Presentation on theme: "Inheritance of Genetic Traits"— Presentation transcript:
1Inheritance of Genetic Traits Genetic DisordersInheritance of Genetic Traits
2Gregor Mendel1866Gregor Mendel published the results of his investigations of the ________ of "factors" in ____ plants.
3Rosalind Franklin1950's.Maurice Wilkins (1916- ), Rosalind Franklin ( ), Francis H. C. Crick (1916- ) of Britain and James D. Watson (1928- ) of the U.S. Discover ________ ________ of ___, starting a new branch of science--molecular biology. .
4Watson and CrickWatson and Crick made a _____ of the DNA molecule and proved that genes determine _________
5Arthur Kornberg1957Arthur Kornberg (1918- ) of the U.S. produced ____ in a test _______.
6Genetic code1966The Genetic code was discovered; scientists are now able to predict characteristics by studying DNA. This leads to genetic engineering, genetic counseling.
7Barbara McClintock1983Barbara McClintock ( ) of the U.S. was awarded the Nobel Prize for her discovery that ______ are able to change _______ on chromosomes.
8DNA Fingerprinting The late 1980's. An international team of scientists began the project to map the human genome.The first crime conviction based on DNA fingerprinting, in Portland Oregon.
9Gene Therapy1990.Gene therapy was used on patients for the first time.
10Dr. Kary Mullis1993Dr. Kary Mullis discovered the ___(Polymerase chain reaction) procedure, for which he was awarded the Nobel prize.
11DNA Testing1995.DNA testing in forensics cases gains fame in the O.J. Simpson trial.
12Cloning Begins1997.Dolly the sheep - the first adult animal cloned on July
13Human Genome ProjectImagine a world in which we will be able to treat diseases by altering our very genesThis will give us new ones if ours are non-functionalChanging bad genes for good ones.
14Human Genome ProjectFor the first time in our existence, we are closer to understanding just what we are.We now have the tools to make the whole world better through science the science of the human genome.
16Mutations Well what are mutations? Gene mutations can be either _______ from a parent or ________.A hereditary mutation is a ______ that is present in the DNA of virtually ____ body cells.
17Mutations Hereditary mutations are also called ______ ______ mutations This is because the gene change exists in the reproductive cells and can be passed from generation to generation, from parent to newborn.Moreover, the mutation is copied every time body cells divide
18But first, Nondisjunction What is non-disjunction?This is when the chromosomes ________ separate properly during meiosis
20Down’s Syndrome – Trisomy 21 Caused by ________________ of the _______ chromosome.This means that the individual has a ______ (3 – 2lst chromosomes).What does tri mean?It means _______ (ex., tricycle)What about somy?It means ______
23Symptoms of Down Syndrome Upward slant to eyes.Small ears that fold over at the top.Small, flattened nose.Small mouth, making tongue appear large.Short neck.Small hands with short fingers.
24Symptoms of Down Syndrome Low muscle tone.Single deep crease across center of palm.Looseness of joints.Small skin folds at the inner corners of the eyes.Excessive space between first and second toe.In addition, down syndrome always involves some degree of mental retardation, from mild to severe. In most cases, the mental retardation is mild to moderate.
25Kleinfelter’s syndrome – What is that? Disorder occurring due to __________ of the __ chromosome.The Sperm containing both __ and__ combines with an egg containing the __, results in a ____ child.The egg may contribute the extra X chromosome.
27XXY - SymptomsMales with some development of breast tissue normally seen in females.Little body hair is present, and such person are typically tall, have small testes.Infertility results from absent sperm.Evidence of mental retardation may or may not be present.
30Turner’s SyndromeThe cause of the disease is ____________ during meiosisThe result is said to be __________What does that mean?It means it only has _____ of a pair of chromosomes
31Turner’s SyndromeTurner syndrome is associated with underdeveloped ovaries, short stature, webbed, and is only in women.Bull neck, and broad chest. Individuals are sterile, and lack expected secondary sexual characteristics.Body hair, size, skin texture, voice change
35Sickle Cell AnemiaAn ________, chronic disease in which the ____ blood cells, normally disc-shaped, become ______ shaped.As a result, they function abnormally and cause small ______ ______.These clots give rise to recurrent painful episodes called "sickle cell pain crises".
37Sickle Cell AnemiaSickle cell disease is most commonly found in African American populations. Why?This disease was discovered over 80 years ago, but has not been given the attention it deserves.
38Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Monogenic Cause: deletion of only __ bases on chromosome ___
39Cystic Fibrosis (CF)Fluid in lungs, potential respiratory failure (pulmonary edema)Common among Caucasians…1 in 20 individuals are carriers in the populationTherefore is it dominant or recessive?It is actually recessive
40Tay-Sachs disease Monogenic, ________ recessive What does monogenic mean?It means that it is controlled by only one gene
42Tay-Sachs diseaseCentral nervous system degrades, ultimately causing death.Most common among people of Jewish, eastern Europe descent.
43Muscular Dystrophy What Is Muscular Dystrophy? Muscular dystrophy it is a disease in which the ______ of the body get weaker and weakerslowly stop working because of a lack of a certain protein
44Muscular DystrophyCan be passed on by one or both parents, depending on the form of MDThere is autosomal dominant and recessive types
45Hemophilia, the royal disease Hemophilia is the oldest known hereditary ________ disorder.Caused by a recessive gene on the X chromosome.One can bleed to death with small cuts.
46Hemophilia, the royal disease The severity of hemophilia is related to the amount of the clotting factor in the blood.About 70% of hemophilia patients have less than one percent of the normal amountThus, they have severe hemophilia
48Huntington’s DiseaseHuntington's disease (HD) is an inherited, degenerative ______ disorder which results in an eventual loss of both mental and physical control.The disease is also known as Huntington's chorea.Chorea means "dance-like movements" and refers to the uncontrolled motions often associated with the disease.
51Phenylketonuria or PKU People with PKU cannot consume any product that contains ___________.PKU is a _________ disorder that results when the PKU gene is inherited from both parents (recessive or dominant? Monogenic or chromosomal?)Caused by a deficiency of an ________ which is necessary for proper metabolism of an amino acid called phenylalanine.
52PKUPhenylalanine is an essential amino acid and is found in nearly all foods which contain protein, dairy products, nuts, beans, tofu… etc.A low protein diet must be followed.Brain damage can result if the diet is not followed causing mental retardation…and mousy body odor (phenylacetic acid is in sweat).