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Landscape Ecology & Ecosystem Management Photo of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania from Wikimedia Commons.

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Presentation on theme: "Landscape Ecology & Ecosystem Management Photo of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania from Wikimedia Commons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Landscape Ecology & Ecosystem Management Photo of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania from Wikimedia Commons

2 The study of the causes & consequences of landscape-level (i.e., intermediate- to large-scale) ecological patterns Landscape Ecology Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.5, after Tinker et al. (2003) Landscape Ecology E.g., Lodgepole pine stand age classes (stand ages since last major fire- disturbance) in Yellowstone National Park

3 An area in which at least one landscape element is spatially heterogeneous and in which the elements form a dynamic mosaic of interacting ecosystems Landscape Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.5, after Tinker et al. (2003) Landscape Ecology E.g., Lodgepole pine stand age classes (stand ages since last major fire- disturbance) in Yellowstone National Park

4 Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.5, after Tinker et al. (2003) Landscape Ecology E.g., forest stands, bogs, meadows, lakes, streams, etc. Landscape Elements E.g., Lodgepole pine stand age classes (stand ages since last major fire- disturbance) in Yellowstone National Park

5 Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.5, after Tinker et al. (2003) Landscape Ecology The kinds & relative proportions of elements or patches in a landscape Landscape Composition E.g., Lodgepole pine stand age classes (stand ages since last major fire- disturbance) in Yellowstone National Park

6 Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.5, after Tinker et al. (2003) Landscape Ecology The physical configuration of landscape elements, e.g., patch size distributions, patch dispersion, patch shapes, patch connectivity / isolation, etc. Landscape Structure E.g., Lodgepole pine stand age classes (stand ages since last major fire- disturbance) in Yellowstone National Park

7 Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.6, after Turner et al. (2001) E.g., landscape elements in Yellowstone National Park Grain – the size of the smallest homogeneous unit; determines resolution Scale

8 Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.6, after Turner et al. (2001) Extent – the area (or time period) encompassed by a study Scale E.g., landscape elements in Yellowstone National Park

9 E.g., Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Manaus, Brazil) Habitat Loss & Fragmentation Photo of a forest fragment, surrounded by newly created cattle pasture in Brazil

10 NASA false-color remotely sensed image of the confluence of Río Negro & Río Solimões (Amazon) E.g., Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Manaus, Brazil) Habitat Loss & Fragmentation

11 NASA false-color remotely sensed image of BDFFP E.g., Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Manaus, Brazil) Habitat Loss & Fragmentation

12 Edge effects – negative effects of a habitat edge on interior conditions Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig

13 Figure from Laurance et al. (2006) PNAS Some species can only inhabit the interior or core, and some are specifically attracted to the edge Habitat Loss & Fragmentation Edge effects – negative effects of a habitat edge on interior conditions

14 Habitat Loss & Fragmentation Edge effects – negative effects of a habitat edge on interior conditions Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. Analyzing Data 24.1, after Laurance et al. (2002) Conservation Biology

15 Habitat Loss & Fragmentation Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig Loss & fragmentation of U. S. old-growth forests; note how fragmentation increases the ratio of edge:core

16 Design Principles for Protected Areas Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig , after Diamond (1975) & Williams et al. (2005)

17 Design Principles for Protected Areas Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig , after Tewksbury et al. (2002) PNAS Corridors facilitated movement between patches Corridors facilitated pollination between patches

18 Adaptive Ecosystem Management or Restoration Management treated as an experiment Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig


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