+ The Holocaust Day 4 Jewish Identity Ms. Anaya Monday September 23, 2013
+ Do Now- Part 1 1. Take your materials out. 2. Take your homework out and set it on the left corner of your desk. 3. Copy down today’s homework in your agenda. You have 2 minutes! 2:001:591:581:571:561:551:541:531:521:511:501:491:481:471:461:451:441:431:421:411:401:391:381:371:361:351:341:331:321:311:301:291:281:271:261:251:241:231:221:211:201:191:181:171:161:151:141:131:121:111:101:091:081:071:061:051:041:031:021:011:000:590:580:570:560:550:540:530:520:510:500:490:480:470:460:450:440:430:420:410:400:390:380:370:360:350:340:330:320:310:300:290:280:270:260:250:240:230:220:210:200:190:180:170:160:150:140:130:120:110:100:090:080:070:060:050:040:030:020:01End2:00
+ Today’s Objectives Scholars will be able to: Understand that the Jewish people as a community with a shared religion and history, not a race. Analyze society's perception of Jews throughout history by analyzing images of Jewish representations.
+ Agenda Do Now Jewish Identity German Perspectives About Jews Gallery Walk Reading in Facing History Book Closing: Quiz Grades and Reflection
+ Do Now- Part 2 Copy down the following question on your sheet, and answer it: Look back at your responses for this weekend’s homework. Why do you think some people choose to believe lies and stereotypes? Prepare to share. 4 minutes
+ Essential Questions What labels do Jews use to describe themselves? What labels did some Germans use to describe Jews in the early 1900s? How have Jews been portrayed throughout history?
+ Vocabulary Jew — a person who is considered to be a member of the Jewish community because of a shared faith, history, or cultural background
+ Aryans — a made-up race of Nordic people whom the Nazis said invaded India many centuries ago; the Nazis believed the Aryans were their direct ancestors and that Aryans are superior to people of other races
+ Race — a classification of human beings based on the idea that people can be divided into
+ Religion — a belief system based around spirituality and/or a divinity
+ Anti-Semitism — hatred for Jews, often leading to discrimination or persecution against Jewish people
+ Jewish Identity For most of their history, Jews have lived as a religious and cultural minority. While they originated as a religious group, the history of the Jewish people has resulted in a community that is difficult to categorize.
+ Throughout ancient times, the Jewish people resided in the area which is now the modern state of Israel. In 70 CE, the Roman Empire conquered Palestine, and forced the Jewish people into exile. Given their proximity to land and sea routes leading to Africa, Asia, and Europe, the Jewish community spread all over the globe. As Jews moved to different regions, they often adopted the language and customs of their new home.
+ Over centuries the Jewish people have grown into a diverse ethnic and cultural community who practice their religious beliefs in different ways. (Some Jews do not practice any faith, but identify as cultural Jews.) The Jewish community has defined itself as a diverse community of individuals who are connected to each other by history, beliefs, and/or culture—not by genetically-determined physical qualities or character traits. Today, between fourteen and fifteen million Jews live around the world; there are Jewish communities on every continent.
+ As a minority group that has often been misunderstood, Jews have been the subject of prejudice and persecution throughout their history. Antisemitism has been fueled by misinterpretations or fear of Jews’ religious beliefs or cultural traditions that may differ from the beliefs and traditions of those in the majority.
+ Because they lived as a minority with different traditions and beliefs than the majority, Jews have been victims of lies and labels for centuries. Some Europeans began defining Jews as a nation within the larger nation or even as a separate race—a people who shared common physical features and even character traits.
+ German Perspectives about Jews (20 th Century) The following statements express the view of certain Germans in the early twentieth century. As we read the following three statements, record your responses on the graphic organizer in your handout. Prepare to share
+ Statement #1 “People can be sorted by races—groups that are genetically different from one another. Some races are superior to others. For example, the Aryan is superior to the Jew.”* *This statement reflects the ideas expressed by race scientists such as Sir Francis Galton and Eugen Fischer.
+ Statement #2 “Thou shalt keep thy blood pure. Consider it a crime to soil the noble Aryan breed of thy people by mingling it with the Jewish breed. For thou must know that Jewish blood is everlasting, putting the Jewish stamp on body and soul unto the farthest generations.... Avoid all contact and community with the Jew and keep him away from thyself and thy family, especially thy daughters, lest they suffer injury of body and soul.”** **In 1883, Theodor Fritsch published The Racists’ Decalogue to explain how a good “German” should treat “Jews.” This was excerpted from an English translation of that publication.
+ Statement #3 “In the late 1800s, the German Anthropological Society conducted a study of seven million students to discover differences between Aryan [non-Jewish] children and Jewish children. They found that these students were more alike than they were different. But, the idea of racial differences had become so ingrained that many people ignored the results of this research. “
+ History of Jewish Discrimination Gallery Walk We will look at images that depict the ways in which Jews were viewed by others throughout history. Conversation- Level 1. You should discuss your reactions to the images with your groups through whisper only. Help- If you have a question, raise your hand and Ms. Anaya will assist. Activity- You will go to every station in the room in order to view different images of the history of Jewish discrimination. As you analyze the image, make sure to read the caption to get historical context. You need to discuss the image with your groups, and record any reactions on your graphic organizer. Movement- You will remain with your groups only, and rotate as instructed. Participation- You should work with your group members! Discussion will facilitate your understanding of the images. Success!- Do your best!
+ Reflection Question Now you have viewed the artwork, hypothesize. Why could the Germans during the 1930s have been so prejudiced against the Jews? Explain.
+ Facing History and Ourselves Citizenship and European Jews p. 91-93 Conversation- Level 0. You will read silently and individually. Help- If you have a question, raise your hand and Ms. Anaya will assist. Activity- Read pages 91-93. When you are done, you will answer the following question on a notebook paper: What was the “Jewish Problem”? Why was it a problem? For whom was it a problem? Does our society face similar “problems” today? (Copy down the question) Movement- You will remain in your seats. Participation- Work individually for this assignment. Success!- Do your best!
+ Confronting Labels and Lies about Jews Now that we have looked at these statements, you will complete the first part of the handout titled “Confronting Labels and Lies about Jews.” This worksheet will help us understand the difference between how Nazis defined Jews in the 1900s and how the Jewish community defines itself. Work with your partners. Conversation Level: 1
+ Confronting Labels and Lies About Jews Debrief “Those who don’t know any better” labeled Jews as a race of people. Because they believed race was a trait carried in one’s blood, they thought being Jewish “is everlasting” and could not be altered by conversion or assimilation. They also thought that Jews were inferior. So, they did not want their inferior blood to mix with Aryan superior blood. Now, you will complete the second half of the handout, the “But we know” section, with information that you have learned in this lesson about Jewish identity.
+ Friday’s Quiz! 15/15- 100% 14/15= 93%14.5/15=97% 13/15= 86%13.5/15=90% 12/15= 80%12.5/15=83% 11/15= 73%11.5/15=77% 10/15 or Lower= No Pass If you scored less than a 12/15, you need to sign up for office hours if you want to retake the quiz (you all should want to improve your grades!). Last day for retakes is Thursday, October 3 rd ! Reflection: What grade did you get on your quiz? How pleased are you with it? What did you do, or what could you have done better, to get the best grade possible? How comfortable do you feel moving on the unit?