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MASCULINITIES. Ken doll Cod-piece (Giovanni Baptista Moroni, 1565) Cod-piece (Giovanni Baptista Moroni, 1565)

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Presentation on theme: "MASCULINITIES. Ken doll Cod-piece (Giovanni Baptista Moroni, 1565) Cod-piece (Giovanni Baptista Moroni, 1565)"— Presentation transcript:

1 MASCULINITIES

2 Ken doll

3 Cod-piece (Giovanni Baptista Moroni, 1565) Cod-piece (Giovanni Baptista Moroni, 1565)

4 men

5 men 2

6 men 3

7 men 4

8 Asymmetry between the study of femininity and masculinity „Woman has ovaries, a uterus; these peculiarities imprison her within the limits of her own nature. It is often said that she thinks with her glands. Man superbly ignores the fact that his own anatomy also includes glands, such as testicles, and that they secrete hormones. He thinks of his body as a direct and normal connection with the world, which he believes he apprehends objectively, whereas he regards the body of woman as a hindrance, a prison, weighed down by everything peculiar to it.” (Simone de Beauvoir)

9 Men’s studies - „Men’s lib” Robert Bly: Iron John (Vasjankó) 1990 „soft men” – „deep masculinity”

10 Masculinity as a social construction Normative ideas of manliness Masculinity: - plural - historically changing - relational Codes of masculinity ~ gender boundaries Implicated in other discourses (race, class, nationality) white man / Asian / black man

11 Hegemonic masculinity (William Connell) Hegemony: not the same as total, absolute rule

12 Edward Poynter: The Catapult

13 Ideals of courage, self/denial, toughness, aggressivity Libido dominandi (Pierre Bourdieu) “Boys don’t cry”

14 „If we live in a ‘man’s world’, it is not a world that has been built upon the needs and nourishment of men. Rather, it is a social world of power and subordination in which men have been forced to compete if we want to benefit from our inherited masculinity” (Victor Seidler)

15 „our culture cruelly constrains [men], in varying degree, to be the bearers of a gender identity that deforms and harms them as much as it damages women” (Cynthia Cockburn)

16 Men’s Dress Reform Party 1931

17 The male machine is a special kind of being, different from women, children, and men who don’t measure up. He is functional, designed mainly for work... His most important positive reinforcement is victory. He has armour plating which is virtually impregnable... The male stereotype makes masculinity not just a fact of biology but something that must be proved and re-proved, a continual quest for an ever-receding Holy Grail (Marc Feigen Fasteau: The Male Machine,1974)

18 Masculinity is not simply a position of power that puts men in comfortable positions of control... If we understand masculinity as a constant contradictory struggle rather than just the privileged position within a power disequilibrium, we come closer to a full understanding of gender studies (Peter N. Stearns: Be a Man! Males in Modern Society, 1990)

19 Masculinity (gender) as construction - Psychological construction for each individual - Social construction, set of ideas, practices, images

20 Masculinity as a psychological construction Freud: Oedipus complex, Oedipal rivalry Alfred Adler (1910s): inferiority complex – anxiety – (over)compensation: aggressivity anxiety – (over)compensation: aggressivity Karen Horney, Melanie Klein: breast envy Couvade syndrome (sympathetic male pregnancy)

21 Masculinity as a social construct Victorian masculinities Early Vict.: formless male energy – needs curtailing, harnessing: discipline, self/denial, labour, soldiering Classical (Roman) heroes Ascetic, monastic ideal (masculinity as the repression of male energies) Chivalric ideal

22 David: Oath of the Horatii

23 Frank Dicksee: Chivalry

24 Normative heterosexuality vs powerful male bonding (homosociality) (homosociality) Fantasies of worlds without women: Public school, university, club, colonies, exploration, shipboard life, army, sport Jekyll and Hyde Later Victorian period: cult of male body (degeneration fears, Empire, racism) Spartan virility Muscular Christianity Soldier hero Athleticism, physical culture (rise of sports)

25 „Athletics vs. Aesthetics” Illustrated London News, 1882

26 W. Frank Calderon: Son of the Empire

27 Charles Spencelayh: Dreams of Glory 1900

28 Collinson: The Siege of Sebastopol

29 Lord Baden- Powell’s book (1908)

30 Besides boy scouts, there are also peace scouts... the frontiersmen of all parts of our Empire. The ’trappers’ of North America, hunters of Central Africa, the British pioneers, explorers, and missionaries over the wild parts of the world, – all are peace scouts, real men in every sense of the word, and thoroughly up in scoutcraft, i. e. they understand living out in the jungles,... they know how to look after their health when far away from doctors, are strong and plucky, and ready to face any danger, and always keen to help each other. They are accustomed to take their lives in their hands, and to fling them down without hesitation if they can help their country by doing so. They give up everything, their personal comforts and desires in order to get their work done. They do not do all this for their own amusement, but because it is their duty to their King, fellow- countrymen, or employers. The history of the Empire has been made by British adventurers and explorers, the scouts of the nation… The Knights of King Arthur, Richard Coeur de Lion, and the Crusaders, carried British chivalry into distant parts of the earth. (Lord Robert Baden-Powell, Scouting for Boys, 1908)

31 Frederick Leighton: Daedalus and Icarus

32 Eugen Sandow

33

34 John Singer Sargent: Gassed

35 Hard-boiled thriller, film noir (Raymond Chandler) Humphrey Bogart

36 Hans Suren: Men and the Sun

37 Arno Breker’s sculptures

38 Josef Thorak: Kameradschaft(Camaraderie) „This century is ours And we shall live In the full beauty of our Manhood” (Theo Lang, British Union of Fascists, 1935)

39 Body building is „the dream of physical perfection and the agonies you go through to attain it” (Arnold Schwarzenegger: Pumping Iron, 1976)

40 The idea of Arnold Scwarzenegger „Dominant fiction calls upon the male subject to see himself... only through the mediation of unimpaired masculinity” (Kaja Silverman, Male Subjectivity at the Margins 1992)

41 Marlon Brando in The Streetcar named Desire

42 Louis XIV and his shapely legs

43 „Is that what a man looks like?” (Tyler Durden in Fight Club)

44 The S-curve (line of beauty) The S-curve (line of beauty)

45

46

47 Burt Reynolds in Cosmo, 1972

48 Titian: Venus of Urbino


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