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D  Upgrade New Solenoid, Tracking System Si, SciFi,Preshowers Shielding Forward Mini-drift chambers Forward Scintillator Central Scintillator + New Electronics,

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Presentation on theme: "D  Upgrade New Solenoid, Tracking System Si, SciFi,Preshowers Shielding Forward Mini-drift chambers Forward Scintillator Central Scintillator + New Electronics,"— Presentation transcript:

1 D  Upgrade New Solenoid, Tracking System Si, SciFi,Preshowers Shielding Forward Mini-drift chambers Forward Scintillator Central Scintillator + New Electronics, Trig, DAQ

2 Luminosity and cross section l Luminosity is a measure of the beam intensity (particles per area per second) ( L~10 31 /cm 2 /s ) l “integrated luminosity” is a measure of the amount of data collected (e.g. ~100 pb -1 ) cross section  is measure of effective interaction area, proportional to the probability that a given process will occur. i1 barn = 10 -24 cm 2 i1 pb = 10 -12 b = 10 -36 cm 2 = 10 - 40 m 2 l interaction rate:

3 Standard Model l A theoretical model of interactions of elementary particles l Symmetry: –SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) l “Matter particles” –quarks iup, down, charm,strange, top bottom –leptons ielectron, muon, tau, neutrinos l “Force particles” –Gauge Bosons i  (electromagnetic force) iW , Z (weak, elctromagnetic) ig gluons (strong force) l Higgs boson –spontaneous symmetry breaking of SU(2) –mass

4 Standard Model

5 Brief History of the Standard Model l Late 1920’s - early 1930’s: Dirac, Heisenberg, Pauli, & others extend Maxwell’s theory of EM to include Special Relativity & QM (QED) - but it only works to lowest order! 1933: Fermi introduces 1st theory of weak interactions, analogous to QED, to explain  decay. l 1935: Yukawa predicts the pion as carrier of a new, strong force to explain recently observed hadronic resonances. l 1937: muon is observed in cosmic rays – first mistaken for Yukawa’s particle l 1938: heavy W as mediator of weak interactions? (Klein) l 1947: pion is observed in cosmic rays l 1949: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga introduce renormalization into QED - most accurate theory to date! l 1954: Yang and Mills develop Gauge Theories l 1950’s - early 1960’s: more than 100 hadronic “resonances” have been observed ! l 1962 two neutrinos! l 1964: Gell-Mann & Zweig propose a scheme whereby resonances are interpreted as composites of 3 “quarks”. (up, down, strange)

6 Brief History of the Standard Model (continued) l 1970: Glashow, Iliopoulos, Maiani: 4th quark (charm) explains suppression of K decay into  l 1964-1967:spontaneous symmetry breaking (Higgs, Kibble) 1967: Weinberg & Salam propose a unified Gauge Theory of electroweak interactions, introducing the W ,Z as force carriers and the Higgs field to provide the symmetry breaking mechanism. l 1967: deep inelastic scattering shows “Bjorken scaling” l 1969: “parton” picture (Feynman, Bjorken) l 1971-1972: Gauge theories are renormalizable (t’Hooft, Veltman, Lee, Zinn-Justin..) l 1972: high p t pions observed at the CERN ISR 1973: Gell-Mann & Fritzsch propose that quarks are held together by a Gauge-Field whose quanta, gluons, mediate the strong force  Quantum Chromodynamics l 1973: “neutral currents” observed (Gargamelle bubble chamber at CERN)

7 Brief History of the Standard Model (continued) l 1975: J/  interpreted as cc bound state (“charmonium”) l 1974: J/  discovered at BNL/SLAC; 1976:  lepton discovered at SLAC l 1977:  discovered at Fermilab in 1977, interpreted as bb bound state (“bottomonium”)  3rd generation l 1979: gluon “observed” at DESY l 1982: direct evidence for jets in hadron hadron interactions at CERN (pp collider) 1983: W , Z observed at CERN (pp collider built for that purpose) l 1995: top quark found at Fermilab (D0, CDF) l 1999: indications for “neutrino oscillations” (Super- Kamiokande experiment) l 2000: direct evidence for tau neutrino (  ) at Fermilab (DONUT experiment) l 2003: Higgs particle observed at Fermilab (?????) - -

8 Cathode ray history l 1855 German inventor Heinrich Geissler develops mercury pump - produces first good vacuum tubes, these tubes, as l modified by Sir William Crookes, become the first to produce cathode rays, leading eventually to the discovery of the l electron (and a bit farther down the road to television). l 1858 Julius Plücker shows that cathode rays bend under the influence of a magnet suggesting that they are connected in some way; this leads in 1897 to discovery that cathode rays are composed of electrons. l 1865 H. Sprengel improves the Geissler vacuum pump. Plücker uses Geissler tubes to show that at lower pressure, l the Faraday dark space grows larger. He also finds that there is an extended glow on the walls of the tube and that l this glow is affected by an external magnetic field. l 1869 J.W. Hittorf finds that a solid body put in front of the cathode cuts off the glow from the walls of the tube. l Establishes that "rays" from the cathode travel in straight lines.

