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Landscape Ecology & Ecosystem Management

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Presentation on theme: "Landscape Ecology & Ecosystem Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Landscape Ecology & Ecosystem Management
Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Wikipedia “Ngorongoro Conservation Area” page; accessed 2-XII-2014 [By [Thomas Huston] (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons] Photo of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania from Wikimedia Commons

2 Landscape Ecology The study of the causes & consequences of landscape-level (i.e., intermediate- to large-scale) ecological patterns E.g., Lodgepole pine stand age classes (stand ages since last major fire-disturbance) in Yellowstone National Park Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Tinker, D. B., W. H. Romme & D. G. Despain Historic range of variability in landscape structure in subalpine forests of the Greater Yellowstone Area, USA. Landscape Ecology 18: Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.5, after Tinker et al. (2003) Landscape Ecology

3 dynamic mosaic of interacting ecosystems
Landscape An area in which at least one landscape element is spatially heterogeneous and in which the elements form a dynamic mosaic of interacting ecosystems E.g., Lodgepole pine stand age classes (stand ages since last major fire-disturbance) in Yellowstone National Park Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Tinker, D. B., W. H. Romme & D. G. Despain Historic range of variability in landscape structure in subalpine forests of the Greater Yellowstone Area, USA. Landscape Ecology 18: Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.5, after Tinker et al. (2003) Landscape Ecology

4 E.g., forest stands, bogs, meadows, lakes, streams, etc.
Landscape Elements E.g., forest stands, bogs, meadows, lakes, streams, etc. E.g., Lodgepole pine stand age classes (stand ages since last major fire-disturbance) in Yellowstone National Park Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Tinker, D. B., W. H. Romme & D. G. Despain Historic range of variability in landscape structure in subalpine forests of the Greater Yellowstone Area, USA. Landscape Ecology 18: Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.5, after Tinker et al. (2003) Landscape Ecology

5 Landscape Composition
The kinds & relative proportions of elements or patches in a landscape E.g., Lodgepole pine stand age classes (stand ages since last major fire-disturbance) in Yellowstone National Park Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Tinker, D. B., W. H. Romme & D. G. Despain Historic range of variability in landscape structure in subalpine forests of the Greater Yellowstone Area, USA. Landscape Ecology 18: Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.5, after Tinker et al. (2003) Landscape Ecology

6 Landscape Structure The physical configuration of landscape elements,
e.g., patch size distributions, patch dispersion, patch shapes, patch connectivity / isolation, etc. E.g., Lodgepole pine stand age classes (stand ages since last major fire-disturbance) in Yellowstone National Park Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Tinker, D. B., W. H. Romme & D. G. Despain Historic range of variability in landscape structure in subalpine forests of the Greater Yellowstone Area, USA. Landscape Ecology 18: Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.5, after Tinker et al. (2003) Landscape Ecology

7 Scale Grain – the size of the smallest homogeneous unit;
determines resolution E.g., landscape elements in Yellowstone National Park Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Turner, M. G., R. H. Gardner & R. V. O’Neill Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice: Pattern and Process. Springer Verlag, New York. Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.6, after Turner et al. (2001)

8 Extent – the area (or time period) encompassed by a study
Scale Extent – the area (or time period) encompassed by a study E.g., landscape elements in Yellowstone National Park Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Turner, M. G., R. H. Gardner & R. V. O’Neill Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice: Pattern and Process. Springer Verlag, New York. Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 24.6, after Turner et al. (2001)

9 Habitat Loss & Fragmentation
E.g., Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Manaus, Brazil) Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Photo of a forest fragment, surrounded by newly created cattle pasture in Brazil

10 Habitat Loss & Fragmentation
E.g., Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Manaus, Brazil) Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. NASA false-color remotely sensed image of the confluence of Río Negro & Río Solimões (Amazon)

11 Habitat Loss & Fragmentation
E.g., Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Manaus, Brazil) Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. NASA false-color remotely sensed image of BDFFP

12 Habitat Loss & Fragmentation
Edge effects – negative effects of a habitat edge on interior conditions Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig

13 Habitat Loss & Fragmentation
Edge effects – negative effects of a habitat edge on interior conditions Some species can only inhabit the interior or core, and some are specifically attracted to the edge Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Here, we used a strategic, stratified set of 40 of the BDFFP’s 66 1-ha study plots… Laurance, William F., Henrique E. M. Nascimento, Susan G. Laurance, Ana Andrade, José E. L. S. Ribeiro, Juan Pablo Giraldo, Thomas E. Lovejoy, Richard Condit, Jerome Chave, Kyle E. Harms & Sammya D’Angelo Rapid decay of tree-community composition in Amazonian forest fragments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: Figure from Laurance et al. (2006) PNAS 13

14 Habitat Loss & Fragmentation
Edge effects – negative effects of a habitat edge on interior conditions Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Laurance, W. F. et al Ecosystem decay of Amazonian forest fragments: A 22-year investigation. Conservation Biology 16: Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. Analyzing Data 24.1, after Laurance et al. (2002) Conservation Biology

15 Habitat Loss & Fragmentation
Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Habitat loss & fragmentation is not just a tropical phenomenon! Loss & fragmentation of U. S. old-growth forests; note how fragmentation increases the ratio of edge:core Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig

16 Design Principles for Protected Areas
Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. See Reed Noss’s “core natural areas” = “where nature can operate in its own way in its own time” (Noss et al. 1999); see textbook pg. 559. Diamond, J. M The island dilemma: Lessons of modern biogeographic studies for the design of natural reserves. Biological Conservation 7: Williams, J. C., C. S. ReVelle & S. A. Levin Spatial attributes and reserve design models: A review. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 10: Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig , after Diamond (1975) & Williams et al. (2005)

17 Design Principles for Protected Areas
Corridors facilitated movement between patches Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Tewksbury, J. J. et al Corridors affects plants, animals, and their interactions in fragmented landscapes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99: Corridors facilitated pollination between patches Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig , after Tewksbury et al. (2002) PNAS

18 Adaptive Ecosystem Management or Restoration
Management treated as an experiment Please do not use the images in these PowerPoint slides without permission. Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig


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