZIG, LED GEWANDHAUS ORCHESTRA LEIPZIG MUSIC FOR SHEAKESPEARE’S MIDSUMMERNIGHT’S DREAM PART AND PARCEL OF GERMAN CULTURAL HERITAGE FORBIDDEN BY NAZIS SINCE M WAS JEWISH Musical interlude

18 1886-1954 ONE OF THE GREATEST CONDUCTORS OF THE 20 TH CENTURY LED THE BERLIN PHILHARMONIC 1922-1945 AND 1952-54 CONSIDERED THE NAZIS CULTURAL BARBARIANS ONGOING CONTROVERSY ABOUT HIS ROLE IN NAZI GERMANY (SEE WIKIPEDIA) Wilhelm Furtwängler

19 1. MAJOR PLAGGE AND PRIVATE ANTON SCHMID Representatives of Resistance I will not deal with in this course

20 Major Karl Plagge Head of the Army Vehicle Repair Shop in Vilnius, Lithuania, 1941- 43; saved Jews by employing them in his shop

21 Anton Schmid Anton Schmid was a private charged with collecting lost German soldiers and returning them to their units. Had trucks; hid Jews in his apartment and transported them to other Ghettos to forment resistance

22 Rosenstrasse- Protest February- March 1943 Early in 1943 the Nazis wanted to deport about 1700 Jewish men of “Arian” women, arrested them and held them in Berlin, Rosenstrasse 2-4, the Community center of the Jewish community The women protested, were threatened with machine guns but the women remained steadfast and, finally, the Nazis relented and freed the men. Most of them survived.

23 Rosenstrasse- Protest Women threatened with guns. Film by Margarete von Trotta

24 Edelweiss pirates A group of young people opposed to the Hitler Youth, especially in Cologne.

25 Swing Jugend/ Swing Kids Young people between the ages of 14 and 21 who loved American music (swing, Jazz), mostly from middle or upper classes in Hamburg, Frankfurt, Berlin, Wien. At the beginning a-political but politicized through persecution. Contacts with the White Rose.

26 Kurt Gerstein Committed Christian (Protestant, Confessing Church) and SS Officer. Attempted to expose the Holocaust to the World. Committed suicide in 1945 in a French prison

27 Blindenwerk- statt Otto Weidt Employed blind Jews in his workshop making brooms and brushes (biggest customer was the Wehrmacht), hid “his” Jews when Gestapo closed in. Many survived, including the non- blind Jew Inge Deutschkron (book Ich trug den gelben Stern) Silent Heroes of Berlin

28 Herbert Baum Leader of a group of young Jewish resisters in Berlin. Distributed leaflets and acts of sabotage. Caught and executed in 1942

29 Inner Emigration Non-NS-literature, occasionally bordering on critical resistance, e. g. Reinhold Schneider’s “Las Casas vor Karl V,” which tells the story of the Spanish Dominican missionary Bartolomé de las Casas (1474-1566) and his horror of the brutal treatment of the Indios in the New World ; a parallel to the brutal treatment of the Jews in NS Germany. Schneider had connections to thje “Kreisau Circle.” Charged with high treason in 1945.

30 Friedrich Schiller Play “William Tell” A Swiss national hero Assassinated an Austrian tyrant

31 Other resistance groups There were other resistance groups and people about which I know very little, such as A left wing group called “Neu Beginnen” (new beginnings) and people like Josef (“Beppo”) Römer and Nikolaus von Halem, Both of them executed in 1942

32 Plan for the coming sessions Session 2 Conservative opposition Kreisau Circle Von Moltke, York von Wartenbug. Goerdeler Film from Amazon

33 Session 3 Georg Elser The lone assassin Film clip from you tube

34 Session 4 The White Rose Resistance at universities The Scholl siblings and others Film about Sophie Scholl

35 Session 5 The Red Orchestra Arvid and Mildred Harnack Harro Schulze Boysen Others Film by Stefan Roloff (Amazon)

36 Session 6 The role of the church A) The Protestant Church Dietrich Bonhoeffer Martin Niemoeller Film Bonhoeffer-Agent of Grace

37 Session 7 Role of the Church The Catholic Church Bishop Clemens August Graf von Galen Pater Bernard Lichtenberg Pater Alfred Delp Film “Amen” about Gerstein and the role of the Pope (based on Rolf Hochhuth’s “The Deputy”)

38 Session 8 Military resistance Plot of 20 July 1944 Colonel Claus Graf Schenk von Stauffenberg Colonel Hans Oster and others Documentary film “Plot Against Hitler”

39 Kreisauer Kreis (Kreisau Circle) Peter York von Wartenburg, Count Helmuth James von Moltke Against nationalism No return to Weimar party system Pro Europe Small communities Restoring moral integrity

40 Kreisau Circle cont. Other members: religious leaders like Eugen Gerstenmaier (ev), Pater Delp (cath) and socialists like Julius Leber, Wilhelm Leuschner, Carlo Mierendorff. Against mass society (“Vermassung”), capitalism and Bolshevism. Nostalgia for the shared European values enshrined in Christendom and humanism” (H Mommsen). Advocacy of a United Europe.