9 l 1871 C.F. Varley is first to publish suggestion that cathode rays are composed of particles. Crookes proposes that l they are molecules that have picked up a negative charge from the cathode and are repelled by it. l 1874 George Johnstone Stoney estimates the charge of the then unknown electron to be about 10-20 coulomb, close to l the modern value of 1.6021892 x 10-19 coulomb. (He used the Faraday constant (total electric charge per mole of l univalent atoms) divided by Avogadro's Number. James Clerk Maxwell had recognized this method soon after l Faraday had published, but he did not accept the idea that electricity is composed of particles.) Stoney also proposes l the name "electrine" for the unit of charge on a hydrogen ion. In 1891, he changes the name to "electron." l 1876 Eugen Goldstein shows that the radiation in a vacuum tube produced when an electric current is forced through l the tube starts at the cathode; Goldstein introduces the term cathode ray to describe the light emitted. l 1881 Herman Ludwig von Helmholtz shows that the electrical charges in atoms are divided into definite integral l portions, suggesting the idea that there is a smallest unit of electricity.

10 l 1883 Heinrich Hertz shows that cathode rays are not deflected by electrically charged metal plates, which would l seem to indicate (incorrectly) that cathode rays cannot be charged particles. l 1886 Eugen Goldstein observes that a cathode- ray tube produces, in addition to the cathode ray, radiation that travels l in the opposite direction - away from the anode; these rays are called canal rays because of holes (canals) bored in l the cathode; later these will be found to be ions that have had electrons stripped in producing the cathode ray. l 1890 Arthur Schuster calculates the ratio of charge to mass of the particles making up cathode rays (today known as l electrons) by measuring the magnetic deflection of cathode rays. Joseph John (J.J.) Thomson first becomes interested l in the discharge of electricity through a gas a low pressure, that is to say, cathode rays.

11 l 1892 Heinrich Hertz who has concluded (incorrectly) that cathode rays must be some form of wave, shows that the l rays can penetrate thin foils of metal, which he takes to support the wave hypothesis. Philipp von Lenard develops a l cathode-ray tube with a thin aluminum window that permits the rays to escape, allowing the rays to be studied in the l open air. l 1894 J.J. Thomson announces that he has found that the velocity of cathode rays is much lower than that of light. He l obtained the value of 1.9 x 107 cm/sec, as compared to the value 3.0 x 1010 cm/sec for light. This was in response to l the prediction by Lenard that cathode rays would move with the velocity of light. However, by 1897, he distrusts this l measurement. l Special Note: At this time there was great rivalry between German and British researchers. As concerning the nature l of the cathode ray, the Germans tended to the explanation that cathode rays were a wave (like light), whereas the l British tended to believe that the cathode ray was a particle. As events unfold over the next few decades, l both will be l proven correct.

12 l In fact, J.J. Thomson will be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1906 for proving the electron is a particle and his l son, George Paget Thomson, will be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1937 for showing that the electron is a l wave. l 1895 Jean-Baptiste Perrin shows that cathode rays deposit a negative electric charge where they impact, refuting l Hertz's concept of cathode rays as waves and showing they are particles. l 1896 Pieter P. Zeeman discovers that spectral lines of gases placed in a magnetic field are split, a phenomenon call l the Zeeman effect; Hendrik Antoon Lorentz explains this effect by assuming that light is produced by the motion of l charged particles in the atom. Lorentz uses Zeeman's observations of the behavior of light in magnetic field to l calculate the charge to mass ratio of the electron in an atom, a year before electrons are discovered and 15 years l before it is known that electron are constituents of atoms.

13 l 1869: Johann Hittorf (1824-1914) (Münster) –determined that discharge in a vacuum tube was accomplished by the emission of rays ( named “glow rays” by him, later termed “cathode rays”) capable of casting a shadow of an opaque body on the wall of the tube. –rays seemed to travel in straight lines and produce a fluorescent glow where they passed through the glass. –Rays deflected by magnetic field l 1870’s: William Crookes (1832-1919) (London): –detailed investigation of discharges; –Confirms Hittorf’s findings about deflection in magnetic field –Concludes that rays consist of particles carrying negative charge l 1886 - 1887: Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) (Karlsruhe) –Built apparatus to generate and detect electromagnetic waves predicted by Maxwell’s theory iHigh voltage induction coil to cause spark discharge between two pieces of brass; once spark forms conducting path between two brass conductors  charge oscillated back and forth, emitting e.m. radiation iCircular copper wire with spark gap used as receiver; presence of oscillating charge in receiver signaled by spark across the spark gap –Experiment successful – –detected radiation up to 50 ft away –Established that radiation had properties reminiscent of light: was reflected and refracted as expected, could be polarized, speed = speed of light

