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… [People] occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of them pick themselves up and hurry off as if nothing ever happened. - Sir Winston Churchill.

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Presentation on theme: "… [People] occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of them pick themselves up and hurry off as if nothing ever happened. - Sir Winston Churchill."— Presentation transcript:

1 … [People] occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of them pick themselves up and hurry off as if nothing ever happened. - Sir Winston Churchill


3 Psychology Cognitive Neuroscience Computational Sciences / Artificial intelligence Neuroscience

4 1. M.A.B. Brazier. A History of the Electrical Activity of the Brain, London: Pitman, M.A.B. Brazier. A History of Neurophysiology in the 19th Century, New York: Raven Press, E. Clarke and K. Dewhurst. An Illustrated History of Brain Function, Berkeley: University of California Press, E. Clarke and C.D. O'Malley. The Human Brain and Spinal Cord, Berkeley: University of California Press, S. Finger. Origins of Neuroscience, New York: Oxford University Press, C.G. Gross. Brain, Vision, Memory. Tales in the History of Neuroscience, Cambridge, MIT Press, L.H. Marshall and H.W. Magoun. Discoveries in the Human Brain, Totowa; Humana Press, F.C. Rose and W.F. Bynum. Historical Aspects of the Neurosciences. A Festschrift for Macdonald Critchely, New York: Raven Press, B.E. Swartz and E.S. Goldenshon. Timeline of the history of EEG and associated fields, in Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol., 106: , 1998.

5 4000 B.C. to 0 A.D. ca B.C. - Euphoriant effect of poppy plant reported in Sumerian records ca B.C. - Shen Nung originates acupuncture ca B.C. - Edwin Smith surgical papyrus written. First written record about the nervous system B.C. - Hippocrates discusses epilepsy as a disturbance of the brain B.C. - Hippocrates states that the brain is involved with sensation and is the seat of intelligence. 387 B.C. - Plato teaches at Athens. Believes brain is seat of mental process 335 B.C. - Aristotle writes on sleep; believes heart is seat of mental process B.C. - Herophilus (the "Father of Anatomy"); believes ventricles are seat of human intelligence. 280 B.C. - Erasistratus of Chios notes divisions of the brain

6 0 A.D. to Galen lecture "On the Brain" Mondino de'Luzzi writes the first European anatomy textbook (Anothomia) Institution for the mentally ill established in Valencia, Spain Leonardo da Vinci produces wax cast of human ventricles Nicolo Massa describes the cerebrospinal fluid Andreas Vesalius discusses pineal gland and draws the corpus striatum Aranzi coins term "hippocampus" Constanzo Varolio names the pons Constanzo Varolio is first to cut brain starting at its base Felix Platter states that the lens only focuses light A. Piccolomini distinguishes between cortex and white matter Giulio Cesare Aranzi describes ventricles and hippocampus

7 Francis de la Boe Sylvius describes fissure on the lateral surface of the brain (Sylvian fissure) Rene Descartes describes pineal as control center of body and mind Johann Jakof Wepfer theorizes that a broken brain blood vessel may cause apoplexy (stroke) Rene Descartes "De homine" is published (He died in 1650) Thomas Willis publishes "Cerebri anatome" Robert Hooke details his first microscope Joseph DuVerney uses experimental ablation technique in pigeons Humphrey Ridley publishes "The Anatomy of the Brain"

8 Antony van Leeuwenhoek describes nerve fiber in cross section Jean Astruc coins the term reflex John Walsh conducts experiments on torpedo (electric) fish Franz Anton Mesmer introduces hypnosis Sir Joseph Priestley discovers nitrous oxide M.V.G. Malacarne publishes first book solely devoted to the cerebellum Felix Vicq d'Azyr discovers the locus coeruleus Luigi Galvani publishes work on electrical stimulation of frog nerves John Dalton describes color blindness Humphrey Davy synthesizes nitrous oxide Friedrich Serturner isolates morphine from opium Franz Joseph Gall publishes work on phrenology Luigi Rolando uses galvanic current to stimulate cortex Julien Jean Legallois discovers respiratory center in medulla James Parkinson publishes "An Essay on the Shaking Palsy" Galvanometer invented Charles Bell describes facial paralysis ipsilateral to facial nerve lesion (Bell's palsy) Francois Magendie discusses functional differences between dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord

