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Presentation on theme: "2. Some World-famous Child Psychologists or Educationists 5. Gifted Children BR_MAIN Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 3. Educational."— Presentation transcript:

1 2. Some World-famous Child Psychologists or Educationists 5. Gifted Children BR_MAIN Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 3. Educational Testing Service 1. David Elkind 4. English Song — The Lost Children

2 Before Reading_1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading David Elkind

3 Before Reading_1_pop Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. A Brief Introduction 2. A Movie Clip About Children’s Education

4 Before Reading_1_pop_1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A Brief Introduction David Elkind is an author and child psychologist. His groundbreaking books The Hurried Child and Mis-education informed early childhood education professionals of the possible dangers of “pushing down” the elementary curriculum into the very early years of a child’s life. By doing so, he argued, teachers and parents alike could lapse into developmentally inappropriate instructional and learning practices that may somewhat distort the smooth development of learning. He is associated with the belief of decline of social markers. Here are some other books he has written: Ties that Stress: The New Family Imbalance (1994), All Grown Up and No Place To Go (1988), Reinventing Childhood (1988).

5 Before Reading_1_pop_2.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A Movie Clip About Children’s Education Watch the movie clip, and then answer the following questions.Directions: ■

6 Before Reading_1_pop_2.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. According to David, what was the main purpose of the film? He wanted to use the film to highlight some observations, theories and concepts mentioned by Jean Piaget. 2. When did Jean Piaget publish his first research paper? 3. Why did Jean Piaget turn down the offer given by a museum? Because he hadn’t finished his high school. 4. Which period can be called sensorimotor period? At the age of 1-2. A Movie Clip About Children’s Education When Jean Piaget was only ten years old.

7 Before Reading_2 Some World-famous Child Psychologists or Educationists Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. Bruno Bettelheim 2. Jean Piaget

8 Before Reading_2_1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Bruno Bettelheim ( ) psychoanalyst and educational psychologist Bruno Bettelheim is a controversial Austrian-born American psychoanalyst and educational psychologist, who pioneered in the application of psychoanalysis to the treatment of emotionally-disturbed children. Bettelheim won fame from his books and articles in both the scientific and popular press. His passionate, intensely personal, and anecdotal style drew some criticism from the scientific community, though few questioned his talent for conceptualization and for developing provocative, imaginative ideas. His major contributions came from his work at the Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School of the University of Chicago, a residential treatment institution for rehabilitating children with severe emotional disturbances, where he became principal in In 1990 Bettelheim committed suicide. Soon after, allegations arose that he had falsified many of his credentials and had been physically abusive to the children in his care.

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11 Before Reading_2_2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Jean Piaget ( ) Swiss psychologist Trained in zoology and philosophy, Piaget later studied psychology in Zürich with Carl Gustav Jung and Eugen Bleuler, and he was subsequently affiliated with the University of Geneva from 1929 until his death. He developed a theory of “genetic epistemology”, a natural timetable for the development of the child’s ability to think in which he traced four stages — the sensorimotor (ages 0 – 2), preoperational or symbolic (2 – 7), concrete operational (7 – 12), and formal operational (through adulthood) — each marked by increased cognitive sophistication and ability to use symbols. In 1955 Piaget founded and became director of an international centre for genetic epistemology in Geneva. He is regarded as the foremost developmental psychologist of the 20th century.

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17 Before Reading_3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Educational Testing Service 1. Paragraph Completion 2. Various Tests Sponsored by ETS 3. A Movie Clip About GMAT 4. Group Discussion

18 Before Reading_3_1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Paragraph Completion Directions: Listen to the recording, and then complete the following paragraph with the information you get from the passage you have just heard. As a organization, Educational Testing Service was founded in by three different governmental committees or non-governmental ones, namely the American Council on Education, the Carnegie Foundation for, and the College Entrance Examination Board. ETS is aiming at helping in education by providing research, services, and assessments, which should be. ETS has lots of sections with distinctive purposes or missions. Lots of measurement experts who specialize in research in psychometrics,, and assessment technology comprise one of the most important key divisions,. nonprofit ________ 1947 ____ the Advancement of Teaching ___ ______________________ advance quality and equity ______________________ fair and valid ___________ equitable testing ______________ the ETS Statistics and Research Division _________________________________

19 Before Reading_3_1_pop Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Educational Testing Service (ETS) is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to help advance quality and equity in education by providing fair and valid assessments, research, and related services. Its products and services measure knowledge and skills, promote learning and performance, and support education and professional development worldwide. Founded in 1947 as an independent organization by the American Council on Education, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, and the College Entrance Examination Board, ETS has grown to become the world’s largest private educational testing and measurement organization, annually administering more than 11 million tests in 181 countries. Helping ETS carry out its mission are the following key divisions. The ETS Statistics and Research Division is a group of innovative, internationally respected measurement experts who specialize in research and development in psychometrics, equitable testing, and assessment technology. More than 250 division staff, including some of the nation’s most distinguished scientists in the fields of psychometrics and statistics, engage in research and analysis to support existing assessments and generate ideas for future assessment products and services.

20 Before Reading_3_2_1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Various Tests Sponsored by ETS 1. SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test) The SAT test is taken by students who are interested in furthering their academic careers and preparing for college. The competitiveness of college admissions dictates a good SAT score as a minimum to even be considered by some colleges. The SAT test is sponsored by the College Examination Board. The SAT test covers two content areas: verbal ability and mathematics. You will not find social studies, chemistry, physics and biology on the SAT, unless a few of these topics are covered in the verbal reading comprehension section. The SAT test is designed to be one of the first hurdles in your academic undergraduate career. Consequently, the questions focus on your ability to apply knowledge that you have learned in past experiences related to the algebra, vocabulary, analogy, and arithmetic. The SAT test requires that you understand the underlying concepts and determine one correct answer choice from the information presented.

