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The Relevance and Impact of Reflective Learning Research Rick Holden Liverpool Business School Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop,

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Presentation on theme: "The Relevance and Impact of Reflective Learning Research Rick Holden Liverpool Business School Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Relevance and Impact of Reflective Learning Research Rick Holden Liverpool Business School Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, October 2012

2 Part One: A glimpse of the (fragmented) research landscape Part Two: HRD and RL Research: a viewpoint

3 The RL Research Landscape: 3 problematic facets 1.What is it we are researching ? “Reflection can mean all things to all people” (Smyth, 1992) reflective learning; reflective practice; reflexivity (Cunliffe, 2004, 2009 ; Lipp, 2007; Bleakley, 1999) strategies to develop and enhance or a capability in practice ( Holden and Griggs, 2011; Boud and Hager, 2010) technical competence or professional artistry (Boud and Hager, 2010; Schon, 1987;) ‘everyday’ reflection v ‘critical’ reflection (Thompson and Pascal, 2012; Bain et al, 1999; Moon, 1999;) a defining feature of professional practice ?(CIPD, 2012; Schon, 1983) a process that is integral to work ?(Bradbury, 2010 ; Vince and Reynolds, 2008) a process owned by professional bodies?academics ? communities of practice ? individuals ? (CIPD, 2012; Morrall, 2010; Kotzee, 2010) Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, October 2012

4 2. The Formal Teaching and Learning of Reflective Learning Understanding the challenge: context (e.g curriculum constraints (Valentin, 2007, ) the ‘training’ agenda (Morrall, 2010); cross cultural contexts (Blackburn et al 2012; Richardson, 2004; Turner, 2006; rationale / purpose (problem solving ? (Schon, 1987); professional practice ?(Bradbury, 2010); personal development ? (Cowan, 1998); emotional orientation ? (Moon, 2004) engagement (e.g resistance to writing reflectively (Griggs and Holden, Samkin and Francis, 2008; Grant et al, 2006) approach and techniques (e.g. progression through levels (Bain et al, 1999; Moon, 1999); a repertoire of reflective activities (Schon, 1983); time and space, (Corley and Eades, 2004) assessment (e.g. appropriate ? (Betts, 2004); faking it ? (Hobbs, 2007) ethics (e.g confidentiality and privacy (Finlay, 2008); entering the ‘dark side’ (Brookfield, 1994); trust (Brockbank and McGill, 2007) Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, October 2012

5 3. Impact Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, October 2012

6 3. Impact Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, October 2012

7 A bit unfair….? We do have evidence of successful (?) practice both within HE e.g. Mann et al, 2007; Stewart et al, 2008; Clegg, 2009; Griggs and Holden, 2010; Callaghan, 2012; Rae and Rowland, 2012 and work e.g. Brockbank et al 2002; Mann et al, 2007 But generally speaking, in relation to the theory (and purported benefits) of reflective practice and its actual practice, empirical data is in short supply…. At a time when the discourse of evidence based practice holds such sway there is very little in the way of research that robustly demonstrates its effectiveness (Cole, 2010, London NHS Trust) Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, October 2012

8 Part Two A role for HRD research on Reflective Learning and Reflective Practice ? Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, October 2012

9 Time to pack our bags! – A waste of time ? – Too difficult ?…just what is it we are looking for ? – Chances of useful outcomes limited ? – Research likely to be viewed as unrealistic in today’s harsh working environment… ‘thinking’ just a box to be ticked – CPD as managed by CIPD mechanistic and superficial ? – Other professions have ‘cornered’ the market Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, October 2012

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11 A case for a re-energised role Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, October 2012

12 A re-energised role - utilise the HRD expertise in ‘learning’ - are we not the natural gatekeepers of development and cpd ? - the criticisms as regards evidence of impact are universal Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, October 2012

13 An agenda… Address the gap between theory and practice in reflective practice within HR/HRD Transfer: a priority Be collaborative…enhancing credibility Seek to overcome the separation of ‘university’ and ‘work’ Encourage a critical engagement from the profession (CIPD) Explore the HRD role vis other professions Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, October 2012