9 cont’d Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens states that cerebellum regulates motor activity Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens details ablation to study behavior F. Magendie provides first evidence of cerebellum role in equilibration Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud presents cases of loss of speech after frontal lesions Robert B. Todd discusses the role of the cerebral cortex in mentation, corpus striatum in movement and midbrain in emotion Luigi Rolando describes the sulcus that separates the precentral and postcentral gyri Johannes Muller publishes theory of "specific nerve energies" Marc Dax reads paper on left hemisphere damage effects on speech Gabriel Gustav Valentin identifies neuron nucleus and nucleolus Robert Remak describes myelinated and unmyelinated axons Jan Purkyne (Purkinje) describes cerebellar cells; identifies neuron nucleus and processes Robert Remak suggests that nerve fiber and nerve cell are joined Theodor Schwann proposes the cell theory Benedikt Stilling is first to study spinal cord in serial sections Crawford W. Long uses ether on man Robert Remak provides first illustration of 6-layered cortex Horace Wells uses nitrous oxide during a tooth extraction William Morton demonstrates ether anesthesia at Mass. Gen. Hospital Phineas Gage has his brain pierced by an iron rod

10 Augustus Waller describes appearance of degenerating nerve fibers Emil Du Bois-Reymond invents nerve galvanometer Hermann von Helmholtz measures the speed of frog nerve impulses William Benjamin Carpenter proposes "sensory ganglion" (thalamus) as seat of consciousness Louis P. Gratiolet describes convolutions of the cerbral cortex Bartolomeo Panizza shows the occipital lobe is essential for vision Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species Paul Broca discusses cortical localization

11 I.M. Sechenov publishes Reflexes of the Brain Nikolaus Friedreich describes a progressive hereditary degenerative CNS disorder (Friedreich's ataxia) John Hughlings Jackson writes on loss of speech after brain injury Otto Friedrich Karl Deiters differentiates dendrites and axons John Langdon Haydon Down publishes work on congenital "idiots" Julius Bernstein hypothesized that a nerve impulse is a "wave of negativity" Theodore Meynert performs histologic analysis of cerebral cortex Francis Galton claims that intelligence is heredity (publication of Hereditary Genius) Eduard Hitzig and Gustav Fritsch discover cortical motor area of dog using electrical stimulation Ernst von Bergmann writes first textbook on nervous system surgery Louis-Antoine Ranvier describes nerve fiber constriction George Huntington describes symptoms of a hereditary chorea Camillo Golgi publishes first work on the silver nitrate method Vladimir Alekseyevich Betz publishes work on giant pyramidal cells Roberts Bartholow electrically stimulates human cortical tissue Carl Wernicke publishes "Der Aphasische Symptomencomplex" on aphasias Sir David Ferrier describes different parts of monkey motor cortex Richard Caton is first to record electrical activity from the brain Claude Bernard describes nerve/muscle blocking action of curare Paul Broca publishes work on the "great limbic lobe"

12 Wilhelm Wundt sets up lab devoted to study human behavior Hermann Munk reports on visual problems after occipital lobe ablation in dogs Sir Victor Horsley describes effects of nitrous oxide anesthesia Emil Kraepelin coins terms neuroses and psychoses Georges Gilles de la Tourette describes several movement disorders World's first Ph.D. in psychology given to Jastrow at Johns Hopkins Sergei Korsakoff describes symptoms characteristic in alcoholics The National Institutes of Health established Santiago Ramon y Cajal argues that nerve cells are independent elements William His coins term dendrite Sir Victor Horsley publishes somatotopic map of monkey motor cortex Wilhelm Ostwald discovers the membrane theory of nerve conduction Wilhelm von Waldeyer coins the term neuron Salomen Eberhard Henschen localizes vision to calcarine fissure Franz Nissl stains neurons with dahlia violet William His first uses the term hypothalamus Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen invents the X-ray Rudolph Albert von Kolliker coins the term axon Kraeplein describes dementia praecox Ivan Petrovich Pavlov publishes work on physiology of digestion John Jacob Abel isolates adrenalin Charles Scott Sherrington coins term synapse C.S. Sherrington describes decerebrate rigidity in cat Edward L. Thorndike describes the puzzle box Francis Gotch describes a "refractory phase" between nerve impulses

13 Julius Bernstein proposes membrane theory for cells Ivan Pavlov coins term conditioned reflex Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon have their first intelligence test Alois Alzheimer describes presenile degeneration Golgi and Cajal-Nobel Prize-Structure of the Nervous System Sir Charles S. Sherrington publishes The Integrative Action of the Nervous system that describes the synapse and motor cortex John N. Langley introduces the concept of receptor molecules V. Horsley and R.H. Clarke design stereotaxic instrument Harvey Cushing is first to electrically stimulate human sensory cortex Korbinian Brodmann describes 52 discrete cortical areas Allvar Gullstrand-Nobel Prize-Optics of the eye Eugen Bleuler coins term schizophrenia Edgar Douglas Adrian publishes work on all-or-none principle in nerve Walter Samuel Hunter devises delayed-response test Robert Barany-Nobel Prize-Vestibular apparatus Henry H. Dale isolates acetylcholine J.G. Dusser De Barenne describes activity of brain after strychnine application Gordon Morgan Holmes localizes vision to striate area Henry Head publishes "Studies in Neurology" Otto Loewi publishes work on Vagusstoff