21 Before Reading_3_2_2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Various Tests Sponsored by ETS 2. GRE The GRE is short for Graduate Record Examination. This exam is administered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS), one of the world’s largest private educational testing and measurement organizations. The ETS develops standardized examinations in the US and also conducts the TOEFL test in around 110 countries. The GRE is a computer-based test divided into three major sections. The test measures the student’s verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, critical thinking and analytical writing skills that have been acquired over a period of time. The test is necessary for students who plan to pursue their master’s degrees in the US, UK, Australia or Canada. The GRE test scores are used by admissions or fellowship panels to supplement undergraduate records and other qualifications that are required for graduate study. The scores provide a common measure for comparing the qualifications of applicants and also serve as a measure to evaluate grades and recommendations.

22 The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is a standardized test for measuring aptitude for academic success in graduate business studies. Business schools commonly use the test as one of many selection criteria for admission into an MBA program. The exam measures basic verbal, mathematical and analytical writing skills that the examinee has developed over a long period of time in his / her education and work. It does not measure specific knowledge of business, job skills, or subjective qualities such as motivation, creativity, and interpersonal skills. Scores are valid for five years (at most institutions) from the date the test taker sits for the exam until the date of matriculation (not until the date of application). Before Reading_3_2_3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Various Tests Sponsored by ETS 3. GMAT

23 Before Reading_3_2_4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Various Tests Sponsored by ETS 4. TOEFL For more than 40 years the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) has been the leading academic English proficiency test in the world. The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) measures the ability of nonnative speakers of English to use and understand North American English as it is spoken, written and heard in college and university settings. Most people who take the TOEFL test are planning to study at colleges and universities where instruction is in English. In addition, many government agencies, scholarship programs, and licensing / certification agencies use TOEFL scores to evaluate English proficiency.

24 Before Reading_3_2_5 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Various Tests Sponsored by ETS 5. Praxis Series The Praxis Series assessments provide educational tests and other services that states of America use as part of their teaching licensing certification process. The Praxis I tests measure basic academic skills, and the Praxis II tests measure general and subject-specific knowledge and teaching skills.

25 Before Reading_3_3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A Movie Clip About GMAT ■

26 Before Reading_3_4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Group Discussion a)Do you think high academic scores are an indicator of success? b)What do you think of Chinese primary school education? Directions: Hold a discussion with your partners on the following questions.

27 Before Reading_4_1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading English Song — The Lost Children We pray for our fathers, pray for our mothers Wishing our families well We sing songs for the wishing, of those who are kissing But not for the missing So this one is for all the lost children This one is for all the lost children This one is for all the lost children, wishing them well And wishing them home When you sit there addressing, counting your blessings Biding your time When you lay me down sleeping and my heart is weeping Because I am keeping a place For all the lost children This is for all the lost children

28 Before Reading_4_2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading This one is for all the lost children, wishing them well And wishing them home Home with their fathers Snug close and warm, loving their mothers I see the door simply wide open But no one can find thee So let’s pray for all the lost children Let’s pray for all the lost children Just think of all the lost children, wishing them well This is for all the lost children This one is for all the lost children Just think of all the lost children Wishing them well, and wishing them home

29 Before Reading_5 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Gifted Children 1. Warm-up Exercises — Mini IQ Quiz 2. Giftedness — Definitions

30 Before Reading_5_1.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Warm-up Exercises — Mini IQ Quiz Directions: There are altogether 10 IQ questions. Decide whether each of the statements is true or false within 5 minutes without the help of paper and pencils. 1. The word “smart” can be created by using five letters from the word “barnstorm”. 2. If a tree branch can hold three people and John weighs twice as much as Adam, and Rachel weighs half as much as Adam, then Rachel, John and Adam can all sit together on the tree branch safely. 3. The number 25 is the next logical number in the following sequence of numbers: 5, 7, 10, 14, Your starting and ending points will be just an inch apart if you draw a line seven inches left, three inches up, two inches right, four inches down and five inches right. 5. Five horses, two people, three dogs and seven chickens have a total of fifty-two legs.

31 Before Reading_5_1.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 6. A group of 5 people must contain either 3 mutual friends or 3 mutual strangers. 7. The sum of all numbers from 8 to 18 is an even number. 8. By removing two letters from the word “planets”, a word that is the opposite of “uproot” can be formed. 9. Using six toothpicks you can create four equilateral triangles (where each triangle’s side is the length of a toothpick). 10. If the second day of the month is a Friday, then the twelfth day of the month is a Tuesday.

32 Before Reading_5_2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Giftedness — Definitions The term “gifted children” was first used in 1869 by Francis Galton. He referred to adults who demonstrated exceptional talent in some area as gifted, for example, a gifted chemist. Children could inherit the potential to become a gifted adult, and Galton referred to these children as gifted children. Lewis Terman expanded Galton’s view of gifted children to include high IQ. In the early 1900s, he began a long-term study of gifted children, whom he defined as children with IQs of 140 or more. His study found that IQ alone could not predict success in adulthood. Leta Hollingworth, too, believed that the potential to be gifted was inherited. However, she felt that providing a nurturing home and school environment was also important in the development of that potential. In 1926, she published her book, Gifted Children, Their Nature and Nurture, and the term “gifted” has been used ever since to refer to children of high potential.

