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+ Presented By: Megan Myrie. + Turn & Talk 1. Review the situations below. 2. Interpret what each situation means. 3. Respond to the situation as if it.

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Presentation on theme: "+ Presented By: Megan Myrie. + Turn & Talk 1. Review the situations below. 2. Interpret what each situation means. 3. Respond to the situation as if it."— Presentation transcript:

1 + Presented By: Megan Myrie

2 + Turn & Talk 1. Review the situations below. 2. Interpret what each situation means. 3. Respond to the situation as if it were happening it to you. A. It’s raining cats and dogs. A. It’s raining cats and dogs. B. She was laughing her head off. B. She was laughing her head off. C. I’ve changed my mind. C. I’ve changed my mind.

3 + My Little Brother Has Autism My little brother has autism.

4 + What is autism? IDEA: “ Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before the age of three that generally affects a child ’ s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental changes or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. ”

5 + The history of autism…. 1900s Eugen Bleuler coined the word “autism” in schizophrenic patients who screened themselves off and were self-absorbed. The word AUTISM is derived from the Greek word “Autos” which means “Self” 1940s Leo Kanner, and American psychiatrist described 11 children with the following common traits Impairments in social interactions Anguish for changes Good memory Belated Echolalia (the automatic repetition of vocalizations made by another person) – Comes from the Greek word “echo” meaning “to repeat” Over Sensitivity to certain stimuli (lights & sounds) Food problems Limitations in spontaneous activity Good intellectual potential Kanner called these children Autistic

6 + 1940s Continued Dr. Hans Asperger was studying 200 families with children who had similarity to the children Kanner was observing except that they appeared not to have the severe language delays. In 1944, he published an article in German that was only translated into English in 1989. Although the term, “Asperger’s Syndrome” was first used in 1981 by the British psychiatrist Lorna Wing whose daughter is diagnosed with autism, the DSM-IV, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 4th edition, uses the term “Asperger’s disorder." 1960s Dr. Bruno Bettelheim wrote about three therapy sessions with children in “The Empty Fortress” He called the children autistic and claimed that their disorder was due to the coldness of their mothers. (Refrigerator Mothers) Rather than seeing autism as the neurological condition it is, Bettelheim blamed emotionally distant mothers as the cause of autism, a stigma that hasn’t totally disappeared. We have heard many parents blame themselves for doing or not doing something at some critical stage in their own child’s development. Fortunately, the effect of Bettelheim’s parent blaming encountered a serious setback beginning in the mid 1960’s.

7 + During the 1940s through the 1950’s the medical community felt that children who had autism where schizophrenic. The Lack of understanding of this disorder led many parents to believe that the disorder was their fault. During the 1960’s people began to understand autism and more precisely identify autism symptoms and treatments. 1960s -1970s Treatments for Autism focused on medications, electric shock, and behavior change techniques which relied on pain and punishment. 1980s -1990s The role of behavior therapy and the use of highly controlled learning environments Emerged as the primary treatments for many forms of autism. Currently, the cornerstone of autism therapy is behavior therapy. Other treatments are added as needed.

8 + Characteristics of ASD’sAutistic Disorder Asperger’s Disorder PDD – NOS Marked impairment in the eye-to-eye gaze and gestures Delay in or lack of development of spoken language, or stereotyped, repetitive language Lack of social or emotional reciprocity Inflexible adherence to nonfunctional routines or rituals Unusual responses to sensory stimuli Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level Problems with sleep and atypical eating patterns Motor clumsiness is often present All encompassing preoccupation with narrow areas of interest are common Social approaches to others tend to be one sided No significant delays in cognitive development A severe and pervasive impairment in the development of reciprocal social action that is associated with either impairments in communication skills or stereotyped behavior, interests, and activities

9 + Instructional & Behavioral Supports TEACCH Approach o Training & Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children Positive Behavior Support o Provide students with alternatives, modifications of environment & replace punitive procedures Discrete Trial Training o Concrete behavioral object Social Stories (Carol Gray) o See next slide These supports are about teaching the child the appropriate skills they will require in order to have a productive and healthy life.

10 + Social Stories Example: Sometimes a person says, “ I changed my mind. ” This means they had one idea, but now have a new idea. Sometimes the new idea or the new thing they want to do is better. I will work on staying calm when someone changes his mind. It is important to stay calm. Sometimes a person says: I changed my mind” A Social Story™ describes a situation, skill, or concept in terms of relevant social cues, perspectives, and common responses in a specifically defined style and format. The goal of a Social Story™ is to share accurate social information in a patient and reassuring manner that is easily understood by its audience. – Retrieved from

11 + Ten things children with autism want you to know. 1. I am a child with autism. I am not "autistic." My autism is one aspect of my total character. It does not define me as a person. 2. My sensory perceptions are disordered. This means the ordinary sights, sounds, smells, tastes and touches of everyday life that you may not even notice can be downright painful for me. 3. I am a concrete thinker. I interpret language literally. It's very confusing for me when you say, "Hold your horses, cowboy!” 4. Please remember to distinguish between won't (I choose not to) and can't (I'm not able to). Receptive and expressive language are both difficult for me. 5. Be patient with my limited vocabulary. It's hard for me to tell you what I need when I don't know the words to describe my feelings. Ellen Notbohm for Autism Speaks

12 + 6. Because language is so difficult for me, I am very visually oriented. Show me how to do something rather than just telling me. 7. Focus and build on what I can do rather than what I can't do. Like any other human, I can't learn in an environment where I'm constantly made to feel that I'm not good enough or that I need fixing 8. Help me with social interactions. It may look like I don't want to play with the other kids on the playground, but sometimes it's just that I simply don't know how to start a conversation or enter a play situation. 9. Try to identify what triggers my meltdowns. This is termed "the antecedent." 10. If you are a family member, please love me unconditionally. Banish thoughts such as, "If he would just..." and "Why can't she...?" Ten things continued...

13 + Sources Professor Salazar, Issues in Special Education, Hunter College, Summer 2011 Friend, Marilyn, Special Education: Contemporary Perspectives for School Professionals, Greensboro, North Carolina, 2011 Ellen Notbohm, Ten Things Children with Autism Want You to Know, retrieved from on July 23, 2012

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