14 Charles Scott Sherrington discovers the stretch reflex Chester William Darrow studies galvanic skin reflex in US Walter R. Hess reports "affective responses" to hypothalamic stimulation Hans Berger demonstrates first human electroencephalogram Karl Lashley defines "equipotentiality" and "mass action" John Carew Eccles shows central inhibition of flexor reflexes Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska invent the electron microscope Edgar Douglas Adrian and Charles S. Sherrington share Nobel Prize for work son the function of neurons Walter B. Cannon coins the term homeostasis Ralph Waldo Gerard describes first experimental evoked potentials Egas Moniz publishes work on the first human frontal lobotomy Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi share Nobel Prize for work on the chemical transmission between nerves Walter Freeman performs first lobotomy in the United States James Papez publishes work on limbic circuit Massachusetts General Hospital has first EEG laboratory Heinrich Kluver and Paul Bucy publish work on bilateral temporal lobectomies James W. Papez develops "visceral theory" of emotion J.Z. Young suggests that the squid giant axon can be used to understand nerve cells B.F. Skinner publishes "The Behavior of Organisms" that describes operant conditioning

15 Albert Hofmann synthesizes LSD Ugo Cerletti and Lucino Bini treat human patients with electroshock John Raymond Brobeck describes hypothalamic hyperphasia Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser share Nobel Prize for work on the functions of single nerve fiber The American EEG Society is founded A.C.A.F. Egas Moniz-Nobe Prize-Leucotomy to treat certain psychoses G. Moruzzi and H. Magoun publish Brain Stem Reticular Formation and Activation of the EEG Donald O. Hebb publishes The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory Karl Lashley publishes "In Search of the Engram" Eugene Roberts identifies GABA in the brain MAO-inhibitors introduced to treat psychotics A.L. Hodgkin and A.F. Huxley first describe the voltage clamp Eugene Aserinski and Nathaniel Kleitman describe rapid eye movements (REM) during sleep Stephen Kuffler publishes work on center-surround, on-off organization of retinal ganglion cell receptive fields James Olds describes rewarding effects of hypothalamic stimulation Chlorpromazine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration L. Leksell uses ultrasound to examine the brain W. Penfield and T. Rasmussen devise motor and sensory humunculus Oleh Hornykiewicz shows that brain dopamine is lower than normal in Parkinson's disease patients Georg Von Bekesy awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the function of the cochlea

16 John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley share Nobel Prize for work on the mechanisms of the neuron cell membrane Ronald Melzack and Patrick D. Wall publish gate control theory of pain Ragnar Arthur Granit, Halden Keffer Hartline and George Wald share Nobel Prize for work on the mechanisms of vision Society for Neuroscience is founded Julius Axelrod, Bernard Katz and Ulf Svante von Euler share Nobel Prize for work on neurotransmitters C. Hounsfield develops x-ray computed tomography Candace Pert and Solomon Snyder demonstrate opioid receptors in brain Sinemet is introduced as a treatment for Parkinson's disease Konrad Z. Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch share Nobel Prize for work on ethology

17 John Hughes and Hans Kosterlitz discover enkephalin M.E.Phelps, E.J.Hoffman and M.M.Ter Pogossian develop first PET scanner Roger Guillemin and Andrew Victor Schally share Nobel Prize for work on peptides in the brain David Hunter Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel-Nobel Prize-visual system Roger Wolcott Sperry awarded Nobel Prize-functions brain hemispheres Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini awarded Nobel prize for their work on the control of nerve cell growth Fluoxetine (Prozac) introduced as treatment for depression U.S. President George Bush declares the decade starting in 1990 the "Decade of the Brain" Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann share the Nobel Prize for their work on the function of single ion channels Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell share the Nobel Prize for their discovery of G-protein coupled receptors and their role in signal transduction Stanley B. Prusiner awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of prions; a ßnew biological principle of infection Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel share the Nobel Prize for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system Robert Sutherland assumes Directorship of Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience

18 Setting the stage for Brain & Mind Important events in history: Scientific revolution Dualism v. Monism Darwin’s Dangerous Idea The Golden Age of Neuropsychology Ramon y Cajal Antecedents of modern era

19 Scientific Revolution  Scholasticism vs. Empiricism authority vs. direct observation of the phenomena  Mechanism vs. Animism  Falsifiability  Precision, mathematical tools  Openness, peer-review  Skepticism  Parsimony


21 Dualism vs. Monistic Materialism Dualism defined Problems with Cartesian dualism - interaction? - simplicity? de la Mettrie and Hobbes 1700’s

22 Monistic Materialists

23 Four events in the 19th Century paved the way Mind-brain identity evidence - phrenology - brain damaged patients - Broca, Alzheimer, Wernicke Darwin’s theory of evolution

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