41 Georg Elser 1903 – 1945 Swabian carpenter, cabinet maker Attempted to assassinate Hitler on 8 November 1939 in Munich’s Bürgerbräukeller “Someone had to do it.” “I wanted to prevent war.”

42 Elser cont. He never married but he had girl friends, a fiancee and a son. Worked at several jobs as carpenter, cabinet maker, in a quarry (to obtain eplosives), and in a clock factory (obtained clocks). Decided early (1934/35) that Hitler was bad for Germany. Explored ways to kill Hitler in 1938 during the parade of 11/8 commemorating NS “martyrs” of 1923. Maurice Bavaud’s attempt to shoot Hitler at same parade.

43 The White Rose Sophie Scholl 1921- 1943

44 Hans Scholl 1918-1943 (2/22)

45 The White Rose Other members: Willy Graf, Christoph Probst, Alexander Schmorell Professor Kurt Huber All of them sentenced to death by Roland Freisler, President of “The People’s Court” (Volksgerichtshof) Based mainly in Munich, but outreach to other cities (Salzburg, Wien, Freiburg, Hamburg) Other members sentenced to prison (up to 12 years)

46 The Red Orchestra Name given by the Gestapo Aided those persecuted by the Nazis Distributed anti-Nazi fliers Collected and spread information on war preparation and war crimes Warned S U of impending attack Contacts to other resistance groups Plans for post-war Germany Over 100 members

47 The Red Orchestra continued Discovered 1942 after radio signals were decoded Manfred Roeder, “Hitler’s bloodhound,” appointed as judge. Most members executed, some hanged from meat hooks in Berlin-Plötzensee prison Defamed after the war as Soviet spies and traitors Roeder informant for American CIC and never prosecuted On 9/8/2009 the Bundestag annulled NS sentences and rehabilitated members of the Red Orchestra

48 Manfred Roeder (1900-1971), military judge “Hitler’s bloodhound”

49 The Red Orchestra Arvid Harnack

50 Arvid Harnack (1901-12/22/1942) Cousin of Dietrich Bonhoeffer Father Otto professor of history and literature in Darmstadt and Stuttgart (suicide 19140) Studied law, 1924 Dr jur. 1926-28 with Rockefeller stipend at UW Madison to study economics 1926 married Mildred Fish, a literary scholar from Milwaukee Saw Soviet planned economy as a possible alternative to capitalism (which failed in 1929)

51 Arvid Harnack continued 1930 doctorate in economics (U Giessen) High ranking job in ministry of economics 1937 member of NSDAP as cover Contact to US embassy (Donald Heath) 1936 contact with Harro Schulze-Boysen group 1940 contact with Hans and Hilde Coppi (KPD) 1940/41 contact with Soviet embassy Warned them of impending invasion 9/7/1942 arrested, tried and hanged in B-Plötzensee

52 The Red Orchestra Mildred Harnack

53 Mildred Fish-Harnack, 1902-1943 (2/16) Born in Milwaukee, WI Came to UW Madison in 1921 as a student of English literature (also German literature and the classics) under noted Professor William Ellery Leonard 1926 met Arvid Harnack, they married and moved to Germany in 1928, first to Giessen, then Berlin in 1930. Lecturer of English and American literature at U Berlin and Berlin Abendgymnasium (night school) Friendship with Martha Dodd, daughter of the American ambassador William E Dodd Resistance activities with husband Arvid

54 Mildred Fish-Harnack continued Arrested, sentenced to years in enhanced prison (Zuchthaus), then on Hitler’s orders, sentenced to death and decapitated Buried in Berlin-Zehlendorf cemetary (the only known burial site of Red Orchestra members)

55 The Red Orchestra Harro Schulze Boysen

56 Harro Schulze-Boysen, 1909-1942(12/22) Great nephew of grand admiral Alfred von Tirpitz As Oberleutnant (lieutenant 1 st class) in the Reichsluftfahrtministerium ( air ministry) with access to secret information From 1935 gathered a circle of anti-Nazis around him (artists, musicians, pacifists, communists) 1936 married Libertas Haas-Heye, press officer for Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer Since 1936 collaboration with Harnack group 1940/41 attempt to warn SU of impending invasion July 1942 their messages decoded, arrested, sentenced to death, hanged in Berlin-Plötzensee 12/22/1942

