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Schizophrenia Disorders sec 7. objectives Define schizophrenia List the symptoms of schizophrenia (5) List contributing factors (5)

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Presentation on theme: "Schizophrenia Disorders sec 7. objectives Define schizophrenia List the symptoms of schizophrenia (5) List contributing factors (5)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Schizophrenia Disorders sec 7

2 objectives Define schizophrenia List the symptoms of schizophrenia (5) List contributing factors (5)

3 Symptoms of schizophrenia Bizarre delusions Hallucinations and heightened sensory awareness Disorganized, incoherent speech Grossly disorganized and inappropriate behavior Impaired cognitive abilities chapter 11

4 Background 1911, Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler coined term Schizophrenia Describe cases in which personality looses its identity 40 % of all admissions to public mental hospitals Fragmented condition Words are split from meaning, actions from motives, perceptions from reality

5 Eugen Bleuler

6 Example of schizophrenia= psychosis Psychosis- an extreme mental disturbance involving distorted perceptions and irrational behavior

7 Symptoms of Schizophrenia Bizarre Delusions- false or irrational beliefs Dogs are extraterrestrials disguised as pets Identity- I am Moses, Jesus, abraham Lincoln Paranoid- strangers cough, helicopter overhead= plotting against me Report thoughts have been implanted by someone (criminal minds-train) or T.V. or newspaper is talking to them (beautiful mind)

8 More symptoms Hallucinations False sensory experiences= feel like spiders crawling on you Hearing voices- most common Tell you- steal, kill Some commit suicide to stop hearing them Young girls in Salem witch trials probably from fungi on wheat

9 One type of schizophrenia Disorganized, Incoherent speech Illogical jumble of ideas linked by meaningless rhyming words Called word salads

10 Grossly disorganized and inappropriate behavior Childlike silliness, unpredictable violent aggression Wear 3 pair gloves on hot day Collect garbage Hoard scraps of food

11 Impaired cognitive abilities Much worse than healthier people in following categories Verbal learning recall of words and stories Perception Working memory, problem solving Selective attention

12 More info Symptoms may occur different times Loose motivation Catatonic stupor- emotionally flat, sit for hours without moving, with draw into private world Some signs early but late adolescence early childhood full blown psychotic episode Some sudden break others more gradual

13 Origins of Schizophrenia Many variations and symptoms= many problems for origin ONE THEORY: raised by erratic, cold rejecting mother or living in unpredictable environment= NOT SUPPORTED OTOH- most researchers believe genetics But some is genes with stressor type environment, in prenatal, birth or adolescence

14 Genetic vulnerability The risk of developing schizophrenia increases as the genetic relatedness with a diagnosed schizophrenic increases. chapter 11

15 Factor 1 Genetic Predisposition If identical twin develops disorder greater chance even if raised apart 1 parent- 12% higher risk, 2 parents 35-46% Compared to 1% in general population

16 Factor 2 Structural brain abnormalities Most individuals decrease in volume of temporal lobe or hippocampus Reduced neurons in prefrontal cortex Enlargement of ventricles- spaces in the brain filled with cerebrospinal fluid Thalamus- traffic controller of brain

17 Structural brain abnormalities Several abnormalities exist, especially when disease has primarily negative symptoms. Decreased brain weight Decreased volume in temporal lobe or hippocampus Enlargement of ventricles About 25% do not have these observable brain deficiencies. chapter 11

18 Factor 3 Neurotransmitter abnormalities Serotonin, glutamate, dopamine However similar abnormalities may exist in depression and alcoholism so difficult to differentiate

19 Neurotransmitter abnormalities Include serotonin, glutamate, dopamine Many schizophrenics have high levels of brain activity in areas served by dopamine, and greater numbers of dopamine receptors. Similar abnormalities are found in depression and alcoholism. chapter 11

20 Factor 4 Prenatal problems or birth complications Fetal brain damage increases likely hood of schizophrenia Mom- malnutrition Famine= more schizophrenia Lack of oxygen during birth

21 Prenatal or birth complications Damage to the fetal brain increases chances of schizophrenia and other mental disorders. May occur as a function of maternal malnutrition or illness May also occur if brain injury or oxygen deprivation occurs at birth chapter 11

22 Factor 5 Adolescent abnormalities in brain development Pruning process- to many pruned away May involve genetic predisposition

23 Adolescent abnormalities in brain development Normal pruning of excessive synapses in the brain occurs during adolescence. In schizophrenics, a greater number of synapses are pruned away. May explain why first episode occurs in adolescence or early adulthood chapter 11

24 Summary Symptoms (5) Origins (5)

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