14 References Bain, J., Ballantyne, R., Packer, J. & Mills, C. (1999). Using journal writing to enhance student teachers’ reflectivity during field experience placements. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 5(1), 51-74 Betts, J (2004), Theology, therapy or picket line? What’s the good of reflective practice in management education?, Reflective Practice, 5(2) Blackburn, M., Holden, R. and Burrell, C., 20102, Teaching critical reflection in sub-saharan Africa: business as usual ? 13th International Conference on HRD Research and Practice Across Europe, Universidade Lusiada de Vila Nova de Familicao, May, 2012 Bleakley, A., 1999, From reflective practice to holistic reflectivity, Studies in Higher Education, 24: 3 Boud, D. and Hager, P. (2010) Conceptualising continuing professional development: compliance, pedestrianism and decontextualisation of richer notions of learning and practice? Paper presented to the Fourth Professional Lifelong Learning conference, 11 January, University of Leeds Bradbury. H., Frost, N., Kilminster, S. and Zukas, M. (eds) (2010) Beyond Reflective Practice: new approaches to professional lifelong learning Abingdon, Routledge Brockbank, A. and McGill, I., (2007), Facilitating reflective learning in higher education, London, Sage Publications Brookfield, S., 1994, Tales from the dark side: a phenomenography of adult critical reflection, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 13: 3 Callaghan,J., 2012, The Courageous Resistance Project, 13th International Conference on HRD Research and Practice Across Europe, Universidade Lusiada de Vila Nova de Familicao, May, 2012 Chartered Institute for Personnel Development, What is Reflective Learning? http://www.cipd.co.uk/cpd/aboutcpd/reflectlearn.htm Chartered Institute for Personnel Development, What is CPD? http://www.cipd.co.uk/cpd/aboutcpd/whatiscpd.htmhttp://www.cipd.co.uk/cpd/aboutcpd/whatiscpd.htm Chartered Institute for Personnel Development, The Thinking Performer concept, http://www.cipd.co.uk/about/profstands/thinkingperformer.htmhttp://www.cipd.co.uk/about/profstands/thinkingperformer.htm Clegg, S. Reflecting on Reflective Practice: The experience of using journals with research awards supervisors Cole, M., Rescuing reflection from Reflective Practice: defining the key skills in reflexivity for health care professionals, Paper presented to the Fourth Professional Lifelong Learning conference, 11 January, University of Leeds Corley, A. and Eades, E., (2004), Becoming critically reflective practitioners: academics and students’ reflections on the issues involved, Human Resource Development International, 7(1) Cowan, J. (1998), On Becoming an Innovative University Teacher, Oxford University Press Cunliffe, A. and Easterby-Smith, 2004, From reflection to practical reflexivity: experiential learning as lived experience, in Reynolds, M and Vince, R. Organizing Reflection, AshgateFrom reflection to practical reflexivity: experiential learning as lived experience Cunliffe, A. (2003)`Reflexive enquiry in Organisational Research: Questions and Possibilities’, Human Relations, 56, (8), pp. 983-1003 Finlay, L., 2008, Reflecting on ‘Reflective practice’, PBPL paper 52 A discussion paper prepared for PBPL CETL (www.open.ac.uk/pbpl. Francis, H. and Cowan, J. 2008,. Fostering an action-reflection dynamic amongst student practitioners. Journal of European Industrial Training, 32, no. 5: 336-346 Grant, A., Kinnersley,P., Metcalf, E., Pill, R. and Houston, H. (2006), Students’ views of reflective learning techniques: an efficacy study at a UK medical school, Medical Education, 40 Griggs, V. and Holden, R. (2010) “Not another learning log”, A research enquiry into the teaching of reflective learning within a professional human resource management programme, University Forum for Human Resource Development, Available from Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, University of Portsmouth, October 2012

15 Hobbs, V., (2007) Faking it or hating it: can reflective practice be forced?, Reflective Practice, 8(3) Holden, R. and Griggs, V. (2011), Not more learning logs! A research based perspective on teaching reflective learning within HR professional education, Human Resource Development International, 14 (4) Kotzee, B., 2010, Private Practice: Schon and the missing social dimension, Paper presented to the Fourth Professional Lifelong Learning conference, 11 January, University of Leeds Lipp, A. 2007 Developing the Reflexive Dimension of Reflection: A framework for debate International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 1 (1) Mann, K., Gordon, J. and MacLeod, A., 2007, Reflection and reflective practice in health professions: a systematic review, Advances in Health Science Education, 14, 595 - 621 Moon, J. 1999, Reflection in Learning and Prtofressional Development, Kogan Page Moon, J. (2004), A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning, Routledge Morrall, P. (2010) Liberating Thinking in Professional Learning; Paper presented to the Fourth Professional Lifelong Learning conference, 11 January, University of Leeds Rae, J. and Rowland, H. 2012, Using the Arts in Teaching Reflective Practice: A case study, 13th International Conference on HRD Research and Practice Across Europe, Universidade Lusiada de Vila Nova de Familicao, May, 2012 Richardson, P., (2004) Possible influences of Arabic-Islamic culture on the reflective practices proposed for an education degree at the Higher Colleges of Technology in the United Arab Emirates, International Journal of Educational Development, 24 (4)- Samkin, G. and Francis, G., 2008, Introducing a learning portfolio in an undergraduate financial accounting course, Accounting Education, 17 (3) Schön D (1983) The reflective practitioner, Basic Books: New York Schon, D., 1987, Educating the Reflective Practitioner, Josey-Bass Smyth, J. (1992) Teachers’ work and the politics of reflection. American Educational Research Journal, 29, 267-300. Stewart,J., Keegan, A. and Stevens,P., (2008) Postgraduate education to support organisation change: a reflection on reflection, Journal of European Industrial Training, 32 (5) Thompson, N. and Pascall, J. 2012, Developing critically reflective practice, Reflective Practice, 13: 2 Turner, Y., (2006), Chinese students in a UK Business School: hearing the student voice in reflective teaching and learning practice, Higher Education Quarterly, 60 (1) Valentin, C., (2006) How can I teach critical management in this place ? A critical pedagogy for HRD: possibilities, contradictions and compromises, in Rigg, R., Stewart., and Trehan,K. (eds) Critical Human Resource Development: beyond orthodoxy, Prentice Hall Vince, R., & Reynolds, M. (2008). Organizing Reflective Practice Organization Learning, Knowledge and Capabilities Conference (April 28 – 30 ) Rick Holden, Liverpool Business School, UFHRD Workshop, October 2012


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