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36 Globe Reading_main Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. Part Division of the Text For Part 1 For Part 2 Role-play Questions and Answers Interview 2. Further Understanding For Part 3 Group Discussion

37 Globe Reading_1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Part Division of the Text Main IdeasParts 1 2 Paragraphs Currently parents push their children too fast and too quickly. The contrast between the past and current situation about children education The reason and the serious consequences.

38 Global Reading_2_1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Questions and Answers 1. How would most parents in the past feel if their child had developed certain abilities or inclinations at an earlier age than usual? They would feel upset. 2. What do many parents believe now? They believe that to be exceptional at an early age will put a child in an advantageous position. 3. What’s your opinion about the two assumptions: “early ripe, early rot” and “early ripe, early rich”? Do you agree? Open-ended. 4. Have you found that many parents in China today also entertain the notion that we can create exceptional children by early instruction? If you have, please come up with your examples. Open-ended.

39 Globe Reading_2_2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Directions: Form groups of five. Suppose one is a reporter, the other four are the first grade teacher and the angry mother, the tennis instructor at an exclusive resort hotel in Florida and the father of the three-year-old child. Now you have an interview with the two groups. Your interview should cover the following aspects: Interview 1. Greeting. 2. What factor or factors lead parents to pursue a competitive approach to child rearing? 3. Many of today’s parents place intense pressure on their children to become exceptional. What harm will the pressure do to children? 4. Is there anything wrong with wanting children to strive for excellence? If not, where does the problem lie? 5. What are the negative short-term and long-term consequences of pushing a child to be a competitive high achiever at an early age?

40 Globe Reading_2_3.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Role-play Directions: In Paragraph 11, the author uses four examples to show the consequences of parental pressure. Now you and your partner choose one example to role-play what has happened to them.

41 Globe Reading_2_3.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Group Discussion 1. What do you think of Dr. Elkind’s idea about the goals of education? Do you agree to his analysis of the role of early instruction? State your reasons. 2. Do you agree to the author’s point that “Today’s parents want super kids, but what they are often getting are super problems”? 3. Should we give priority to character or exceptionality in rearing children? State your reasons.

42 Article Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading There is nothing wrong with wanting children to do their best, but the problem is: parents in search of excellence are pushing their children too far and too fast.

43 Not so long ago, most parents wanted their kids to be like everybody else. They were often as upset if a child were precocious as they were if the child were slow. Precocity was looked upon as being bad for the child’s psychological health. The assumption was “early ripe, early rot.” Now that has changed. For many parents today there is no such thing as going too fast, and their major concern is that their child stay ahead of the pack. Far from presuming that precocity has bad effects psychologically, they believe that being above the norm brings many benefits. The assumption is “early ripe, early rich!” Article1-2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Super Kids and Super Problems David Elkind

44 Article3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading The major consequence of this new parenting psychology is that many contemporary parents are putting tremendous pressure on children to perform at ever-earlier ages. A first grade teacher told me that an angry mother screamed at her because she had given the woman’s son a “Satisfactory.” “How is he ever going to get into M.I.T. if you give him a ‘Satisfactory?’” the mother wailed.

45 Article4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Many parents now enroll their child in prestigious nursery schools as soon as the pregnancy is confirmed. And once the child is old enough, they coach the child for the screening interview. “When they count everything in sight,” one nursery school director said, “you know they have been drilled before the interview.” Parents believe that only if the child gets into this or that prestigious nursery school will he or she ever have a chance at getting into Harvard, Yale, or Stanford. For the same reason, our elementary schools are suddenly filled with youngsters in enriched and accelerated programs.

46 Article5-6 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading It is not just in academic study that children are being pushed harder at ever- earlier ages. Some parents start their preschool children in sports such as tennis and swimming in hopes that they will become Olympic athletes. A young man who attended one of my child development lectures stopped by afterward to ask me a question. He works as a tennis instructor at an exclusive resort hotel in Florida and wanted to know how to motivate his students. When I asked how old they were he told me that they ranged in age from three to five years! The pressure to make ordinary children exceptional has become almost an epidemic in sports. I had high hopes for soccer, which can be played by all makes and models of children, big, small, and in between. But in most states soccer has become as competitive and selective as baseball, football, and hockey. The star mentality prevails, and the less talented youngster simply doesn’t get to participate. Play is out and competition is in.

47 Article7-8 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading The pressure for exceptionality is equally powerful at the secondary level. High school students are pressured not only to get good grades but to get into as many advanced-placement classes as possible. Around the country private tutoring centers are sprouting up like dandelions in the spring, offering lessons in everything from beginning reading to taking college entrance exams. Other parents urge their children to start dating at an early age so that they will have good interpersonal skills and a better chance to win the most eligible mates. Clearly, there is nothing wrong with wanting children to do their best. It is not the normal, healthy desire of parents to have successful children that is the problem, but the excessive pressure some parents are putting on children.

48 Article 9-10 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Why this push for excellence? Since parents today are having fewer children their chances of having “a child to be proud of” are lower than when families were larger. The cost of child rearing has also increased dramatically, so a successful child also protects one’s investment. But most of all, many of today’s parents have carved out their own successful careers and feel very much in charge of their lives. They see no reason they should not take charge of child rearing in the same manner and with the same success. A successful child is the ultimate proof of their success. The result is that many parents are far too intrusive. By deciding what and when children should learn, they rob them of the opportunity to take the initiative, to take responsibility for their mistakes and credit for their achievements. Such practices run the risk of producing children who are dependent and lacking in self- esteem. Today’s parents want super kids, but what they are often getting are super problems.