14 l 1887: Heinrich Hertz: –Unexpected new observation: when receiver spark gap is shielded from light of transmitter spark, the maximum spark-length became smaller –Further investigation showed: iGlass effectively shielded the spark iQuartz did not iUse of quartz prism to break up light into wavelength components  find that wavelength which makes little spark more powerful was in the UV iHertz’ conclusion: “I confine myself at present to communicating the results obtained, without attempting any theory respecting the manner in which the observed phenomena are brought about”

15 l 1888: Wilhelm Hallwachs (1859-1922) (Dresden) –Performs experiment to elucidate effect observed by Hertz: iClean circular plate of Zn mounted on insulating stand; plate connected by wire to gold leaf electroscope iElectroscope charged with negative charge – stays charged for a while; but if Zn plate illuminated with UV light, electroscope loses charge quickly iElectroscope charged with positive charge: iUV light has no influence on speed of charge leakage. –But still no explanation –Calls effect “lichtelektrische Entladung” (light- electric discharge)

16 l 1894: Hertz and Philipp Lenard (1862-1947): –Further investigations of cathode rays using discharge tubes: iCathode rays penetrate through thin Al window ate end of tube, iCause fluorescence over distance of few centimeters in air iDeflected by magnetic field iNo deflection by electric fields (later explained due to insufficiently good vacuum) l 1895: Wilhelm Röntgen (1845-1923) (Würzburg) –Uses discharge tubes designed by Hittorf and Lenard (but improved pump) to verify Hertz’ and Lenard’s experiments –Discovers X-rays -- forget about cathode rays!

17 l Röntgen and X-rays: From Life magazine,6 April 1896 Hand of Anna Röntgen

18 l 1895: Jean Perrin (1870-1942) (Paris): –Modifies cathode ray tube – adds “Faraday cup” which is connected to electrometer –Shows that cathode rays carry negative charge l 1896: Hendrik A Lorentz (1853-1928) (Leiden) –Formulates atomistic interpretation of Maxwell’s equations in terms of electrically charged particles (called “ions” by him) –“Lorentz force” = force exerted by magnetic field on moving charged particles l 1896: Pieter A. Zeeman (1865-1943) (Amsterdam) –Observes broadening of Na D line in magnetic field – measures broadening vs field strength l 1896: Explanation of this effect by Lorentz: ibased on light emitted by “ions” orbiting within Na atom iCalculates expected broadening  f  (e/m)B iBy comparing with measured line broadening, obtains estimate of e/m of “ions” in Na atom: e/m  10 7 emu/g  10 11 C/kg (cf modern value of 1.76x10 C 11 /kg) l 1897: three experiments measuring e/m, all with improved vacuum: –Emil Wiechert (1861-1928) (Königsberg) iMeasures e/m – value similar to that obtained by Lorentz iAssuming value for charge = that of H ion, concludes that “charge carrying entity is about 2000 times smaller than H atom” iCathode rays part of atom? iStudy was his PhD thesis, published in obscure journal – largely ignored –Walther Kaufmann (1871-1947) (Berlin) iObtains similar value for e/m, points out discrepancy, but no explanation –J. J. Thomson

19 l 1897: Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940) (Cambridge) –Improves on tube built by Perrin with Faraday cup to verify Perrin’s result of negative charge –Conclude that cathode rays are negatively charged “corpuscles” –Then designs other tube with electric deflection plates inside tube, for e/m measurement –Result for e/m in agreement with that obtained by Lorentz, Wiechert, Kaufmann, Wien –Bold conclusion: “we have in the cathode rays matter in a new state, a state in which the subdivision of matter is carried very much further than in the ordinary gaseous state: a state in which all matter... is of one and the same kind; this matter being the substance from which all the chemical elements are built up.“

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22 l 1899: J.J. Thomson: studies of photoelectric effect: –Modifies cathode ray tube: make metal surface to be exposed to light the cathode in a cathode ray tube –Finds that particles emitted due to light are the same as cathode rays (same e/m) l 1902: Philipp Lenard –Studies of photoelectric effect iMeasured variation of energy of emitted photoelectrons with light intensity iUse retarding potential to measure energy of ejected electrons: photo-current stops when retarding potential reaches V stop iSurprises: – V stop does not depend on light intensity – energy of electrons does depend on color (frequency) of light

