3 Session ObjectivesBy the end of this session, participants will be able to:Describe the role of theory in social work practiceDescribe the importance of integrating theory and practice in social work field education.Identify activities that can be used to promote students’ understanding of social work theories and how they can be applied in the field setting.
4 The Field PracticumThe Heart ofSocial WorkEducation
5 Field education as the “Signature Pedagogy” “Field education is where it all comes together”(Marion Bogo, 2013)
6 Field education as the “Signature Pedagogy” Field is where:Students are socialized into the professionKnowledgeSkillsValuesPractice competence is evaluatedBogo (2013)
7 CSWE Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards “In social work, the signature pedagogy is field education.The intent of field education is to connect the theoreticaland conceptual contribution of the classroom with thepractical world of the practice setting.”(CSWE, 2008)
8 Accreditation Standard 2.1.1 “The program discusses how its field education program …2.1.1 Connects the theoretical and conceptual contribution of the classroom with the practice setting, fostering the implementation of evidence-informed practice .”(CSWE, 2008)
9 Elements of Evidence-Based Practice Research EvidenceClinical ExperienceDecisionClient Values & Preferences
10 The Evidence-based Social Work Practice Ask specific questions that are of practical value to clientsSearch for the current best evidenceHonor the values and concerns of the clientApply your professional skill andcommon sensebased on Gibbs (2003).
11 TheoryExplanatory Theory: Seeks the answer, “Why?” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5O11_Ma20Rk
13 What is a theory?A theory is a set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions, and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena.Fred Kerlinger
14 “Theorizing”“the process of systematically formulating and organizing ideas to understand a particular phenomenon.”(Doherty, Boss, LaRossa, Schumm, & Steinmetz, 1993, p. 20)
15 Conceptual models Act as guides for assessment Focus attention on certain concepts& their relationshipswithin a specific context
17 Concept“Concepts are abstractions representing logical descriptions of reality that a discipline develops to describe the phenomena with which it is dealing”Francis Turner, 1996, p. 2-3
18 Functions of theory in clinical practice Can help explain and predict phenomenaBrings order to our practiceHelps answer questions relevant to clinical practiceHelps practitioners recognize patterns and relationships that guide decision-making.Brings order to complexity(Turner, 2011, p.9-10)
19 Functions of theory in clinical practice Serves as a foundation for the treatment planning and discharge process.Aids in anticipating outcomes“Helps us to carry knowledge from one situation to the next”Allows for our approach to be tested and evaluatedHelps us to identify gaps in knowledge(Turner, 2011, p.9-10)
20 Arnold Lazarus: The BASIC ID BehaviorAffectSensationImageryCognitionInterpersonalDrugs & Biology
28 Family-Centered Intervention Family Systems TherapyStructural Family TherapyStrategic Family TherapyExperiential Family TherapyNarrative Family TherapySolution-Focused Family TherapyCollaborative Family Therapy
29 Social Theory Ecological Systems (Life Model) Symbolic Interactionism Role TheoryConflict TheoryFeminist TheoryStructural FunctionalismRational Choice TheoryInterest Group TheoryDifferential Association
30 Good Theory Gives order to complexity Organizes and gives meaning to the factsTestableParsimoniousBroad in ScopeGenerates creativityGuides action
31 Case Conceptualization Aaron Beck describes how theory assists the therapist to develop an approach to intervention :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SJ2J9um-nMABeck Institute: https://www.beckinstitute.org
32 Case Conceptualization Organizes and gives meaning to the factsExplains adaptive behavior as well as sources of challenge or distress.Provides a hypothesis of what might happen in the future.Video:
33 Theories to guide social work practice BehavioralCognitiveEmpowerment ApproachPsychoanalytic TheoryPsychosocial TheoryRole TheoryTask Centered Social WorkProblem-Solving Theory
36 Brief summary of a theory or model Main authorsHistory and applicationAssumptionsDefine Key ConceptsApproach to Assessment & InterventionEmpirical Evidence
37 Critical Thinking How well does the author define the terms? How adequate were the cited research studies?How reliable is the information?Have conflicting interpretations been cited?How have value preferences been represented in the presentation?
39 Integrating Theory and Practice How can you help students to make the connection?
40 Making the Connection Reflection Assignments Describe the relevance of the concept or theory to the caseReflect on how the case progressed(What happened before, during & after?)Explore the Context and Cultural factorsConnection with course contentChallenging- push to see things in new waysImpact on client, communityCoach thru transformationContext and CultureFocused questionsHow is it supported?Commuication opportunities
41 Making the connection Journaling Portfolio “Brown bag” discussions regarding articlesCase conferencesSupervision sessionsAssignments: Theory chartCase conceptualization/formulation
42 Information for Practice The NYU School of Social Work hosts a website that is constantly updated with a wide range of articles, videos, and systematic reviews:
43 21st Century trends Theoretical Integration (“Common factors”) Case ConceptualizationTransdiagnostic treatmentEmpirically validated assessment instrumentsEmphasis on ongoing evaluation(time series)
44 21st Century Trends 6. Increased use of technology: Computer assisted assessments,Hand held devices/Monitors/Electronic diariesBrief screening instruments.Holistic approachesEvidence informed practiceTrull, Mitchell, & Prinstein (2013)
45 Information for Practice The NYU School of Social Work hosts a website that is constantly updated with a wide range of articles, videos, and systematic reviews:
46 EBP Steps: 1. Ask the clinical question 2. Collect the most relevant & best evidenceCritically appraise the evidenceSelect the best intervention appropriate for your specific client
48 Evidence Based Social Work Practice Evidence based practitioners adopt a process of life-long learningPlacing the client’s benefits firstContinually posing specific questionsthat are of practical importance to clients(Leonard E. Gibbs, 2003)
49 Evidence-based practice Searching objectively and efficiently for the current best evidence relative to each question, andTaking appropriate action guided by evidenceLeonard E. Gibbs, 2003
51 References Bogo, M. (2013). Achieving competence in social work through field education. Toronto: University of TorontoPress.Cody, N. & Lehmann, P. (Eds.) (2008). Theoreticalperspectives for direct social work practice. (2nd ed.).New York, NY: Springer.Roberts, A. R. (Ed.). (2009). Social workers’ desk reference.(2nd ed.) New York, NY: Oxford.Turner, F.J. (2011). Social work treatment: Interlockingtheoretical approaches. New York, NY: OxfordUniversity Press.
52 Today’s Session You are able to: Describe the role of theory in social work practiceDescribe the importance of integrating theory and practice in social work field education.Identify activities that can be used to promote students’ understanding of social work theories and how they can be applied in the field setting.