49 Article11 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Although correlation is certainly not causation, it is hard not to connect the reported increase in stress symptoms over the last decade with the pressure on today’s children to be super kids. The stories I hear as I travel about the country are frightening. A girl who was involved in four different out-of-school activities (ballet, horseback riding, Brownies, and music lessons) developed severe facial tics at age eight. Irving Sigel of Educational Testing Service tells the story of a six-year-old who, while doing her homework, asked her mother, “If I don’t get there right, will you kill me?” A woman told me that her seven-year-old grandson ran away from home (and all the after-school lessons) and came to her house, where he could have milk and cookies and play with the dog. One mother asked me if I could cure her six-year-old son of his nail biting by hypnosis or by teaching him relaxation. When I suggested that a less demanding extracurricular program might help, she replied, “Oh no, we can’t do that.”

50 Article12-13 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Such child behavior problems are symptomatic of our times. Our trouble is that we always seem to go to extremes. Parents are either too permissive or too pushy. Healthy child rearing demands a middle ground. Certainly we need to make demands on our children. But they have to be tailored to the child’s interests and abilities. We put our children at risk for short-term stress disorders and long- term personality problems when we ignore their individuality and impose our own priorities “for their own good.” I believe that we need to abandon the false notions that we can create exceptional children by early instruction, and that such children are symbols of our competence as parents. And I believe we should be as concerned with character as with success. If we have reared a well-mannered, good, and decent person, we should take pleasure and pride in that fact. More likely than not, if we have achieved those goals, the child’s success will take care of itself. Each child has a unique pattern of qualities and abilities that makes him or her special. In this sense, every single child is a super kid.

51 Article1-2_S_They were… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. What has been omitted in this sentence? The word “upset” is omitted in the clause “as they were (upset) if the child were slow” in order to avoid repetition. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 如果一个孩子早熟,他们往往会忧心忡忡,就像孩子反应迟钝会让他们心烦一样。 They were often as upset if a child were precocious as they were if the child were slow.

52 Article1-2_S_…their major Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Analyze this part of the sentence. The “that” clause serves as the predicative to denote the subject “concern” and in this clause, the verb “(should) stay” is used in the subjunctive mood. … their major concern is that their child stay ahead of the pack.

53 Article3_S_The major… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading What does the term “parenting psychology” really mean? The major consequence of this new parenting psychology … The term “parenting psychology” refers to the general approach or attitude towards child rearing.

54 Article4_S_Parents believe… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Analyze the sentence. Parents believe that only if the child gets into this or that prestigious nursery school will he or she ever have a chance at getting into Harvard, Yale, or Stanford. Pay attention to the order of the sentence after the word “school”. The right order should be “he or she will …”. Inverted order is used because “that” clause starts with “only if”.

55 Article5-6_S_… I had high… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Paraphrase the sentence. I had high hopes for soccer, which can be played by all makes and models of children, big, small, and in between. I once expected a lot of soccer because it can be played by all kinds of children, no matter whether they are big or small.

56 Article5-6_S_... simply Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading What does this part of the sentence mean? … simply doesn’t get to participate. … simply doesn’t have the chance to participate.

57 Article5-6_S_Play is… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. What do “in” and “out” mean? Play is out and competition is in. Here “in” means fashionable or popular and “out” is its opposite. 2. What is the implied meaning of the sentence? The implied meaning is that “Now in sports, a child is not playing, but competing with others. He should be exceptional and become a star.”

58 Article7-8_S_but to … Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading What do “advanced-placement classes” mean? … but to get into as many advanced-placement classes as possible. 快班。

59 Article7-8_S_Around the... Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Paraphrase this part of the sentence. Around the country private tutoring centers are sprouting up like dandelions in the spring … Suddenly many private tutoring centers appear all over the country.

60 Article7-8_S_It is not… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Analyze the sentence. It is not the normal, healthy desire of parents to have successful children that is the problem, but the excessive pressure some parents are putting on children. It is a sentence with the meaning: We are not worrying that parents have the normal, healthy desire to have successful children, but some parents are putting too much pressure on children.

61 Article9-10_S_They see… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Paraphrase the sentence. They see no reason they should not take charge of child rearing in the same manner and with the same success. Parents definitely think they should be very much in charge of their children’s lives just as theirs, and their children should be as successful as them.

62 Article11_S_If I… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Paraphrase this part of the sentence. If I don’t get there right … If I make mistakes in doing my homework...

63 Article12-13_S_Healthy child… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. What can we infer from the sentence? Healthy child rearing demands a middle ground. To facilitate healthy child rearing, parents should not go to extremes: neither too permissive nor too pushy. 2. What does the term “middle ground” refer to? The term “middle ground” is figuratively used to mean “an area of compromise or possible agreement between two extreme positions”.

64 Article12-13_S_We put… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading We put our children at risk for short-term stress disorders and long-term personality problems when we ignore their individuality and impose our own priorities “for their own good.” Translate the sentence into Chinese. 当我们无视他们的个性, “ 为了他们好 ” 而把我们自己最为关注的东西强加于他们时,我们 就把我们的孩子置于短期的紧张病和长期的个性问题的危险中了。

65 Article12-13_S_More likely… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading More likely than not, if we have achieved those goals, the child’s success will take care of itself. What is the implied meaning of the sentence? Probably if we have achieved those goals, success will naturally come the child’s way.

66 Article _W_ look upon … as Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading look upon … as: think of … as; consider … as Most people looked upon him as an artist, but he was also a scientist. The couple came to look upon the ordinary children almost as exceptional ones.

