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Integration of Theory and Practice

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1 Integration of Theory and Practice
Kevin Brown, Ph.D. Field Instructor Training UCF School of Social Work 2015

2

3 Session Objectives By the end of this session, participants will be able to: Describe the role of theory in social work practice Describe the importance of integrating theory and practice in social work field education. Identify activities that can be used to promote students’ understanding of social work theories and how they can be applied in the field setting.

4 The Field Practicum The Heart of Social Work Education

5 Field education as the “Signature Pedagogy”
“Field education is where it all comes together” (Marion Bogo, 2013)

6 Field education as the “Signature Pedagogy”
Field is where: Students are socialized into the profession Knowledge Skills Values Practice competence is evaluated Bogo (2013)

7 CSWE Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards
“In social work, the signature pedagogy is field education. The intent of field education is to connect the theoretical and conceptual contribution of the classroom with the practical world of the practice setting.” (CSWE, 2008)

8 Accreditation Standard 2.1.1
“The program discusses how its field education program … 2.1.1 Connects the theoretical and conceptual contribution of the classroom with the practice setting, fostering the implementation of evidence-informed practice .” (CSWE, 2008)

9 Elements of Evidence-Based Practice
Research Evidence Clinical Experience Decision Client Values & Preferences

10 The Evidence-based Social Work Practice
Ask specific questions that are of practical value to clients Search for the current best evidence Honor the values and concerns of the client Apply your professional skill and common sense based on Gibbs (2003).

11 Theory Explanatory Theory: Seeks the answer, “Why?” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5O11_Ma20Rk

12 What is a theory?

13 What is a theory? A theory is a set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions, and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena. Fred Kerlinger

14 “Theorizing” “the process of systematically formulating and organizing ideas to understand a particular phenomenon.” (Doherty, Boss, LaRossa, Schumm, & Steinmetz, 1993, p. 20)

15 Conceptual models Act as guides for assessment
Focus attention on certain concepts & their relationships within a specific context

16 Social Science Models Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive
Crisis /Family Stress-Resilience Humanist Ecological Radical/ Critical

17 Concept “Concepts are abstractions representing logical descriptions of reality that a discipline develops to describe the phenomena with which it is dealing” Francis Turner, 1996, p. 2-3

18 Functions of theory in clinical practice
Can help explain and predict phenomena Brings order to our practice Helps answer questions relevant to clinical practice Helps practitioners recognize patterns and relationships that guide decision-making. Brings order to complexity (Turner, 2011, p.9-10)

19 Functions of theory in clinical practice
Serves as a foundation for the treatment planning and discharge process. Aids in anticipating outcomes “Helps us to carry knowledge from one situation to the next” Allows for our approach to be tested and evaluated Helps us to identify gaps in knowledge (Turner, 2011, p.9-10)

20 Arnold Lazarus: The BASIC ID
Behavior Affect Sensation Imagery Cognition Interpersonal Drugs & Biology

21 Social Science Models Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive
Crisis /Family Stress-Resilience Humanist Ecological Radical/ Critical

22 Theory The theory helps the student to Focus Map the situation
Develop direction

23 Types of Theory Explanatory Theory Answers the question, “Why?”
Intervention Theory Answers the question, “What can we do to bring about change?”

24 Generalist Practice Psychosocial Casework Crisis Intervention
Strengths Perspective Motivational Interviewing Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change Case Management/Task-Centered Casework

25 Intervention Approaches
Psychodynamic Adlerian Interpersonal Therapy Humanistic Gestalt

26 Intervention Approaches
Behavior Therapy Cognitive Therapy Cognitive Behavioral/ REBT Dialectical Behavior Therapy Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

27 Intervention Approaches
Solution Focused Therapy Collaborative Therapy Narrative Therapy

28 Family-Centered Intervention
Family Systems Therapy Structural Family Therapy Strategic Family Therapy Experiential Family Therapy Narrative Family Therapy Solution-Focused Family Therapy Collaborative Family Therapy