57 The Red Orchestra Other members included Adam Kuckhoff and his wife Greta, Günter Weisenborn, Adolf Grimme, The sculptor Kurt Schumacher and his wife Elisabeth, dancer Oda Schottmüller, journalist Walter Küchenmeister, dentist Helmut Himpel, pianist Helmut Roloff etc

58 John Sieg 1903 (Detroit) – 1942 (suicide in Gestapo prison, Berlin) Member of the KPD Journalist, Rote Fahne, Reichsbahn worker, close contact with Harnacks Communist underground Wife Sophie survived KZ Ravensbrück

59 Hans Coppi 1916 – 1942 Communist underground Contact to Red Orchestra Hanged in Plötzensee together with A Harnack, Schulze-Boysen Wife Hilde gave birth to son Hans in prison before her execution

60 Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1906 – 1945 Protestant Theologian, pastor. Co- founder of the Confessing Church. Anti-Nazi, worked for the” Abwehr,” impisoned by the Nazis and hanged April 9 1945 in Flossenbürg concentration camp

61 Martin Niemoeller 1892-1984 Conservative, U-Boat office and captain in WW! Then protestant pastor

62 Martin Niemoeller After the Nazis came to power, Niemoeller was one of the founders of the Protestant Confessing Church. Imprisoned by the Nazis and liberated in 1945

63 Theophil Wurm 1868 t0 1953 Protestant minister and from 1929 to 1948 bishop of the Protestant (evangelische) Church in Württemberg. His church joined the Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche) in 1934 1940 open protest against NS - euthanasia program 1943 open protest against the persecution of Jews. Connection to Kreisau Circle 1944 forbidden to preach and to write Oct 1045 signed confession of guilt of the Protestant Church

64 Alfred Delp 1907 – 2 February 1945 Member of the Kreisau Circle, Significant member of the Catholic resistance Refused access to U Munich for doctorate in philosophy Editorial staff of “Stimmen der Zeit” Rector and preacher at St Georg church, Munich Helped Jews to escape Arrested after 20 th July 1944 plot Executed in Berlin Plötzensee 2 Feb 1945, ashes distributed over a sewage field

65 Bernhard Lichtenberg 1875 - 1943 Peacher and administrator at St. Hedwig Cathedral in Berlin Preached and prayed openly for all those persecuted by the Nazi regime, especially after Kristallnacht 1938 Imprisoned in Berlin-Tegel, died on transport to KZ Dachau Revered as martyr by the Catholic Church and Yad Vashem in Jerusalem

66 Bishop Clemens August von Galen In 3 sermons the archbishop of Münster preached openly against the barbarism of the Nazis, especially the euthanasia project. His sermons were secretly distributed and influenced such people as the Scholl siblings and major general Hans Oster.

67 Plot to assassinate Hitler on July 20, 1944 Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg

68 Albrecht Haushofer 1903-1945. Father Karl WWI general and friend of Rudolf Hess (Hitler’s deputy), who helped him obtain a “German Blood Certificate” since he was a “Mischling.” A. was a professor of Geopolitics at Berlin U, since mid-thirties, member of resistance (Kreisauer Kreis, Rote Kapelle). Executed in April 1945

69 Albrecht Haushofer Moabit Sonnets XXXIX Guilt I bear lightly that of which the Court will call me guilty: the planning and the caring. Criminal I would have been had I not planned As my own duty for the people’s morrow. Yet I am guilty otherwise than you think, I should have recognized my duty sooner, More sharply named disaster as disaster- I withheld my judgment much too long.

70 Albrecht Haushofer Moabit sonnet XXXIX continued In my heart I do accuse myself: For long I deceived my own conscience, I lied to myself and others – Early on I knew the whole rage of misery – I gave warning – not loud enough and clear! Today I know what I was guilty of...

71 Albrecht Haushofer Moabit Sonnets L Nemesis Just yesterday he sentenced four to hanging, And today he’s lying dead among the ruins, Will serve no one any more to rope or axe, A heap of rubble now his whole domain. Judgment – a weighty word! It gave him pleasure To tip the balance low to mark the bad So he could send off new necks to the hangman, No death-sentence ever caused him to repent.

72 Albrecht Haushofer Moabit Sonnet L continued Judgment – a happenstance? A thousand bombs Struck human beings down in this vast city- And a bomb was permitted to be judge? Judgment – so many of the dead have asked In vain what was the meaning … so do not judge! All of us are due a higher judgment !


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