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25 l 1905: Albert Einstein (1879-1955) (Bern) –Gives explanation of observation relating to photoelectric effect: iAssume that incoming radiation consists of “light quanta” of energy hf (h = Planck’s constant, f=frequency) i  electrons will leave surface of metal with energy E = hf – W W = “work function” = energy necessary to get electron out of the metal iWhen cranking up retarding voltage until current stops, the highest energy electrons must have had energy eV stop on leaving the cathode i Therefore eV stop = hf – W i  Minimum light frequency for a given metal, that for which quantum of energy is equal to work function l 1906 – 1916 Robert Millikan (1868-1963) (Chicago) –Did not accept Einstein’s explanation –Tried to disprove it by precise measurements –Result: confirmation of Einstein’s theory, measurement of h with 0.5% precision l 1923: Arthur Compton (1892-1962)(St.Louis): –Observes scattering of X-rays on electrons

26 Neutrino

27 Particle detectors, cont’d l Scintillator: –energy liberated in de-excitation and capture of ionization electrons emitted as light - ``scintillation light'’ –light channeled to photomultiplier in light guide (e.g. optical fibers); –scintillating materials: certain crystals (e.g. NaI), transparent plastics with doping (fluors and wavelength shifters) l proportional tube: – metallic tube with thin wire in center, filled with gas, HV between wall (-, “cathode”) and central wire (+,”anode”);  strong electric field near wire; –charged particle in gas  ionization  electrons liberated; –electrons accelerated in electric field  can liberate other electrons by ionization which in turn are accelerated and ionize  “avalanche of electrons” moves to wire  current pulse; current pulse amplified  electronic signal: – gas is usually noble gas (e.g. argon), with some additives e.g. carbon dioxide, methane, isobutane,..) as “quenchers”;

28 Particle detectors, cont’d l multi wire proportional chamber: –contains many parallel anode wires between two cathode planes (array of prop.tubes with separating walls taken out) – operation similar to proportional tube; – cathodes can be metal strips or wires  get additional position information from cathode signals. l drift chamber: –field shaping wires and electrodes on wall to create very uniform electric field, and divide chamber volume into “drift cells”, each containing one anode wire; –within drift cell, electrons liberated by passage of particle move to anode wire, with avalanche multiplication near anode wire; – arrival time of pulse gives information about distance of particle from anode wire; ratio of pulses at two ends of anode wire gives position along anode wire;

29 Particle detectors, cont’d l Cherenkov detector: –measure Cherenkov light (amount and/or angle) emitted by particle going through counter volume filled with transparent gas liquid, aerogel, or solid  get information about speed of particle. l calorimeter: –“destructive” method of measuring a particle's energy: put enough material into particle's way to force formation of electromagnetic or hadronic shower (depending on kind of particle) – eventually particle loses all of its energy in calorimeter; – energy deposit gives measure of original particle energy. l Note: many of the detectors and techniques developed for particle and nuclear physics are now being used in medicine, mostly diagnosis, but also for therapy.

30 Particle detectors, cont’d l Scintillator: –energy liberated in de-excitation and capture of ionization electrons emitted as light – “scintillation light'’ –light channeled to photomultiplier in light guide (e.g. optical fibers); –scintillating materials: certain crystals (e.g. NaI), transparent plastics with doping (fluors and wavelength shifters) l proportional tube: – metallic tube with thin wire in center, filled with gas, HV between wall (-, “cathode”) and central wire (+,”anode”);  strong electric field near wire; –charged particle in gas  ionization  electrons liberated; –electrons accelerated in electric field  can liberate other electrons by ionization which in turn are accelerated and ionize  “avalanche of electrons” moves to wire  current pulse; current pulse amplified  electronic signal: – gas is usually noble gas (e.g. argon), with some additives e.g. carbon dioxide, methane, isobutane,..) as “quenchers”;

31 Particle detectors, cont’d l multi wire proportional chamber: –contains many parallel anode wires between two cathode planes (array of prop.tubes with separating walls taken out) – operation similar to proportional tube; – cathodes can be metal strips or wires  get additional position information from cathode signals. l drift chamber: –field shaping wires and electrodes on wall to create very uniform electric field, and divide chamber volume into “drift cells”, each containing one anode wire; –within drift cell, electrons liberated by passage of particle move to anode wire, with avalanche multiplication near anode wire; – arrival time of pulse gives information about distance of particle from anode wire; ratio of pulses at two ends of anode wire gives position along anode wire;

32 Particle detectors, cont’d l Cherenkov detector: –measure Cherenkov light (amount and/or angle) emitted by particle going through counter volume filled with transparent gas liquid, aerogel, or solid  get information about speed of particle. l calorimeter: –“destructive” method of measuring a particle's energy: put enough material into particle's way to force formation of electromagnetic or hadronic shower (depending on kind of particle) – eventually particle loses all of its energy in calorimeter; – energy deposit gives measure of original particle energy. l Note: many of the detectors and techniques developed for particle and nuclear physics are now being used in medicine, mostly diagnosis, but also for therapy.


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