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Unraveling of Two Party Dominance. Ending the National Front: Aftermath of 1970 Presidential Election Misael Pastrana narrow (fraudulent?)victory (1970)

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Presentation on theme: "Unraveling of Two Party Dominance. Ending the National Front: Aftermath of 1970 Presidential Election Misael Pastrana narrow (fraudulent?)victory (1970)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unraveling of Two Party Dominance

2 Ending the National Front: Aftermath of 1970 Presidential Election Misael Pastrana narrow (fraudulent?)victory (1970) discredits the National Front Need for a system- sustaining political party of the opposition

3 Conservatives & Liberals renege on their “deal” with ANAPO Fear of ANAPO and populist left Maria Eugenia Rojas runs in 1974 as ANAPO candidate ANAPO infrastructure decimated Rise of M-19

4 Liberals Prove their Majority Party Status Alfonso López Michelsen ( ) wins with 56% Liberals overwhelm Conservatives Senate Chamber of Deputies “Adequate and equitable” participation maintained for Conservatives

5 Smashing of ISI Alfonso López Michelsen Slow turn to economic liberalization Colombia joins GATT (1978) Restrictions on banks reduced

6 Scandals in Privatization Julio Cesar Turbay ( ) Increased inflation Corruption in privatization Divisions in Liberal party aggravated Swearing in President Turbay

7 Return of the Conservatives ( ) Belisario Betancur Direct elections of mayors (mixed results) IMF adjustment program Public expenditures reduced No new housing for poor Wage freeze Unsuccessful negotiations with insurgents Intensification of the insurgency

8 Three Liberal Presidents I Virgilio Barco ( ) Abandoned bi-partisan cabinet Continued neoliberal reforms Intensification of narco-trafficker power Alliance of traffickers with guerrillas Assassination of Liberal presidential candidate (Luis Galán, founder of “New Liberal” movement

9 Three Liberal Presidents II Cesar Gaviria ( ) New constitution (1991) Human rights Ecological concerns Participative civil society Decentralization Enemies – apply the law; friends – give favors Ernesto Samper P. ( ) Paralysis due to involvement with narco-traffickers

10 Andrés Pestrana (Conservative) Wins the 1998 Presidential Election Liberals in disarray Promises of cooperation with the United States to control narco-traffkers Ongoing insurgency Responds by conceding control of large areas of country to insurgents

11 Alvaro Uribe Ends two Party Dominance of Colombian Politics Conservatives policy toward the insurgency disastrous Closed leadership Smaller base of party identifiers than Liberals Liberals Closed leadership Ties with narco- traffickers undermine legitimacy Economic policies fail to aid poor

12 Presidential Elections: 2006 Parties - Candidates Votes % Álvaro Uribe Vélez - Colombia First (Primero Colombia) 7,363, Carlos Gaviria Díaz - Alternative Democratic Pole (Polo Democrático Alternativo) 2,609, Horacio Serpa Uribe - Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano) 1,401, Antanas Mockus Sivickas - Indigenous Social Alliance Movement (Movimiento Alianza Social Indígena) 146, Enrique Parejo González - National Democratic Reconstruction (Reconstrucción Democrática Nacional) 44, Álvaro Leyva Durán - National Movement for Reconciliation (Movimiento Nacional de Reconciliación) 22, Carlos Arturo Rincón Barreto - Colombian Community and Communal Political Movement (Movimiento Politico Comunal y Comunidad Colombiano) 20, Álvaro Uribe VélezColombia FirstCarlos Gaviria DíazAlternative Democratic Pole Horacio Serpa UribeColombian Liberal PartyAntanas Mockus Sivickas Indigenous Social Alliance MovementEnrique Parejo González National Democratic ReconstructionÁlvaro Leyva Durán National Movement for ReconciliationCarlos Arturo Rincón BarretoColombian Community and Communal Political Movement Total votes for candidates 11,607, Uribe Reelected


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