Presentation on theme: "INFORMATION ABOUT: Autism/Asperger’s/PDD-NOS RESOURCE GUIDE FOR PARENTS."— Presentation transcript:
INFORMATION ABOUT: Autism/Asperger’s/PDD-NOS RESOURCE GUIDE FOR PARENTS
History of Autism The word “Autism," which has been in use for about 100 years, comes from the Greek word "autos," meaning "self." The term describes conditions in which a person is removed from social interaction -- hence, an isolated self. Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist, was the first person to use the term. He started using it around 1911 to refer to one group of symptoms of schizophrenia.
More on the History of Autism In the 1940s, researchers in the United States began to use the term “Autism" to describe children with emotional or social problems. Leo Kanner, a doctor from Johns Hopkins University, used it to describe the withdrawn behavior of several children he studied. At about the same time, Hans Asperger, a scientist in Germany, identified a similar condition that’s now called Asperger’s syndrome. Autism and schizophrenia remained linked in many researchers’ minds until the 1960s. It was only then that medical professionals began to have a separate understanding of autism in children.
History of Autism - continued From the 1960s through the 1970s, research into treatments for autism focused on medications such as LSD, electric shock, and behavioral change techniques. The latter relied on pain and punishment. During the 1980s and 1990s, the role of behavioral therapy and the use of highly controlled learning environments emerged as the primary treatments for many forms of Autism and related conditions.
Current Practices and Key Researchers In a study by UCSD: Pivotal Response Training (PRT), has been shown to be effective for improving communication, play and social interaction in children with ASD. In collaboration with public school special education teachers, PRT will be modified for use in the classroom, and effectiveness will be examined. UCSD Autism Lab
Current Practices and Key Researchers Autism spectrum disorders in the DSM will soon change. The biggest change is that existing diagnoses on the spectrum – Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder–Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) will be merged into one: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) National Autism Center - Manual
Current Practices and Key Researchers Applied behavioral analysis is a systematic, objective approach to assessing, measuring and evaluating observable problem behavior, and choosing appropriate interventions to modify that behavior. IAN project
Collaboration Because many individuals with autism learn best visually, an effective strategy is to use pictures around the room to teach various activities, such as tying shoes or putting a lunch box in a cubbyhole. Visual aids can also be used with lessons as reinforcement. Administrators, teachers and parents of Autistic children engage in frequent communication so that they can effectively deal with any problems or concerns.
Collaboration - continued Placing autistic children in general education classrooms may improve their social skills. Teaching other classmates to interact with the Autistic child results in improved social interaction. What is key to collaboration, is that the general education and special education teachers work closely to ensure that all students are getting what they need. Students with ASD need to have an environment that is safe and supportive. Another aspect is to have a smaller class size if possible.
Resources on Collaboration and Inclusion Autism in the General Ed Classroom Inclusion of Learners with Autism
How People with Autism / Asperger’s View Themselves and Want to be Treated This is a fantastic video series that helps us to understand what it is like to be Autistic. This young lady helps families learn coping strategies. http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=280892436694681 1422&q=aspergers+syndrome
How People with Autism / Asperger’s View Themselves and Want to be Treated In this video we learn from Temple Grandin, who knows what it feels to be Autistic. She knows due to her training, experience, knowledge and personal experience growing up Autistic: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UKSDSblPMpA
How People with Autism / Asperger’s View Themselves and Want to be Treated - cont This video is from an Autistic kid. He tells you what he feels like being autistic. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z8_Oi9UsgOI&feature= related
Myths There are so many myths about Autism and being Autistic. Here are a few: 1. Autism is an emotional or mental health disorder. 2. There is an Autism epidemic. 3. Autism can be cured. 4. Autism is the result of cold and unemotional parents. 5. Individuals with autism always have hidden or exceptional talents. 6. Repetitive or ritualistic behaviors should be stopped. 7. Individuals with autism are unable to build social relationships. 8. Autistic individuals are a danger to society. 9 Children with Autism Never Make Eye Contact.
Myths - continued Here are a few more: 10. Inside a Autistic Child is a Genius. 11. Autistic Children Do Not Talk. Children with Autism Can't Show Affection. 12. Autism can be Outgrown. Children with Autism cannot Learn. 13. Autism is Rare. People with Asperger Syndrome Lack Imagination. 14. Autistic People are all Alike. 15. Autistic People Don't Build Relationships. 16. Autism and Asperger’s are the same thing. 17. All Autistics are savants in one way or another. 18. All Autistics are mentally retarded. 19. The Autistic cannot form healthy relationships.
Myths - continued More information about myths can be found at these websites: Asperger Syndrome ABC News Special Education Advisor
Myths - continued More Myths: http://community.babycenter.com/journal/jezzikawezzika/ 31415/myths_misconceptions_about_autism
Behavioral and Academic Implication of Asperger’s/Autism Kids with Asperger's may need to play a game a certain way. This that might not be the way the other children want to do it. They're not always flexible with the rules of the games or activities. Sometimes they have difficulty with conversation. They don't understand that if someone says, "I'm going to Disneyland this weekend”, that they should ask, "Who are you going with?" They'll generally just say, "Oh." Question-asking skills seem to be low in kid with autism spectrum disorders.
Behavioral and Academic Implication of Asperger’s/Autism Children with ASDs may become obsessed with something. Boundaries should be used and guidelines set for them. Since they have trouble making friends and with social situations, have a buddy system set up. The buddy can help the child with ASD with turn taking, rules of the games, and rules.
Behavioral and Academic Implication of Asperger’s/Autism Behavior and Discipline website: Behavior and Discipline Advice for Children with Autism
How to Work With Kids With Autism The first and most important aspect of working with a student with autism, is to keep their lives as structured as possible. Also, keeping a schedule for them. Putting a schedule on the wall or on or near their desk is very helpful. They respond better when they know what to expect and have time to prepare for the change. The classroom should have as few distractions as possible. The use of wall posters and visual aids are encouraged in most classrooms, but they are very distracting.
How to Work With Kids With Autism Keep your words short and sweet. Autistic children prefer more concrete language. The use of idioms and sarcasm is confusing to them. They take what you say literally. If an Autistic child does not look you in the face, don’t be offended. Eye contact is difficult and even distracting to their concentration. Also, they don’t do well in social situations so they are not good at “hello” and “thank you’s.”
How to Work With Kids With Autism Change is difficult for the Autistic child. Keep things as consistent and scheduled as possible. When transitioning, give the child as much warning as possible. Teach the Autistic child to be independent. For example, give them time to do what they are asked to do. They may need longer time to sharpen a pencil, get a piece of paper, etc. Also, give them choices. Allow them to make a choice. Give them time to respond to questions. They need processing time.
How to Work With Kids With Autism Writing tasks on paper is better than verbal reminders. They will forget verbal directions easily but can use visual skills to help them. Be creative in teaching. 12 Tips to Setting up an Autism Classroom
Helpful Websites These websites can provide you with help and answers to questions about Autism, where to find the latest research and news: Autism Speaks Autism Society NICHCY
Podcasts If you use itunes, or other form of listening to podcasts, then you might want to listen to these. I found them very informative: Autism Podcast Focus on Autism Rethink Autism Autism One
Why I chose Parents as my Audience When working with students diagnosed with Autism/Asperger, or PDD-NOS, it is important to have a relationship with their parents. If we work together to help a child, we will have more success and the student will have a better outcome. I have found that when parents are educated about their child’s needs, and when they hear from me that I am concerned, a more positive relationship occurs, With this research, I plan to help educate parents and to build a good working relationship between us. It is my goal to be an advocate for the child.