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The changing views of Autism 3525290n.

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2 The changing views of Autism 3525290n

3 Autism in the Past 1911- coined by Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler “Autism” = an extreme withdrawal of oneself from the fabric of social life Compared to Schizophrenia Little research was done due to easily admitting those with “autism” to institutions.

4 1940’s-1960’s The Age of Denial 1943- first research on Autism by Leo Kanner Case on 11 kids who displayed, “extreme autistic aloneness.” Limited speech, lack of emotional connection, and an obsessive desire for sameness. 1944- Hans Asberger did a case study He referred to the kids as “Little Professors” His research led to those with the syndrome to be called “Autistic Psychopaths” and to have “Autistic Disturbances” Autism was blamed on the “poor” parenting of the parents. “Refrigerator Moms”

5 1960’s-1980’s The Age of Defeat No chance to improve the quality of life for a child with autism Require some type of institutionalization Few scientists involved in autism research Families had little or no support

6 1960’s-1980’s Continued… Treatments included LSD, electric shock, and behavior modification techniques Focus on pain and punishment Researchers separated Autism from Schizophrenia in Mid 60’s Medical Community determines Autism has a biological origin

7 1990’s- Present The Age of Hope Viewed as a developmental disorder rather than a behavioral disorder Autism as a complex biological disorder Hope for quality of life and independence Various treatment and medication Emergence of Behavior Therapy and highly controlled environments. Increase awareness and support

8 Communication Tools to Help People with Autism Communicate and Socially Interact

9 PECS– Picture Exchange Communication Program Pictures used to help people with communication deficiencies effectively communicate

10 PECS Binder Binders of pictures to help them communicate Strips of Velcro on the front and on the backs of the pictures Can create complete sentences

11 Pyramid Approach Increase to more complex levels of communication What do you think this means? Begins with simple teachings of how to use PECS Communicate more ideas than before Effectively communicate

12 Whose Theory? B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning -- focus on positive reinforcements How is PECS based on this theory? Children are rewarded with what they want/need when they are able to effectively communicate

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