2Human Heredity polygenic trait - trait controlled by two or more genes Pedigree - chart that shows the relationships within a familyAutosome - autosomal chromosome; chromosome that is not a sex chromosomesex chromosome - one of two chromosomes that determine an individual's sex; females have two X chromosomes; males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosomeKaryotype - set of photographs of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
3Human Genome Chromosomes 21 and 22 are the smallest human autosomes. Chromosome 22 contains approximately 43 million DNA bases.22 contains as many as 545 different genesincludes an allele that causes a form of leukemiaChromosome 21 contains roughly 32 million bases.225 genes, including one associated with ALS
4Karyotype Making a Karyotype Photograph chromosomes during mitosis Cut chromosomes out of photographGroup them in order, in pairsMale 46XYFemale 46XX
6Determining SexAll egg cells carry a single X chromosome (23X). However, half of all sperm cells carry an X chromosome (23X) and half carry a Y chromosome (23Y). This ensures that just about half of the zygotes will be 46XX and half will be 46XY.
10Human Genes Blood Group Genes Rh+ and Rh- (Rhesus factor)
11X-Chromosome Inactivation Females have two X chromosomes, but males have only one.Females can inactivate parts of an X chromosome and use the same genetic information from the corresponding chromosomeSpotted CatsBarr Bodies
12Gene to MoleculeIn both cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease, a small change in the DNA of a single gene affects the structure of a protein, causing a serious genetic disorder.Phenolketoneuria - PKU is the actual lack of a certain enzyme that breaks down the amino acid phenylalanine.
19Down SyndromeTrisomy 21An extra chromosome on autosome 2147 chromosomes instead of 46United States, approximately 1 baby in 800 is born with Down syndromemild to severe mental retardation. It is also characterized by an increased susceptibility to many diseases
20Sex-Chromosome Disorders Turner’s syndrome (X-)Women with Turner’s syndrome are sterile because their sex organs do not develop at puberty
21Sex-Chromosome Disorders Klinefelter’s syndrome - Males (XXY; XXXY…)Unable to reproduceLarge hipsLower testosteroneGynecomastiaWhat if there was just a Y chromosome?
22Complete Study Guide Workbook Chapter 14 Genetic EngineeringHuman HeredityHW Read 14-3 andComplete Study Guide Workbook Chapter 14
23Selective BreedingHumans use selective breeding to pass desired traits on to the next generation of organismsHybridization – The crossing of dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms.Luther Burbank and his amazing Burbank potato.Inbreeding is the continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics.
24Increasing VariationMutations can be induced to help create variation in organisms.Polyploidy plants have an extra chromosome.
25Perform your own Gel Electrophoresis Go to this website to perform your gel electrophoresisOnce you understand the process, use your DNA detective skills to help solve a mystery.Or google NOVA DNA FingerprintNOVA Online | Killer's Trail | Create a DNA Fingerprint
26Manipulating DNAGenetic Engineering is the process of reading and changing DNA sequences in an organism.Reading the Genetic CodeDNA extractionCutting and Labeling DNASeparating DNAReading the DNA sequenceMaking Copies (PCR – polymerase chain reaction)
27Manipulating DNAGenetic Engineering is the process of reading and changing DNA sequences in an organism.Reading the Genetic CodeDNA extractionCutting and Labeling DNASeparating DNAReading the DNA sequenceMaking Copies (PCR – polymerase chain reaction)
28Manipulating DNAGenetic Engineering is the process of reading and changing DNA sequences in an organism.Reading the Genetic CodeDNA extractionCutting and Labeling DNASeparating DNAReading the DNA sequenceMaking Copies (PCR – polymerase chain reaction)
29Manipulating DNAGenetic Engineering is the process of reading and changing DNA sequences in an organism.Reading the Genetic CodeDNA extractionCutting and Labeling DNASeparating DNAReading the DNA sequenceMaking Copies (PCR – polymerase chain reaction)
30PCR – Polymerase Chain Reaction Making copies to work with.
31Uses of Gel Electrophoresis DNA FingerprintingAn individual's DNA is as distinctive as a fingerprint. This technique was used to assist in determining O.J. Simpson's life. DNA samples can be obtained from the trace amounts of blood or sperm. These DNA samples can be separated using gel electrophoresis. The number and position of bands formed on each lane of gel is the actual genetic "fingerprint" of that DNA sample. The characteristics of certain segments of DNA vary from person to person and form a highly individual, detectable "genetic fingerprint." Developed only in the mid-1980s, genetic fingerprinting has rapidly become a widely used courtroom tool. In 1988 the first person in the United States was executed based on DNA technology.The Human Genome ProjectThe most ambitious research project made possible by DNA technology is the effort to map the entire human genome.
33Vocab Plasmid - circular DNA molecule found in bacteria genetic marker - gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don’tRecombinant DNA – DNA that has been created artificially. DNA from two or more sources is incorporated into a single recombinant molecule.
36Transforming Animal Cells Can be transformed similar to plants.Some eggs are large enough to physically inject new DNA by hand. Which can “Knock Out” a gene
37Homework Find two transgenic organism on the internet. Type up a summary about the organismsWhat are they?How are they made?How are they useful? Or Why were they created?Answer the big question on “Dolly”Why was she so special?
38Do Now…. How is genetic engineering like computer programming? How does gel electrophoresis work?What is transformation?How can you tell if a transformation experiment has been successful?Compare the transformation of a prokaryotic cell with the transformation of a eukaryotic cell.
39Transgenic Organismsterm used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms