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American Society and Economy First Half 19 th Century.

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Presentation on theme: "American Society and Economy First Half 19 th Century."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Society and Economy First Half 19 th Century

2 Themes Transformations: Agriculture, Transportation, Industry and Urbanization American Society: Religion and Reform Era

3 Population Patterns U.S. Population: -1790: 4 million: most east of Appalachians -1840: 17 million; 1/3 west of Appalachians People are slowly but surely migrating west Population grew in parts of “Old Northwest” to establish farms - Included states of: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota

4 Farm Economy Most initially practiced subsistence agriculture Men: Heavy work, like clearing land and plowing Women: Many different chores (often endless) Women began to sell eggs, butter, cheese, and other goods to supplement income

5 Commercial Farming and Old Northwest The Old Northwest became the center for American agriculture Western farms had more room to grow unlike the east Western farms also benefited from newer technologies: - McCormick Reaper (1840s) - John Deere Steel Plow (1837)

6 Impact of Commercial Farming Debt increased among farmers -Financial Panic of 1819 and 1837 which hurt many as credit tightened Farmers were impacted by outside market forces (politics)

7 Old Southwest Territory Commercial farming and technology also impacted “Old Southwest” - Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Tennessee and Arkansas Settlement increased tremendously in mid 1820s and 1830s when cotton became the leading U.S. export The South became the world’s largest supplier of cotton

8 Old Southwest It was the invention of the cotton gin in 1793 by Eli Whitney Led to the cotton boom in the south Easy separation of seeds from cotton Demand for high slave labor

9 Transportations Changes (Canals) People pre 1820s moved place to place by horseback or boats down the river Steamboats transformed transportation of goods and people via rivers Canals made transporting western goods more practical Increase in canal construction

10 New York’s Erie Canal (1825) Linked Hudson River to Lake Erie 360 miles long 8 years to build Cost - $7 million

11 Transportation Changes (Railroads) Large boom in railroad construction in 1850s

12 Railroads (1850)

13 Rise of Industry Lowell, Massachusetts was important center for textile manufacturing (wool) Production in cloth increased from 4 million to 323 million yards between 1817 to 1843 This began a movement to purchase ready- made clothing rather than making it themselves

14 Rise of Industry 80% of factory workers in Lowell and Waltham textile mills were female Long hours and hot, humid conditions were common Many women could not ask for breaks out of fear of being fired Owners – maximize profit

15 Rise of Industry In 1844, Samuel F.B. Morse demonstrated the potential of his telegraph by transmitting a series of dots and dashes that instantly conveyed an electronic message By 1861, more than 5,000 miles of wire stretched across the continent to the Pacific Ocean, often alongside railroad tracks

16 Urbanization With the rise of industry a large amount of the population began to migrate towards industrial boom towns Urbanization led to large towns that were not necessarily sea ports By 1860 eight cities had populations over 100,000 New York City’s population reached 800,000 by 1860 Large inequality between rich and poor living in cities

17 Gap between Rich and Poor Boston - In 1833 the richest 4% owned 59% of city’s wealth New York - in 1828 the richest 4% owned half the city’s wealth

18 Immigrants and Persecution Immigrants, looking for work, often faced persecution Many of them being Irish Catholics who were persecuted daily by the pro-protestant majority Native-born workers were resentful and believed large immigrant populations led to lower wages Signs in front of factories read: - “NO IRISH NEED APPLY”

19 Immigration in America Many immigrants being Irish and Germans influenced the growth of the industrial North The majority of European immigrants arrived in the U.S. in the 1850s

20 Second Great Awakening Began in New England in 1790s, but spread across the country in 1820 & 1830s Camp meeting became common: - Large audiences listened to many different preachers - Speakers called on worshipers to ask for forgiveness and prepare for the Second Coming The average attendance for services were in the thousands

21 Second Great Awakening Charles Finney: - Former lawyer and gifted speaker who received a sign from God - Advocated that anyone could achieve salvation - Unlike Jonathon Edwards, human nature wasn’t necessarily dominated by sin - Led Americans to reform and improve their society as a whole

22 Religious and Utopian Communities ( 1800 – 1845) Religion: Shakers Numbered about 6,000 and established several communities Goal: become self-sufficient Well-known for their furniture and handicrafts The movement peaked between

23 Era of Reform There were many other groups attempting to improve society: - Temperance - Public Education - Opposition of Slavery - Women’s Rights

24 Alcohol and Temperance By the late 1820s, alcohol abuse was a major problem in the U.S. A male drank 1 ½ pint of liquor each day Religious leaders saw it as immoral Factory owners were concerned about productivity and quality due to drunkenness

25 Alcohol and Temperance The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance began in 1826: - founded by Lyman Beecher, a minister who had been influenced by 2 nd Great Awakening - Encouraged abstinence pledges - Lobbied states for prohibition of alcohol Compared to the 1820s, rates of alcohol consumption dropped in half by 1840s In 1836, leaders renamed the group the American Temperance Union

26 Public Education For many years public education was considered a family’s responsibility and not required Horace Mann became a leading reformer in Massachusetts and the United States Mann: 1 st Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education in 1837

27 Public Education (Mann’s Reforms in Massachusetts) School attendance became mandatory Curriculum was standardized and emphasized practical education (not classics) Many states adopted reforms and schools not only educated children, but helped immigrants as well

28 Opposition to Slavery Quakers, after the American Revolution, advocated abolition of slavery American Colonization Society Gradual emancipation of slaves with compensation for slave owners - Former slaves would be transported to Africa (Liberia) - Slavery was wrong, yet blacks were still inferior to whites. Both races cannot live side by side

29 American Colonization Society (1817) Joseph Jenkins Roberts, former slave, became first President of Liberia About 12,000-15,000 migrated to Liberia Capital city: Monrovia was named after James Monroe

30 American Colonization Society (1817) Paul Cuffe provided ships and money to former slaves hoping to travel to Liberia Not many slaves earned their freedom; it was too expensive to compensate slaver owners Many former slaves had no desire to live in Africa because many of them were born in the U.S.

31 Opposition to Slavery Black abolitionists were active as well: - David Walker and Fredrick Douglass Whites such as William Lloyd Garrison joined the abolition movement In 1831, Garrison wrote The Liberator, which called for the immediate abolition of slaves and the brutality of the South Women: Angelina Grimke was born to a slaveholding family She and her sister spoke to anti-slavery audiences encouraging them to join the movement

32 Opposition to Slavery (Nat Turner’s Rebellion) Nat Turner Rebellion 1831 Location: Southampton, VA A slave named Nat Turner led a rebellion of slaves and killed over 60 white men, women, and children Turner and 16 slaves are captured and executed Whites went all around the countryside killing any blacks they encountered and beheaded them

33 Women’s Rights Margaret Fuller received an education in the classics Wrote women should be allowed to develop their own intellectual abilities Other women’s rights advocates included Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

34 Women’s Rights Seneca Falls Convention (1848) - led by Stanton in New York - Women lacked rights to own property and vote - Declaration of Sentiments: “All men and women are created equal”

35 Review Ideas to consider: - Which transformations had the most impact on the nations development - Which reform movement was most successful?


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