4 1. Dialect Collections on-line British Library CollectionSurvey of English DialectsMillennium Memory Bank
5 Survey of English Dialects (SED) 1948ff: Eugen Dieth and Harold OrtonResearch:Published:Basic materials & MapsFour regions: N, E Midlands, W Midlands & S313 locations surveyed
6 The urgency…“Harold Orton often told us that it was the eleventh hour, that dialect was rapidly disappearing, and that this was a last-minute exercise to scoop out the last remaining vestige of dialect before it died out under the pressures of modern movement and communication.” (Ellis, 1992: 7).
8 The informants… NORMs (Chambers & Trudgill 1998: 30): Nonmobile Old “to guarantee their speech is characteristic of the region in which they live”Old“to reflect the speech of a bygone era”Rural“because urban communities involve too much mobility and flux”Male:“because in the western nations women’s speech is considered to be more self-conscious and class-conscious than men’s”
9 Data elicitation Questionnaires (1300 questions) Using diagrams and pictures to obtain local names and terminologySpontaneous speech (informant's opinions, personal reminiscences, occupational details etc.)
10 Questionnaires“The interviews can thus be conducted by different fieldworkers and under wildly varying circumstances, and still elicit a common core of linguistic data” (Chambers and Trudgill 1998: 21).Collecting vocabulary, pronunciation and (limited) syntax
11 Direct vs. indirect questioning What do you call a cup?Indirect questioningNAMING: What do you call this?TALKING: What can you make with milk?REVERSE: What’s the barn for, and where is it?COMPLETING: You sweeten tea with…?CONVERTING: A tailor is a man who … suitsYou ask a tailor to … a suitThat’s a nice suit. Tell me who … it
12 SED ‘interpretative’ maps Simplifying & combining similar wordsFocusing upon etymologyIsoglosses are not ‘absolute’ dividing linesNonetheless, incredibly useful data…
13 The Millennium Memory Bank (MMB) A joint project between BBC Local Radio and the British Library Sound Archive“to create an archival ‘snapshot’ of ‘ordinary’ Britons’ opinions and experiences at the turn of the century” (British Library’s Sounds Familiar website).
14 The Century Speaks radio series During 1998 and 1999, forty BBC local radio stations recorded personal oral histories from a broad cross-section of the populationSixteen themes including ‘where we live’, ‘getting older’, ‘beliefs and fears’Focus on local, everyday experiences640 half-hour radio documentaries, 5429 interviews on minidisks
15 InformantsRecruited from established groups within the community, such as local history societies, or chosen from respondents to appeals broadcast over the radio.56% male; 44% femaleAges: 5 to 107 years oldBackgrounds: diverse ethnic and socio-economic profiles.
16 UtilityThe speakers in the MMB archive were not selected for the purposes of a dialect surveyNonetheless there is a similar geographic spread to the SED300 extracts available online“speakers who are representative of their respective speech communities. Precedence was given to passages demonstrating particularly noteworthy linguistic features” (British Library’s Sounds Familiar website).
17 This website contains both SED and MMB recordings. The SED and MMB onlineThis website contains both SED and MMB recordings.If you search here, you should select either the ‘Survey of English dialects’ or the ‘Millennium Memory Bank’ collectionIf you search here, both SED and MMB recordings come up. You should ensure you know which survey you are looking at!
18 If you click on ‘Browse by county’, an alphabetic list will appear Browsing by county…Browsing by county is probably the easiest way to search for your assessment.If you click on ‘Browse by county’, an alphabetic list will appear
19 An example search: Cornwall Lots of suitable recordings may appear for the county you are looking for. You’re not expected to search all of these, but you may want to look at one from the SED and one from the MMB to compare change over time.Let’s imagine I’ve selected this one from Altarnum. What happens when I click on it?
20 Altarnum, Cornwall This page contains the audio file Biographical information on the speaker and information about the data collectionA link to linguistic information about the sound file
21 Comparing SED and MMB sound files Notice that this file for ‘Nittings Down’ states “(cf. SED Altarnum)”. This suggests that its an MMB file that we can compare with the original SED data.
22 This confirms that it’s an MMB file. Nittings DownThis confirms that it’s an MMB file.We get all the same information as with the SED file, including the link to the linguistic information.
23 Decoding the linguistic information You’ll notice that the phonological information is given using weird symbolsThis is SAMPA: a transcription system that can be used if one doesn’t have IPA fontsTo read the SED, and MMB notes, you will need to ‘translate’ the SAMPA fonts into IPA fonts:
24 Translating SAMPA: an example The symbols correspond with the RP pronunciations, so V = RP /ʌ/ in the word STRUT
25 Dialects Collection On-line SummaryContains recordings and linguistic information on the SED and MMBCan be used to research the dialects you have been asked to study for your assessmentThe phonological information will require ‘decoding’ before you can use it.
