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An Orientation.  Syllabus  In Course & Doc Sharing  Online Communication Guidelines  Kaplan Library Presentation  How to Enter Live Seminar  Course.

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Presentation on theme: "An Orientation.  Syllabus  In Course & Doc Sharing  Online Communication Guidelines  Kaplan Library Presentation  How to Enter Live Seminar  Course."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Orientation

2  Syllabus  In Course & Doc Sharing  Online Communication Guidelines  Kaplan Library Presentation  How to Enter Live Seminar  Course Instructions  KU Course Support Info  Plagiarism Tour  Your Final Project (Read about your APT Project  Course Questions  Audio Glossary

3  Announcements  Important Information and Updates  Clarifications  Reminders  Weekly Overviews and Summaries  Course Calendar  Communications from other Departments at Kaplan University  ALWAYS READ THESE CAREFULLY AND COMPLETELY!!

4  Gradebook   Chat  Doc Sharing  Accessing and Using the Writing Center  Syllabus  Dropbox  Webliography

5 Expectations

6 The Human Body: An Orientation

7  What is science?  A branch of knowledge, esp. one that systematizes facts, principles and methods  The science of the human body:  learn about the facts of structure  systematically apply these facts to principles of function

8  The study of the structure of the parts of the body:  ANATOMY  The study of the function of the parts:  PHYSIOLOGY  Disruption of physiology can lead to disease  Study of diseases of body:  PATHOLOGY

9  There is an order to the body arrangement  It is the way the body is organized  This is called the hierarchy of the body  The smallest level is the chemical level: Atom celltissueorgan organ systemorganism

10 Slide 10

11  Skeletal System  Muscular System  Nervous System  Endocrine System  Cardiovascular System  Lymphatic System  Respiratory System  Digestive System  Urinary System  Reproductive System

12  Pages 8, 10, 13, and 14  Anterior and Posterior terms  These are landmarks for giving directions  Universal terms that everyone uses  From a neurologist to a chiropractor to an MA. This was we can all communicate.

13  Same thing, we need to communicate with each other. This a way we give directions to each other.  Is a universal way to communicate locations on the body to other health care workers.  Everyone in the medical community uses this language-universal language

14  A reference posture for standardizing terminology:  Anatomical Position page 11  Important for:  description of position of structures, regardless of position of body  Universally accepted

15  Any references made to structures from now on assume Anatomical Position  It is the  the patient’s right and left  ASSUME ALL DIRECTIONS START HERE

16 Slide 16

17  Always come pairs  Like the compass, the directional terms are used to describe RELATIVE position  Need to establish a starting point, or Indicator Structure  In a sentence usually follows the word “to”

18  The head is in what position to the shoulders?  “above” “on top of”  Shoulders are your starting point  indicator structure  So the position of the head is relative to the shoulders  **Remember Anatomical Position**

19  Anterior  Towards the front of the body  Ventral “venter” = Latin for belly  Anterior and Ventral mean towards the belly or front of the body  Posterior  Towards the back of the body  Dorsal “dorsum” = Latin for back  Posterior and Dorsal mean towards the back of the body

20  1) The spine is to the heart  find the indicator structure (starting point) Heart (follows “to”, starting point)  the position of the spine relative to the heart is towards the back of the body  The spine is Posterior or Dorsal to the heart

21  Superior  “above” along the vertical axis of the body in anatomical position  like someone who is “superior”  Cephalad or Cranial towards the head  Inferior  “below” along the vertical axis of the body in anatomical position  like someone who feels less than or “inferior”  Caudal towards the tail

22  Don’t forget your indicator structures!!

23  Top/Bottom  Front/Back  Now…..  Middle/Sides  Remember - we are 3-D and so structures are not always top/bottom, front/back  Instead, they are along the same plane, and to the side

24  Nose to ear  not really above, not really towards the front……..  Medial  towards the midline of the body  Lateral  to the side, away from midline  The nose is to the ear

25  There are special terms used especially for the limbs  Proximal  toward or closest the point of attachment or trunk  “close proximity”  Distal  away from the point of attachment or trunk  “distance”

26  The elbow is to the wrist  The fingernail is to the knuckle  The hip is to the knee  The fingers are to the shoulder

27  The next terms are used to describe the position of structures relative to the body surface  Superficial  towards the surface of the body  more external  Deep  away from the surface of the body  more internal

28  The skin is to the skeletal muscles  The lungs are to the ribs

29  3 common planes frequently used to describe dissections or to look inside an organ or the body as a whole  Frontal Plane  “coronal plane”  vertical plane  used to separate body into anterior/posterior parts

30 ~Frontal or Coronal Plane ~Anterior/Posterior Parts

31  Transverse Plane  “Cross-Sectional” or “Axial”  horizontal plane runs parallel to ground  diving body into cranial/caudal parts

32  Sagittal Plane  “lateral” plane  separates body into left and right halves  Midsagittal separates body into equal left and right halves

33  “Cavity” - any hollow place or space in the human body  Major cavities are used to divide body into regions and describe the organs found within  Viscera  fancy term used to describe the organs within a cavity

34  Visualize the body in anatomical position  Locate the dorsal/ventral regions  Dorsal Cavity  towards the back  subdivided into 2 cavities Cranial cavity - houses the cranium and brain Spinal cavity - houses the spinal cord and vertebral column

35  Ventral Cavity  towards the front of the body  Subdivided into 2 cavities  Thoracic Cavity superior ventral cavity everything from the diaphragm to the neck has right and left side which houses the lungs contains an area with tissues and organs between the lungs called the mediastinum

36  Inferior ventral cavity:  Abdominopelvic Cavity  everything from the diaphragm to the groin area  Subdivides into:  Abdominal cavity superior abdominopelvic cavity contains digestive organs (except sigmoid colon)  Pelvic cavity inferior abdominopelvic cavity contains reproductive organs, urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, rectum


38  The abdominal cavity is quite large and houses many organs  Anterior surface subdivided to make referencing easier for:  discussion  dissection  relating a specific area of pain or organ location

39  Four roughly equal sections  Named according to relative position  **Remember Anatomical Right & Left** Right Upper QuadrantLeft Upper Quadrant RUQLUQ Right Lower QuadrantLeft Lower Quadrant RLQLLQ

40  The abdominal quadrants are further divided into 9 abdominal regions Right Hypochondriac Epigastric Left Hypochondriac Region RegionRegion Right Lumbar RegionUmbilical Left Lumbar Region Region Right Iliac (Inguinal)Hypogastric Left Iliac (Inguinal) Region (pubic) RegionRegion


42  All the systems work together to promote balance  Homeostatsis  The ability for the body to maintain an internal environment for proper function  The body functions best at homeostasis  When the body moves away from homeostasis, you move toward disease  Loss of homeostasis at any level of the hierarchy can affect the rest of the body  Ultimate loss of homeostasis = Death

43  To maintain balance the body uses ‘feedback loops’  There is a negative feedback loop and a positive feedback loop  The most common is _________________  Think about the thermostat in your room…. The temp falls, and the thermostat tells the hit to kick on and “bring the body back to homeostasis”  A positive feedback loop is the opposite

44  In a positive feedback loop the body is already in homeostasis and the positive feedback loop kicks in and “moves the body away from homeostasis”

45  Everybody gets a membrane  Movement  Responsiveness  Digestion  Metabolism  Excretion  Reproduction  growth

46  Nutrients  Oxygen  Water  Maintain temp  Maintain pressure  Need to be present and in suficient amounts

47 Remember to:  Complete the readings  Complete the discussion/participation requirements (THREE DAYS)  Complete the online materials  STUDY STUDY STUDY  Complete the quiz  Complete the exams (there are two this week)  ASK QUESTIONS when necessary!!

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