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2 ALBATROSS EXPERIENCE Pay careful attention to what you observe

3 WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY? Anthropology is the study of human behavior. It includes four broad fields – cultural/social anthropology, linguistics, physical anthropology and archaeology. Each of the four fields teaches distinctive skills, such as applying theories and employing research methodologies, formulating and testing hypotheses and developing extensive sets of data. Reference: American Anthropological Association, 2011; http:/

4 ANTHROPOLOGY AIMS TO ANSWER: What does it mean to be human? Why do people behave in particular ways? What are historical and environmental pressures that helped shape the experiences and behavior of a specific group of people? What are the universal facts of human life? Reference: American Anthropological Association, 2011;http:/

5 CULTURE Our focus is on the cultural/social field of anthropology This is where the concern of education lies Cultural anthropologists study behaviors, customs and beliefs that people attain as members of society (Barret, 1984) Culture is a body of learned beliefs and traditions that guide behavior-Key word is LEARNED (Barret, 1984). Reference: Barret, R. A. (1984). Culture and conduct : An excursion in anthropology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

6 PARADIGMS SOCIAL/CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY Post-Colonialism (Leslie) Structural-functionalism (Carla) Symbolic Anthropology (Sharon)

7 Anthropology archaeologyphysical cultural/social Post-colonialism -Frantz Fanon, Aimé Césaire -Edward Saïd -Gayatri Spivak Structural- functionalism -Alfred Radcliffe-Brown -Bronislaw Malinowski Symbolic -Clifford Geertz -Victor Turner Cultural/Social Paradigms linguistics Sociology roots -Emile Durkheim -Max Weber

8 POST-COLONIALISM the study of the interactions between European nations and the societies they colonized in the modern period By WWI, Europe (England, France, Germany) controlled over 85% of the world. After WWII, this colonization began to disintegrate, which led to postcolonial literature, philosophy, theory, criticism Sources: Emory Univ.:;; Brown Univ.: www.postcolonialweb.org

9 WHO WAS COLONIZED? Africa by end of WWI Colonies in 1945 Decolonization after 1945

10 POST-COLONIALISM FIGURES Myelproductions.c om Gayatri Spivak, 1942- Born in India Revived the term “subaltern” oppressed, minority groups – presence is crucial to self- definition by colonizers Edward Saïd, 1935-2003 Born in Palestine Wrote about “Orientalism” (study of the East by the West) Says Orientalism is suspect because it is written as an outside view, for the benefit of the West

11 POST-COLONIALISM FIGURES Aimé Césaire, 1913-2008 Born in Martinique Poet, author, politician One of the founders of the négritude movement Wrote about the cultural identity of black Africans in the colonial setting Frantz Fanon,1925-1961 Born in Martinique Supporter of Algerian independence and championed decolonization

12 LINGERING PROBLEMS OF COLONIZATION Whose language should be used in society? Language as social and cultural capital (Brock- Utne, 2001) Failure of the “African Miracle ” – Western government doesn’t work in many African countries; brings despair (Livingston, 2009) The term “Third World” automatically conjures ideas of inferiority (Coronil, 1996)

13 QUESTIONS POST-COLONIALISM CONSIDERS How did the experience of colonization affect those who were colonized while also influencing the colonizers? What traces have been left by colonial education, science and technology in postcolonial societies? How did colonial education and language influence the culture and identity of the colonized? Are new forms of imperialism replacing colonization and how? Should the writer use a colonial language to reach a wider audience or return to a native language more relevant to groups in the postcolony? Source:; Brock-Utne (2001) Education for All; Comaroff & Comaroff (2003) Graphic:

14 STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONALISM, RADCLIFFE-BROWN Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Birmingham, England (1881-1955). Influenced by Emile Durkheim Developed the structural- functional approach to anthropology-Sociology roots Conducted extensive research on the Andaman Islands-Rituals References: Radcliffe-Brown, A.F., (1948). The andaman islanders. Glencose, IL: Free Press. Chilcott, J.H. (1998). Structural- functionalism as a heuristic device. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 29(1), 103-111. Homas, G. C. (1941). Anxiety and ritual: The theories of Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown. American Anthropologist, 43(2), 164-172.

15 RADCLIFFE-BROWN Radcliffe-Brown ‘s structural functionalism claimed: T he rules of conduct within a society lead to a social structure consisting of defined roles. As these roles are enacted, they contribute to maintaining the social structure. Social structure is the arrangement of persons in relation to each other. Basic premise: Society can be viewed as a system of mutually interdependent parts Social organization is the arrangement of activities of two or more people Culture functions to meet the needs of society as a whole Reference: Chilcott, J.H. (1998). Structural-functionalism as a heuristic device. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 29(1), 103-111.