67 Article _W_ assumption Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading assumption: n. sth. you consider likely to be true even though you have no proof We are working on the assumption that the conference will take place as planned. My calculations were based on the assumption that house prices would remain steady, but it is not the case. 我的计算建立在房价保持稳定的假设的基础上,但事实并 非如此。 Collocation: make an assumption 做出假设 verify an assumption 证实设想 on the assumption that 以 …… 设想为根据

68 Article _W_ rot1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading rot: 1) v. decay by a gradual natural process or make sth. do this Bedtime drinks aimed at helping children to sleep may be rotting their teeth. In some countries food is left to rot, while in others people are dying from hunger. 在有些国家食物等着腐烂,而在另一些国家人们快要饿死了。 2) n. the natural process of decaying, or the part of something that has decayed The wood was soft with rot. Economic specialists hope to guide the country out of its economic rot.

69 Article _W_ rot2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading CF: rot, decay & spoil 这三个动词均含 “ 烂、腐烂 ” 之意。 指事物由于细菌的作用,良好的有机体逐渐变坏,蔬菜、水果或肉类的分解、腐烂。 一般用于指物体变坏的开始,也可用于比喻陈旧堕落。例如: 通常指事物由良好或完美的状态自然而缓慢地变坏或完全变坏腐烂,或部分 地毁坏,可用于抽象事物,也可用于具体事物。一般用于事物的全过程。例如: 用于非正式文体,指事物变质。例如: rot decay spoil 如果水进入木头里就会导致它腐烂。 Our powers decay in old age. 我们的体力在年老时就衰退了。 The apples have spoiled in the heated room. 苹果在热烘烘的房内已腐烂了。 If water gets inside the woodwork, it causes it to rot.

70 Article _W_ ahead of the pack Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading ahead of the pack: (be, keep, or stay) ahead of everyone else in a race or competition At this stage in the campaign, the Democratic candidate is way ahead of the pack. We will do everything in our power to keep our company well ahead of the pack. NB: pack: n. (赛跑或竞赛中领跑者身后的)人群;兽群;一帮人

71 Article _W_ presume1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading presume: vt. think you can be sure of sth. because it is likely, although there is no proof From the way he talked, I presumed him to be your boss. The committee presumed that its decisions would be carried out. CF: presume, assume & suppose 这三个动词均含 “ 假设,猜想,推测 ” 之意。 侧重指以过去经验或根据现实的某些感觉把某事认定为是事实。 指有很少或完全没有根据的武断推测或不合逻辑的推理。 常用词,意义较广泛,指缺乏确切事实,根据一些现象进行的推测,也可指为 论证而提出合乎逻辑推理的某种假定,有时仅表示自己的意见。 presume assume suppose

72 Article _W_ presume2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. She told me that she was able to how upset you were just from the expression in your eyes. 2. The doctor came in accompanied by a woman whom I to be his wife. 3. A witness in a murder trial is to know the facts in the case. 4. John didn’t say when he would return, but I he’ll be back for dinner. Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. presumed _________ assumed________ suppose _______ presume ________

73 Article _W_ norm Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading norm: n. (usu. with the when sing.) sth. that is usual, typical or standard Peer evaluation within the teams has become the norm. Yet, again there is the contrast between personal inclinations and social norms. This boy’s reading ability is above the norm for children of his age. 这男孩的阅读水平在他这个年龄算标准以上。

74 Article_W_contemporary1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading contemporary: adj. relating to the present time; alive or existing at the same time as a particular event or person Contemporary Indian cinema has its roots in folk culture. Composers like Philip Glass have made contemporary music more popular. CF: contemporary, modern, current & present 这四个形容词均含 “ 现代的,当代的 ” 之意。 指当今这个时代,也可表示不同的人或物存在于同一时代。 指现代或近代,时期可长可短。也可指新颖的、时髦的。 指目前存在和发生的。 是这些词中语气最强的一个。指现在正发生、起作用的。 contemporary modern current present

75 Article_W_contemporary2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. Acceptable forms of ID include a passport or a birth certificate. 2. At the time we have no explanation for this. 3. I’m not very impressed by the works of many artists. 4. Computers are an essential part of life. Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. present _______ contemporary___________ current______ modern _______

76 Article_ W_ tremendous1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading tremendous: adj. very great; extremely extraordinary Suddenly, there was a tremendous bang, and the whole station shook. She was making a tremendous effort to appear calm. CF: tremendous, enormous, immense, vast & massive 这五个形容词均含 “ 巨大的,庞大的 ” 之意。 指某物很大,大得惊人;也可用作引申意义。例如: 指体积、数量或程度远远超过一般标准。例如: tremendous enormous My new job will be a tremendous challenge. 我的新工作将是一个极大的挑战。 This plan could save us an enormous amount of money. 这一计划给我们省了一大笔钱。

77 Article_ W_ tremendous2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading CF: tremendous, enormous, immense, vast & massive 这五个形容词均含 “ 巨大的,庞大的 ” 之意。 正式用词,侧重指空间的广阔,也指面积或分量的巨大。例如: 多指空间、面积、范围的巨大,不涉及重量。例如: 指体积、数量和重量的巨大,侧重指庞大而笨重。例如: immense vast Migrating birds cover immense distances every winter. 每个冬天迁徙的鸟儿要飞很远很远。 The vast plains stretch for 600 miles. 宽广的平原绵延 600 英里。 massive They built a massive monument. 他们建了一个巨大的纪念碑。

78 Article_ W_ prestigious Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading prestigious: adj. respected and admired as one of the best and most important One of the most prestigious universities in the country is looking for a new president. The anxiously awaited invitations to the prestigious end-of-year dance began to arrive.

