Presentation on theme: "Rockets and how they work By Jan-Erik Rønningen Norwegian Rocket Technology [ ["— Presentation transcript:
Rockets and how they work By Jan-Erik Rønningen Norwegian Rocket Technology [ email@example.com ]firstname.lastname@example.org [ www.rocketconsult.no ]www.rocketconsult.no Version: 1.30 2008
Contents Rocket history Rocket Principle Fundamental Rocket Elements The Solid Propellant Rocket The Liquid Propellant Rocket The Hybrid Rocket Motor
Rocket History 1 The Chinese is claimed by many to be the inventor of the black powder (about 200 B.C) and thus the rockets Newer findings indicate that it is India that should be honored instead However, old Chinese documents describe long tradition in making various black powder charges for use in firecrackers and rockets mostly for frighten bad spirits during religious happenings and during various festivals and celebrations. The Chinese also developed rockets and flame torches to be used in combat against their main enemy, the Mongols.
Rocket History 2 The Arabs learned the art of rocketry from the Mongols and the Europeans from the Arabs. The Europeans developed the rocket technology further, i.e. between the 14th and 16th century: A English munch named Roger Beacon improved the black powder prescription for use as rocket propellant, fire crackers and for use in canons. A French man improved the hit accuracy of his artillery rockets by launching them from tubes. An Italian (Fontana) experimented with rocket powered surface torpedoes which could ran into the cavalry or set ships on fire. One successfully did!!
Rocket History 3 The interest of the rocket as a weapon went into a hibernation during the 17th century, mainly because of the poor accuracy compare to the more accurate and destructive canon. Further improvements were necessary. A new dawn of rocketry appeared during the 18th century and especially some hundred years after Sir Isacc Newton had published his famous three laws. During the 19th and 20th century many men were to become well know: Ziolkowsky, Hermann Oberth, Robert H. Goddard, Eugen Sänger, Werner von Braun, Korolev and many more
Rocket History 4 After the WWII the race for space between USA and former Soviet escalated and accelerated the development of rocket technology to what we know and use today. Sputnik I – World first artificial satellite launched 4. October 1957 Apollo 11 and Neil Armstrong – First man on the Moon 20. July 1969 Vostok 1 and Yuri A, Gagarin – First man in space 12. April 1961
The Rocket Principle 1 Newtons 2. law: Newtons 3. law: force = opposite force
The Rocket Principle 2 A chemical rocket is a reaction device that brings with itself the oxygen needed for combustion and thus for generating thrust for positive propulsion
Rocket Elements – Main Parts Convergent Divergent section t e i c VeVe VtVt VcVc c : chamber i : entrance t : throat e : exit V: velocity F
Rocket Elements - Thrust Ambient Pressure Exit Pressure F
The Liquid Propellant Rocket PARAMETERCHARACTERISTIC VALUE RANGE Specific Impulse [m/s]2500-3800 Burn Rate [mm/s]N.A Chamber Pressure [MPa]2-10 Combustion Efficiency [-]0.95-0.98 Thrust to Weight RatioLow Throttle?Easy Stop and Restart?Easy Lifetime?Very Long (> 10 years)
The Hybrid Rocket Nozzle Combustion Chamber Pressurized Nitrogen or Helium Start/stop Valve and pressure regulator Valve Electronics Check Valve Solid Grain “Mixing” ZoneInjector Liquid Flow Valve and Regulator with control electronics
The Hybrid Rocket PARAMETERCHARACTERISTIC VALUE RANGE Specific Impulse [m/s]2100-3200 Regression rate [mm/s]0.2-5 Chamber Pressure [MPa]2-5 Combustion Efficiency [-]0.90-0.95 Thrust to Weight RatioMedium Throttle?Easy Stop and Restart?Easy Lifetime?Very Long (>10 years)
The Hybrid Rocket Combustion Principle – The Candle Light Air Air Paraffin Wax Liquid Gas (H, C)