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1 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: 1408032090.

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Presentation on theme: "1 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: 1408032090."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning THE CULTURAL CONTEXT OF IHRM Chapter 2

2 2 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 2  Vocabulary  Objectives  Definitions of culture  Intro to cross-cultural management research  The Hofstede study  The GLOBE study  The Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner study  Hall & Hall’s cultural dimensions  The development of cultures THE CULTURAL CONTEXT OF IHRM

3 3 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning  Culture as defined by: Kluckhohn & Kroeber, Hansen, Schein  artefacts, values, underlying assumptions  cross-cultural management  Hofstede: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, femininity vs. masculinity, individualism vs. collectivism, long-term orientation Confucianism, Confucianism dynamics  GLOBE: ingroup, in-group collectivism vs. institutional collectivism organizational culture, national culture, gender egalitarianism, assertiveness, performance orientation, humane orientation  Trompenaars, & Hampden-Turner: universalism vs. particularism, communitarianism, neutral vs. emotional, diffuse vs. specific, ascriptive vs. achievement, sequential vs. synchronic time, internal vs. external control  Hall & Hall: high vs. low context, spatial orientation, polychrome vs. monochrome time Vocabulary

4 4 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Learn these key findings and themes: 1.Definitions of culture 2.Cultural concepts 3.Results of various intercultural mgmt. studies: Hofstede, GLOBE, Trompenaars, & others 4.Reflections on cross-cultural mgmt. research 5.Development of cultures Objectives

5 5 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Definitions of culture

6 6 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Kluckhohn & Kroeber def. of culture  Thinking  Feeling  Reacting acquired & transmitted mainly by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artefacts; The essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas & their attached values Culture consists in patterned ways of

7 7 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Hansen’s 4 elements of culture: Standardization of 1.Communication 2.Thought 3.Feeling 4.Behavior

8 8 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Schein’s concept of culture A culture has 3 levels: 1.Artefacts - visible 2.Values – intermediate level of consciousness 3.Underlying assumptions –invisible, unconscious

9 9 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Schein’s 6 underlying assumptions 1.Nature of reality & truth 2.Time dimension 3.Effect of spatial proximity & distance 4.Nature of being human 5.Type of human activity 6.Nature of human relationships

10 10 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Intro to cross-cultural mgmt. research

11 11 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Goals of cross-cultural mgmt. studies  Describe  Compare  Explain & improve interaction between employees, customers, suppliers or business in different countries & cultures organizational behavior between countries & cultures

12 12 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning The Hofstede study

13 13 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Hofstede’s 5 culture dimensions 1.Power distance 2.Uncertainty avoidance 3.Femininity vs. masculinity 4.Individualism vs. collectivism 5.Confucianism or long-term orientation

14 14 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Long-term cultures characterized by:  Great endurance, persistence in pursuing goals  Position of ranking based on status  Adaptation of traditions to modern conditions  Respect of social & status obligations within limits  High savings rates & high investment activity  Readiness to subordinate oneself to a purpose  The feeling of shame

15 15 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Short-term cultures characterized by:  Personal candor & stability  Avoiding loss of face  Respect of social & status obligations without consideration of costs  Low savings rates & low investment activity  Expectations of quick profit  Respect for traditions  Greetings, presents & courtesies based on reciprocity

16 16 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Hofstede study: Power distance & individualism vs. collectivism Figure 2.1

17 17 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Impact of the cultural context on HRM practices Table 2.1 Chapter 2

18 18 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Future Hofstede-style research issues  Realization of cross-level studies Consider groups, organizations, & country levels  Inclusion of cross-cultural differences Consider intracultural variance  Inclusion of theoretically relevant moderators Consider sex, class affiliation, etc.  Interaction between variables

19 19 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning The GLOBE study

20 20 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning The GLOBE study questions  Are there leadership behaviors, attributes & org. practices effective across all cultures?  Are there leadership behaviors, attributes & org. practices effective in some cultures only?  How much do leadership attributes affect the effectiveness of specific leadership behavior & its acceptance by subordinates?  How much do behaviors & attributes in specific cultures influence the well-being of members in the researched societies?  What is the relationship between these socio-cultural variables & an international competitive capacity of the various sample societies?

21 21 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning GLOBE’s 8 culture dimensions 1.Institutional collectivism 2.In-group collectivism 3.Uncertainty avoidance 4.Power distance 5.Gender egalitarianism 6.Assertiveness 7.Performance orientation 8.Humane orientation

22 22 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning The Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner study

23 23 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Chapter 2 7 dimensions of Trompenaars & H-T study a Relationships between people 1.Universalism vs. particularism 2.Individualism vs. communitarianism 3.Emotional vs. neutral 4.Specific vs. diffuse 5.Ascription vs. achievement Concept of time6.Sequential vs. synchronic concept of time Concept of nature7.Internal vs. external control

24 24 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Hall & Hall’s cultural dimensions

25 25 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Hall & Hall’s 4 dimensions 1.High vs. low context communication 2.Spatial orientation actual distance between people when communicating 3.Monochrome vs. polychrome time sequential processes vs. parallel actions 4.Information speed high or low information flow during communication

26 26 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning The development of cultures

27 27 of 27 Chapter 2 For use with International Human Resource Management 6e By Peter J. Dowling, Marion Festing, and Allen D. Engle. Sr. ISBN-10: © Cengage Learning Cultures change There is increasing 1.International connectedness 2.Global economy coordination 3.Harmonization of laws & regulations 4.Migration Cultures are not confined to given territories. This means new challenges for HRM.  How resistant are cultures to change?  Generation Y are fast, self-organized & absorbed learners with distinct work-life balance preferences  Entire society workforces are aging


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