Presentation on theme: "Rockets and how they work"— Presentation transcript:
1 Rockets and how they work By Jan-Erik RønningenNorwegian Rocket Technology[ ][ ]Version:
2 Contents Rocket history Rocket Principle Fundamental Rocket Elements The Solid Propellant RocketThe Liquid Propellant RocketThe Hybrid Rocket Motor
3 Rocket History 1The Chinese is claimed by many to be the inventor of the black powder (about 200 B.C) and thus the rocketsNewer findings indicate that it is India that should be honored insteadHowever, old Chinese documents describe long tradition in making various black powder charges for use in firecrackers and rockets mostly for frighten bad spirits during religious happenings and during various festivals and celebrations.The Chinese also developed rockets and flame torches to be used in combat against their main enemy, the Mongols.
4 Rocket History 2The Arabs learned the art of rocketry from the Mongols and the Europeans from the Arabs.The Europeans developed the rocket technology further, i.e. between the 14th and 16th century:A English munch named Roger Beacon improved the black powder prescription for use as rocket propellant, fire crackers and for use in canons.A French man improved the hit accuracy of his artillery rockets by launching them from tubes.An Italian (Fontana) experimented with rocket powered surface torpedoes which could ran into the cavalry or set ships on fire. One successfully did!!
5 Rocket History 3The interest of the rocket as a weapon went into a hibernation during the 17th century, mainly because of the poor accuracy compare to the more accurate and destructive canon. Further improvements were necessary.A new dawn of rocketry appeared during the 18th century and especially some hundred years after Sir Isacc Newton had published his famous three laws.During the 19th and 20th century many men were to become well know: Ziolkowsky, Hermann Oberth, Robert H. Goddard, Eugen Sänger, Werner von Braun, Korolev and many more
6 Rocket History 4Apollo 11 and Neil Armstrong –First man on the Moon20. July 1969After the WWII the race for space between USA and former Soviet escalated and accelerated the development of rocket technology to what we know and use today.Vostok 1 and Yuri A, Gagarin –First man in space12. April 1961Sputnik I – World first artificial satellite launched 4. October 1957
7 The Rocket Principle 1 Newtons 2. law: Newtons 3. law: force = opposite force
8 The Rocket Principle 2A chemical rocket is a reaction device that brings with itself the oxygen needed for combustion and thus for generating thrust for positive propulsion
9 Rocket Elements – Main Parts VciteFVtVeConvergent Divergentsection sectionc : chamberi : entrancet : throate : exitV: velocity
10 Rocket Elements - Thrust Ambient PressureAmbient PressureExit PressureFAmbient Pressure
24 The Liquid Propellant Rocket PARAMETERCHARACTERISTIC VALUE RANGESpecific Impulse [m/s]Burn Rate [mm/s]N.AChamber Pressure [MPa]2-10Combustion Efficiency [-]Thrust to Weight RatioLowThrottle?EasyStop and Restart?Lifetime?Very Long (> 10 years)
28 Pressurized Nitrogen or Helium The Hybrid RocketPressurized Nitrogen or HeliumStart/stop Valve and pressureregulatorValve ElectronicsCheck ValveInjector“Mixing” ZoneSolid GrainFlow Valve and Regulatorwith control electronicsLiquidNozzleCombustion Chamber
29 The Hybrid Rocket PARAMETER CHARACTERISTIC VALUE RANGE Specific Impulse [m/s]Regression rate [mm/s]0.2-5Chamber Pressure [MPa]2-5Combustion Efficiency [-]Thrust to Weight RatioMediumThrottle?EasyStop and Restart?Lifetime?Very Long (>10 years)
30 The Hybrid Rocket Combustion Principle – The Candle Light Gas (H, C) LiquidAir AirParaffin Wax