79 Article_ W_ screen Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading screen: vt. find out information about (people) in order to decide whether they are suitable for sth. You can use an answerphone to screen your phone calls before you answer them. Police are very careful when screening politicians’ bodyguards. 警察在很小心地给政客们筛选保镖。

80 Article_ W_ accelerate1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading accelerate: v. happen faster than usual or sooner than you expect The Ferrari can accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 6.3 seconds. Zebtech is accelerating its cost-cutting program by cutting 2,500 jobs. NB: 1. accelerated: adj. ( 课程学习)跳级的;加快的 2. 反义词是 decelerate 。

81 Article_ W_ accelerate2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading CF: accelerate, quicken & hasten 这三个动词均含 “ 加快,使加快 ” 之意。 着重指频率或速率运转加快使其在更短时间内完成。例如: 普通用词,指增加速度、速率,含有动作完成得更富有生气的意思。例如: 指由于事情的紧迫性或突然性而加速。例如: accelerate quicken hasten Neglect has accelerated this building’s decay. 无人看管加快了楼房的破损。 The music quickened and the dancing got faster. 音乐速度加快了,舞步也快了。 The storm’s approach hastened our departure. 暴风雨来了,我们匆匆分手。

82 Article_ W_ exclusive Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading exclusive: adj. 1) very expensive and therefore available only to the very rich They live in Bel Air, an exclusive suburb of Los Angeles. Our figure skating club has exclusive use of the rink on Mondays. 2) available or belonging only to particular people, and not shared This car is for the President’s exclusive use. 这是总统专用汽车。

83 Article_ W_ resort Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading resort: n. 1) a place where many people go on holiday Lagoon Reef is one of the best resort hotels. Economic sanctions will be used only in the last resort. 2) what you will do if everything else fails Drug treatment should only be used as a last resort. 药物治疗仅仅是最后一招。

84 Article_ W_ exceptional Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading exceptional: adj. 1) unusually good; outstanding Exit visas are only given in exceptional circumstances. Merits are given as an honour for exceptional achievement. 2) out of the ordinary A few of the top executives are women who are really exceptional. 一些高层主管是女的,她们确实很杰出。 It’s one of the best examples of old English furniture I’ve seen — it truly is exceptional.

85 Article_ W_ epidemic Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading epidemic: n. a disease spreading quickly among many people in the same place for a time Over 500 people died during last year’s flu epidemic. In the face of an epidemic which was sweeping away our friends and lovers, we sought help where we could.

86 Article_ W_ in between Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading in between: in the middle between two points, sizes, periods of time, etc. The old lady has breakfast at 7:30 a.m. and lunch at 1:00 p.m. and sometimes a snack in between. We only expect our future children to be happy, no matter whether they are exceptional, ordinary or in between.

87 Article_ W_ sprout up Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading sprout up: appear suddenly in large numbers Office blocks are sprouting up everywhere in the downtown. Shopping centers have sprouted up in the new city.

88 Article_ W_ eligible Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading eligible: adj. 1) suitable or fit to be chosen Students on a part-time course are not eligible for a loan. Over 500, year-olds will become eligible to vote this year. 今年将有 500,000 多个 18 周岁的年轻人有资格选举。 2) having the right or proper qualifications His father had suggested several eligible middle-class girls to him. The world saw Jack as a rich eligible bachelor, but really he was very shy.

89 Article_ W_ excessive Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading excessive: adj. much more than is reasonable or necessary As usual, the opposition claims the government is guilty of excessive spending. Grades so high, she was saying, must reflect excessive study.

90 Article_ W_ carve Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading carve: vt. cut (a hard material) in order to produce an object or design Mike carved this figure from a single block of marble. Her son held his head beside the big carved pumpkin, mimicking a wide, toothy grin. In Fujian, workers are carving roads into red clay hills, scaling bamboo scaffolding, hauling piles of stone. Collocation: carve out 努力创立 carve up 分,分开(尤指对自己有利) She carved out a very successful career in the film industry. 她在电影业创立了一番很成功的事业。 The two companies are attempting to carve up a large slice of America’s publishing industry between them. 这两个公司想瓜分美国出版业,都想对自己有利分多一点。

91 Article_ W_ take the initiative Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading take the initiative: be the first to take action in a particular situation Why don’t you take the initiative and ask him out? The country was the only power willing to take the initiative in the long struggle to end the war. Collocation: demonstrate / display / show initiative 显示进取心 exercise / use initiative 行使主动权 seize the initiative 抓住主动权 private initiative 个人的主动权 on one’s own initiative 主动地,不求助外力地

92 Article_ W_ correlation Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading correlation: n. a mutual relationship or connection, in which one thing affects or depends on another There is a direct correlation between the best-known brands and the best- selling brands. Researchers have found a high correlation between urban deprivation and poor health. Collocation: strong / high / close / significant correlation 密切相关 little correlation 几乎没有关联 have no correlation with 和 …… 没有关联 show a correlation 显示相互关系 a correlation between …… 之间的相互关系 correlation with 和 …… 的相互关系

93 Article_ W_ be symptomatic of Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading be symptomatic of: serve as a symptom or a sign, especially of something undesirable The rise in unemployment is symptomatic of a general decline in the economy. Chest pains may be symptomatic of heart disease. 胸口痛也许是心脏疾病的症状。

94 Article_ W_ be tailored to Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading be tailored to: be made to fit a particular need or situation The play is tailored to a particular audience. Obviously her novels are tailored to popular taste. 显然她的小说很适合大众的口味。

95 Article_ W_ impose Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading impose: v. force the acceptance of (sth. unwelcome or unpleasant) Teachers should try to avoid imposing their own beliefs and moral values on their students. The court can impose a fine or a prison sentence. Pattern: impose sth. on sb. 强加于

96 Article_ W_ priority1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading priority: n. the thing that is thought to be most important and need attention before anything else After several burglaries in the area, security is now a high priority. The customer is high on our list of priorities.