26 2. The Uni. of Edinburgh’s Sound comparisons project http://www A study exploring methods for measuring the degree of phonetic similarity between, for instance, accents of EnglishWhy?“ What linguists have not been very good at up until recently, however, is measuring the degree of difference, or of similarity, between accents. In other words, linguists are very good and highly experienced at showing how accents differ; but there are no agreed ways of measuring how different accents are” (Sounds Comparisons website).
27 Informants An ‘opportunity’ sample Concentration of varieties in Northern Ireland, northeast England and southern Scotland“Indicative of the origin, place of residence, and place of employment (respectively) of the chief data collector, Warren Maguire” (Sound Comparisons website)Some areas are under-representedUnequal balance of varieties
28 Data Data collected from informants reading word lists Informants organised according to whether their dialect is:‘Typical’ = a representative sample of the dialect concerned, usually characteristic of native working-class speakers between the ages of 30 and 60.‘Traditional’ = the still extant traditional dialect pronunciations of the location, most characteristic of older working-class males.‘Emergent’ = a representative sample of the local pronunciations of younger speakers (typically working-class between the ages of 16 and 25)Not all of the survey dialects have all three ‘types’ represented.
29 Outcomes: Network maps A network map showing more similarity between ‘modern’ dialects
30 2. The Sound comparisons website http://www.soundcomparisons.com/ You can select varieties hereWherever there is phonetic transcription, you will hear the transcribed words by rolling your mouse over them
31 An example: LondonClicking on a variety, brings up the full word list that you can hear by rolling your mouse over each wordIf you don’t know where somewhere is, you can click on a map hereThe variety was selected here
33 Utility There are word lists from specific locations. (e.g. in the North: Morley, Yorkshire and Holy Island, Northumberland)(e.g. in the South: North Devon and Somerset.
34 The Sound Comparisons website SummaryContains transcripts of word lists from the areas you have been asked to researchIs useful only for phonological featuresThe transcriptions use the IPA (although you might not be familiar with some of the more narrow transcriptions).
35 3. British Library’s Sounds Familiar. pages http://www. bl Teaching and learning resource created by the British LibraryContains:Sound recordingsTranscriptionsDiscussions
36 Data Taken from the SED and MMB resources Considers ethnic variation in addition to ‘traditional’ dialectsDescribes variation, considers changes in progress, provides tasks
37 Use these tabs to navigate around different kinds of information The Sounds Familiar? websiteUse these tabs to navigate around different kinds of informationThe website makes good use of interactive maps. In particular, this one can be used to view data from different areas and different generations of speakers
38 The Sounds Familiar? map Different colours refer to different collections and different types of dataClicking on a ‘person’ will take you to a relevant sound recording. Variable amounts of additional information is supplied.
39 Examples…Clicking on ‘Whitehaven, Cumbria’ takes you to a “Modern dialect recording” (from the MMB); but there is no commentary.
40 There’s even a transcript of the recording. Examples…Clicking on ‘Banbury, Oxfordshire’ takes you to a much more comprehensive pageThere’s even a transcript of the recording.
41 ResourcesA lot of this material duplicates what’s available in the Dialect Collections on-line archiveBut there are some additions features hereTranscriptsCommentaryLinks/wider discussions
42 The Sounds Familiar? website SummaryA lot of useful material here, so spend some time exploring the siteSpecific info on certain dialectsGeneral info on trends in British dialectsCan be used in conjunction with the Dialect Collection On-Line website.
43 4. BBC Voices project http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/ Set up in early 2000s to obtain more information on language use in the UKProfessor Clive Upton (University of Leeds) is the ‘consultant’ for the websiteThere is a large proportion of academic inputBut much of the site contains input from by non-linguists (journalists and the general public, for instance)
45 BBC Voices project http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/ You can also search ‘regional pages’Possible to listen to voice recordings collected by the BBCThere is a word map showing current lexical variation in the UKThere are features/articles covering language issues
46 Voices recordings Read about them here: Recorded by BBC journalists betweenUses the Survey of Regional English (SuRE) methodology developed by the Universities of Leeds and Sheffield
47 Voices recordings http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/recordings/index.shtml Clicking on the map takes you to the recordings for different areas.This is the location for ‘Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria’.
48 You are given information on the speakers. Voices recordingsYou are given information on the speakers.A series of voice clips are provided. Typically, these have been selected because they highlight language issues.
49 Voices recordings There may also be interviewer notes. And a commentary provided by Jonnie Robinson from the British Library.
50 Word maps http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/results/wordmap/ The Voices project also collected information from the British public on lexical variation. You can search all of this here too.
51 Language issues/discussions http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/yourvoice/ There are a number of features and articles. Take care with these, though – only some of them are written by academics!
52 Regional pages http://www.bbc.co.uk/voices/wil/ Either by clicking on the map, or on the list of regions, you can access the ‘regional’ pages for the Voices project.Do take care with this, as these are pages produced by journalists in the BBC regions, so vary in their quality.For example, if you wanted to know about the Oxford region, you would click here or on the map.