16 STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONALISM, MALINOWSKI Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942), Polish Anthropologist. Influenced by Emile Durkheim. Known as the father of the founder of Social Anthropology, father of the functionalist school Trobriand Islands- Ethnography “Writing about the tribe/nation” ---Participant observation

17 MALINOWKSI Ethnocentrism, by contrast, evaluates other’s beliefs in comparison to your own. This increases the likelihood of cultural misunderstandings. Believed that anthropologists must have daily contact with their subjects to fully understand their culture. Malinowski’s structural-functionalism stressed: Culture functions to meet the needs of individuals rather than society as a whole. When the needs of individuals are met, the needs of the larger society are met. References: Malinowski, B. (1944). A Scientific Study of Culture. Chapel Hill: UNC Press. Gregory, K. L. (1983). Native-view paradigms: Multiple cultures and culture conflicts in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28 (3), 359-376.

18 MYTH “Malinowksi argued that myths serve primarily to support social institutions” (Peacock, p. 998). He gained support for this argument through his ethnography of the Trobrianders. Reference: Peacock, J. L. (1981). Durkheim and the social anthropology of culture. Social Forces, 59(4), 996-1008.

19 SYMBOLIC ANTHROPOLOGY Emerged in the early 1960s Rooted in psychoanalysis and sociology of knowledge Tendency to focus on myth and ritual Inclined toward qualitative, thick description Two major strands: Clifford Geertz, University of Chicago Victor Turner, Cornell

20 SYMBOLIC ANTHROPOLOGY Clifford Geertz (August 23, 1926 – October 30, 2006) Influenced by Max Weber and Sigmund Freud Culture is embodied in public symbols Symbols are vehicles for communication and meaning His question: “How [do] symbols shape the ways social actors see, feel, and think about the world” Reference: Ortner, S. B. (1984). Theory in anthropology since the sixties. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 26(1), 126-166. Retrieved from

21 SYMBOLIC ANTHROPOLOGY Victor Turner (May 28, 1920 – December 18, 1983) Influenced by Emile Durkheim, Max Gluckman, and Sigmund Freud Interested in ritual analysis and the predictive value of drama Symbols are operators producing social transformations (pragmatic dimension)

22 SYMBOLIC ANTHROPOLOGY Convergence with cognitive anthropology Both can be termed “microanthropology,” i.e., an interest in process rather than structure Neither has a strong theoretical framework Linguistic theory brings greater precision to both Reference: Colby, B. N., Fernandez, J. W., & Kronenfeld, D. B. (1981). Toward a convergence of cognitive and symbolic anthropology. American Ethnologist, 8(3), 422-450. Retrieved from

23 SYMBOLIC ANTHROPOLOGY Intent is to find meaning through cultural symbols, including myth and ritual Problems Rich symbols are multi-layered Which meaning is relevant? Are all meanings equally important? Emerging practice: use linguistic tools to analyze cultural symbols in the form of metaphors, etc.


25 APPLICATIONS TO EDUCATION Ethnographic research-observations and interviews Important in understanding different cultures Individuals have different constructs of reality Students must make sense of their environment “Teachers can recognize, as Malinowski did, that the introduction of a new element into the system requires adjustments to be made throughout the whole system” (Chilcott, p. 107) Reference: Chilcott, J.H. (1998). Structural-functionalism as a heuristic device. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 29(1), 103-111.

26 APPLICATIONS TO EDUCATION Educational phenomena is examined in a cross- cultural framework Anthropologists, like educators, try to place behaviors in comparative cross-cultural settings “The branches of archaeology are dedicated to participant observation. Participant observation is central to anthropological approaches to education” (Harrington, p. 327-328). Anthropological approaches take a very broad view of education. “Education must encompass both formal and informal learning” (Harrington, p. 328). Reference: Harrington, C. (1982). Anthropology and education: Issues from the issues. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 13(4), 323-335.

27 APPLICATIONS TO EDUCATION Cultural transmission-can be understood as an anthropological definition of education Examines the ways values and behaviors are taught within a specific society or culture How does a culture transmit itself from generation to generation? How do individuals adjust to change? Cultural transmission studies of formal education focus on schools and classrooms Schooling is only one type of cultural transmission

28 APPLICATIONS TO EDUCATION Individuals are seen as members of certain groups They learn which actions and beliefs are acceptable- encultured School teaches us how to mesh with society We LEARN to behave in ways that others expect us to “Structural-functionalism provides tools for the social structures that mediate between larger society and individual choices. This paradigm also shows us that choices are controlled by social contexts” (Harrington, 330). Reference: Harrington, C. (1982). Anthropology and education: Issues from the issues. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 13(4), 323-335.

29 APPLICATIONS TO EDUCATION Symbolic anthropology applies to organizations, like school divisions, buildings, and classrooms However, these cultures are embedded in a wider system Organization is maintained through symbols of shared meaning and shared reality How do interpretations of symbol relate to action? Leadership in organizations can be described as the management of meaning References: Hannerz, U. (1986). Theory in anthropology: Small is beautiful? The problem of complex cultures. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 28, 362-367. Retrieved from Smircich, L. (1983). Concepts of culture and organizational analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2(3), 339-358. Retrieved from



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