97 Article_ W_ priority2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Collocation: take priority first / top / main / high priority in order of priority I want to start work on the garden but the house must take priority. 我想先从花园干起,但更应从房子开始。 The children are our first priority. 孩子们最重要。 List your tasks in order of priority. 按重要性的顺序将你的任务列出来。 取得优先权 最优先 按优先的顺序

98 Article_ W_ priority3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Collocation: priority over 比 …… 优先 get your priorities right / straight 弄明白 …… 最重要 Buses should have priority over other road users. 公共汽车比其他道路使用者优先。 It’s about time Sam got his priorities right — family and friends should come before football. 萨姆该弄明白什么最重要了 —— 家庭和朋友应比足球重要。

99 Article_ W_ for sb.’s own good Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading for sb.’s own good: to sb.’s own advantage; for sb.’s own benefit I’m giving you this advice for your own good. 来吧,把药喝了 —— 这是为你好! Come on, drink up the medicine — it’s for your own good!

100 Article_ W_ competence1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading competence: n. the ability to do sth. successfully Students will gain competence in a wide range of skills. He questioned the competence of the government. Doctors have to constantly update their knowledge in order to maintain their professional competence. NB: 同 competency

101 Article_ W_ competence2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading CF: competence, ability, capability & genius 这四个名词均含 “ 能力,才能 ” 之意。 正式用词,侧重指令人满意的业务能力与水平,达到胜任某项工作等的要求。 普通用词,指人先天的或后天学来的各种能力。 多用于人,指胜任某项具体工作的能力,也指本身具有、尚未发挥的潜在能力。 常与 of 或 for 连用。 指天赋的高度才能与智力。 competence ability capability genius

102 Article_ W_ competence3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. I can speak French, but simultaneous translation is beyond my. 2. Could a computer ever achieve the of men like Newton and Einstein? 3. His as an economist was reinforced by his successful fight against inflation. 4. The health center serves all patients, regardless of their to pay. Directions: Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. capability________ genius ______ competence__________ ability _____

103 Article_ W_ decent Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading decent: adj. 1) socially acceptable Don’t you have a decent jacket? Jack visited the local bars more frequently than was decent for a senior lecturer. 2) good enough It was decent of you to show up today. You can get a decent meal there without spending too much money. 在那儿你不用花太多钱就能吃得不错。

104 Article_ W_ more likely than not Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading more likely than not: probably More likely than not, she’ll end up in court over this problem. The rest of the team can’t be far away. More likely than not, they’ll be in the bar celebrating.

105 After Reading_main Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. Useful Expressions 2. Listening Practice 3. Group Work 4. Picture Talking 5. Writing Practice 6. Proverbs and Quotations

106 After Reading_ 心理健康 2. 高于平均水平 3. 施加巨大的压力 4. 在越来越早的年龄 5. 幼儿园 6. 筛选面试 7. 有机会 8. 奥运会选手 psychological health above the norm put tremendous pressure on at ever-earlier ages nursery school screening interview have a chance at Olympic athletes Useful Expressions Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 9. 暂时停留 10. 对 …… 寄予厚望 stop by have high hopes for

107 After Reading_1.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 13. 像春天的蒲公英一样迅速出现 14. 赢得合意的配偶 15. 对孩子的培养 sprout up like dandelions in the spring win the most eligible mates child rearing 16. 干预过多 far too intrusive 17. 为 …… 负责 18. 为自己的成就获得赞誉的机会 19. 冒险 take responsibility for take credit for one’s achievements run the risk of 20. 缺少自尊心 be lacking in self-esteem 12. 快班 advanced-placement class 11. 各种体质、各种类型 all makes and models

108 After Reading_1.3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 24. 早期教育 25. 关心 26. 彬彬有礼 early instruction be concerned with well-mannered 23. 错误的观念 false notions 27. 感到高兴和自豪 28. 水到渠成 take pleasure and pride in take care of itself 21. 校外活动 22. 走极端 out-of-school activities go to extremes

109 After Reading_2.1 Listening Practice Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading In this section, you will hear a short passage. At the end of the passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be read only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Directions: A) Quite convincing. B) Partially true. C) Totally groundless. D) Rather confusing. KEY 1.

110 After Reading_2.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A) He has plenty of time reading and studying. B) He is left to play with his peers in his own way. C) He has more time participating in school activities. D) He is free to interact with his working parents. KEY 2. A) American kids are engaged in more and more structured activities. B) American kids are increasingly neglected by their working mothers. C) American kids are spending more and more time watching TV. D) American kids are involved less and less in household work. KEY 3.

111 After Reading_2.3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A) Extracurricular activities promote children’s intelligence. B) Most children will turn to reading with TV sets switched off. C) Efforts to get kids interested in reading have been fruitful. D) Most parents believe reading to be beneficial to children. KEY 4.