29 Social Theory Ecological Systems (Life Model) Symbolic Interactionism
Role Theory Conflict Theory Feminist Theory Structural Functionalism Rational Choice Theory Interest Group Theory Differential Association

30 Good Theory Gives order to complexity
Organizes and gives meaning to the facts Testable Parsimonious Broad in Scope Generates creativity Guides action

31 Case Conceptualization
Aaron Beck describes how theory assists the therapist to develop an approach to intervention : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SJ2J9um-nMA Beck Institute: https://www.beckinstitute.org

32 Case Conceptualization
Organizes and gives meaning to the facts Explains adaptive behavior as well as sources of challenge or distress. Provides a hypothesis of what might happen in the future. Video:

33 Theories to guide social work practice
Behavioral Cognitive Empowerment Approach Psychoanalytic Theory Psychosocial Theory Role Theory Task Centered Social Work Problem-Solving Theory

34 Activities for Students

35 Class assignments

36 Brief summary of a theory or model
Main authors History and application Assumptions Define Key Concepts Approach to Assessment & Intervention Empirical Evidence

37 Critical Thinking How well does the author define the terms?
How adequate were the cited research studies? How reliable is the information? Have conflicting interpretations been cited? How have value preferences been represented in the presentation?

38 Activities in Field

39 Integrating Theory and Practice
How can you help students to make the connection?

40 Making the Connection Reflection Assignments
Describe the relevance of the concept or theory to the case Reflect on how the case progressed (What happened before, during & after?) Explore the Context and Cultural factors Connection with course content Challenging- push to see things in new ways Impact on client, community Coach thru transformation Context and Culture Focused questions How is it supported? Commuication opportunities

41 Making the connection Journaling Portfolio
“Brown bag” discussions regarding articles Case conferences Supervision sessions Assignments: Theory chart Case conceptualization/formulation

42 Information for Practice
The NYU School of Social Work hosts a website that is constantly updated with a wide range of articles, videos, and systematic reviews:

43 21st Century trends Theoretical Integration (“Common factors”)
Case Conceptualization Transdiagnostic treatment Empirically validated assessment instruments Emphasis on ongoing evaluation (time series)

44 21st Century Trends 6. Increased use of technology:
Computer assisted assessments, Hand held devices/Monitors/ Electronic diaries Brief screening instruments. Holistic approaches Evidence informed practice Trull, Mitchell, & Prinstein (2013)

45 Information for Practice
The NYU School of Social Work hosts a website that is constantly updated with a wide range of articles, videos, and systematic reviews:

46 EBP Steps: 1. Ask the clinical question
2. Collect the most relevant & best evidence Critically appraise the evidence Select the best intervention appropriate for your specific client

47 Steps in Evidence-Based Practice
Step 1 Ask Question Step 2 Search Step 3 Appraise Step 4 Select Intervention Step 5 Implement Intervention Step 6 Monitor & Evaluate

48 Evidence Based Social Work Practice
Evidence based practitioners adopt a process of life-long learning Placing the client’s benefits first Continually posing specific questions that are of practical importance to clients (Leonard E. Gibbs, 2003)

49 Evidence-based practice
Searching objectively and efficiently for the current best evidence relative to each question, and Taking appropriate action guided by evidence Leonard E. Gibbs, 2003

50 Steps in Evidence-Based Practice
Step 1 Ask Question Step 2 Search Step 3 Appraise Step 4 Select Intervention Step 5 Implement Intervention Step 6 Monitor & Evaluate

51 References Bogo, M. (2013). Achieving competence in social work
through field education. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Cody, N. & Lehmann, P. (Eds.) (2008). Theoretical perspectives for direct social work practice. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer. Roberts, A. R. (Ed.). (2009). Social workers’ desk reference. (2nd ed.) New York, NY: Oxford. Turner, F.J. (2011). Social work treatment: Interlocking theoretical approaches. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

52 Today’s Session You are able to:
Describe the role of theory in social work practice Describe the importance of integrating theory and practice in social work field education. Identify activities that can be used to promote students’ understanding of social work theories and how they can be applied in the field setting.


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