112 After Reading_2_pop1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading On average, American kids aged 3 to 12 spent 29 hours a week in school, eight hours more than they did in They also did more household work and participated in more of such organized activities as soccer and ballet. Involvement in sports, in particular, rose almost 50% from 1981 to 1997: boys now spend an average of four hours a week playing sports; girls log half that time. All in all, however, children’s leisure time dropped from 40% of the day in 1981 to 25%. “Children are affected by the same time crunch ( 危机 ) that affects their parents,” says Sandra Hofferth, who headed the recent study of children’s timetable. A chief reason, she says, is that more mothers are working outside the home. (Nevertheless, children in both double-income and “male breadwinner” households spent comparable amounts of time interacting with their parents, 19 hours and 22 hours respectively. In contrast, children spent only 9 hours with their single mothers.) All work and no play could make for some very messed-up kids. “Play is the most powerful way a child explores the world and learns about himself,” says T. Berry Brazelton, professor at Harvard Medical School. Unstructured play encourages independent thinking and allows the young to negotiate their relationships with their peers, but kids aged 3 to 12 spent only 12 hours a week engaged in it.

113 After Reading_2_pop2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading The children sampled spent a quarter of their rapidly decreasing “free time” watching television. But that, believe it or not, was one of the findings parents might regard as good news. If they’re spending less time in front of the TV set, however, kids aren’t replacing it with reading. Despite efforts to get kids more interested in books, the children spent just over an hour a week reading. Let’s face it, who’s got the time? Questions 1 to 4 are based on the passage you have just heard. 1. What does the author think of the reason given by Sandra Hofferth for the time crunch? 2. According to the author, in which condition does a child develop better? 3. Which fact is the author concerned about? 4. What can we infer from the passage?

114 After Reading_3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Group Work Step One A Survey: On Remedial Classes for Children Go around the classroom and interview at least 8 classmates to find out if they would like to have remedial classes as children. Step Two Form Groups According to the results of the survey, form two groups. Group A thinks that remedial classes are beneficial to the children and Group B argues that they are not. Step Three Group Debate Before you start the debate, you should discuss with your group members and prepare your arguments and supporting ideas according to what you’ve learned in the text.

115 After Reading_4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Picture Talking

116 After Reading_4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Picture Talking

117 After Reading_4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Picture Talking

118 After Reading_4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Picture Talking

119 After Reading_4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Picture Talking

120 After Reading_4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Picture Talking

121 After Reading_5 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Writing Practice — Passage Writing 1. A Brief Introduction — Cause and Effect 2. Homework

122 After Reading_5_1.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A Brief Introduction — Cause and Effect 1. Write Angles The details in cause-and-effect essays are most often presented in chronological order, reverse chronology, or order of importance. The cause is why something happens; the effect is result, what happens due to the cause. Therefore, cause-and-effect essays establish a relationship between events. Cause and effect usually (but not always) happen in time order: The cause comes first, creating an effect. But with complex relationships, you’ll likely be dealing with multiple causes and effects. An effect may have more than one cause: Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 3 bring aboutEffect

123 After Reading_5_1.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Effect 1 Cause Effect 3 results inEffect 2 A cause may also have more than one effect: The cause always takes place before the effect: Something happens, which leads to a result. But the cause and effect don’t have to be presented in time order in the passage. The effect may be presented first, even though the cause occurred earlier.

124 After Reading_5_1.3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 2. Check It Out How can you make sure you’re on target when you write cause-and-effect papers? Use this checklist: I’ve shown a clear cause-and-effect relationship between events.  Just because one event occurred before the other doesn’t mean that causality exists. Perhaps there’s another explanation for the events — coincidence, accident, and so on. Here’s false causality: “24 hours in a day … 24 beers in a case … coincidence?” The answer is, yes, it is. Don’t push the envelope; if there’s no causality, don’t invent it. The cause-and-effect relationship I describe is valid.  Just because something happened once doesn’t mean that true causality exists. For the relationship to be valid, it has to be repeated. That’s why you wait at least a week before you take that toilet-trained toddler out of diapers.

125 After Reading_5_1.4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading I’ve included all relevant causes and effects.  Look beneath the surface to find every factor that affects your analysis. When you omit one or more pertinent causes and effects, you weaken your writing (but you do keep your readers busy poking holes in your thesis).  An immediate cause is an event that comes directly before an effect and helps bring it about. An underlying cause is not immediately apparent; a remote cause is distant from the effect. 3. Transitions  Writers often use transitions to signal specific relationships among ideas. Following are the transitions most often used to signal cause-and-effect relationships. Like well-timed flowers and candies, the right transitions can help you cement relationships.

126 After Reading_5_1.5 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading as a result because for this (that) reason for if … then nevertheless since so so that therefore thus this (that) is how consequently due to

127 After Reading_5_2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Homework 1. The current situation 2. The reason why children’s schoolbags are getting heavier 3. The serious consequences 4. How to solve the problem In this part, you are supposed to write a composition on the title “Children’s Schoolbags Are Getting Heavier”. Your composition should be no less than 180 words. The composition should cover the following points: Directions:

128 After Reading_6.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Proverbs and Quotations 1. Children are parents’ riches. 子女是父母之财富。 2. Happy is he that is happy in his children. 为自己孩子感到高兴的,才是幸福的人。 3. Education has for its object the formation of character. 教育的目的在于培养品德。

129 After Reading_6.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 5. The fundamental defect of fathers is that they want their children to be a credit to them. — Bertrand Russell, British philosopher 教育显然有两种:一种是教人怎样谋生,另一种是教人怎样生活。 父亲们最根本的缺点在于想要自己的孩子为自己争光。 —— 英国哲学家 伯特兰 罗素 4. There are obviously two educations. One should teach us how to make a living and the other how to live.

130 After Reading_6.3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 6. Let early education be a sort of amusement; you will then be better able to find out the natural bent. — Plato, ancient Greek philosopher 初期教育应是一种娱乐,这样才更容易发现一个人天生的爱好。 —— 古希腊哲学家 柏拉图


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