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Twenty-five years of Democracy in Argentina The search for the disappeared Forensic Anthropology and Human Rights Lic. Silvana Turner Argentine Forensic.

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Presentation on theme: "Twenty-five years of Democracy in Argentina The search for the disappeared Forensic Anthropology and Human Rights Lic. Silvana Turner Argentine Forensic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Twenty-five years of Democracy in Argentina The search for the disappeared Forensic Anthropology and Human Rights Lic. Silvana Turner Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team (EAAF)

2 Political violence in Latin America Disappeared/killed by political reasons (1960 – present): Disappeared/killed by political reasons (1960 – present): Guatemala ( ) Guatemala ( ) Colombia ( ) Colombia ( ) El Salvador (75.000) El Salvador (75.000) Peru (70.000) Peru (70.000) Argentina (10.000) Argentina (10.000) Chile (3.000) Chile (3.000) Gral. Pinochet

3 Mothers of Plaza de Mayo

4 Some Truth Commissions Argentina (1983/84) Argentina (1983/84) Chile (1990/91) Chile (1990/91) El Salvador (1992/93) El Salvador (1992/93) Guatemala (1997/99) Guatemala (1997/99) Peru (2001/03) Peru (2001/03)

5  Military dictatorship: March 24, 1976  Self-amnesty Law (Law ): Sept. 27, 1983  Return to democracy: Dec. 10, 1983  Self-amnesty Law Annulment.(Law ): Dec. 29,1983  CONADEP’s official report: Sept. 20,1984 Chronology 1

6 Disposal of Bodies

7 Search and recovery of remains 1984

8 forensic specialists Judiciary, Prosecutor's office, Police Not very independent Cases of complicity Few independent options No anthropologist, archaeologists, etc No integration of families/communities Forensic system in Latin America

9 Victims’ relatives

10 EAAF foundation (1984) Independent forensic alternative to the official forensic system. Independent forensic alternative to the official forensic system. Focuses on the investigation of human rights violations Focuses on the investigation of human rights violations Special emphasis: Special emphasis: the rights of the relatives/communities of disappeared people, the rights of the relatives/communities of disappeared people, their necessity to know and participate. their necessity to know and participate.

11 Trials of Top Junta Members: April 22, 1985 Full Stop Law: Dec. 5, 1986 Due Obedience Impunity Law: May 13, 1987 Amnesty Law (1st Presidential pardon): Oct. 30, 1989 Amnesty Law (2nd Presidential pardon): Dec. 28, 1990 Chronology 2

12 Dr. Clyde Snow

13 EAAF’s international work ( ) AFRICAAngolaDRCEthiopia Ivory Coast KenyaMoroccoNamibia Sierra Leone South Africa SudanTogoZimbabweAMERICABoliviaBrazilChileColombia El Salvador GuatemalaHaitiHondurasMexicoPanamaParaguayPeruUruguayVenezuelaEUROPEBosniaCroatiaCyprusGeorgiaKosovoRomaniaASIA East Timor IraqNepalPhilippinesOCEANIA French Polynesia

14 EAAF’s objectives To provide evidence in court/special commissions of inquiry. To provide evidence in court/special commissions of inquiry. To assist the relatives of the victims in pursuit of their rights to recover the remains of their loved ones. To assist the relatives of the victims in pursuit of their rights to recover the remains of their loved ones. To collaborate in the training of new teams in other countries where investigations into human rights violations are necessary. To collaborate in the training of new teams in other countries where investigations into human rights violations are necessary. To contribute to the historical reconstruction of the recent past. To contribute to the historical reconstruction of the recent past.

15 Forensic Anthropology Forensic anthropology uses methods and techniques from physical anthropology, archaeology, and forensic medicine to investigate legal cases involving skeletal or almost skeletonnized remains. Forensic anthropology uses methods and techniques from physical anthropology, archaeology, and forensic medicine to investigate legal cases involving skeletal or almost skeletonnized remains.

16 EAAF investigation process Historical investigation:Historical investigation: Recovery and analysis of oral and written sources. Recovery and analysis of oral and written sources. Collection of Ante Mortem data Archaeological work:Archaeological work: Recovery and analysis of the findings. Laboratory analysis:Laboratory analysis: Identification of remains, and determination of the cause of death.

17 -EAAF- Zonas Argentina Zona 2 l Military division of the country

18 l Map of Illegal Detention Centers

19 l Map of cemeteries with NN graves (in red)

20 -EAAF-20 l Testimonies of victims at Truth Commission

21 l Cemetery records

22 l Intelligence reports

23 l Media reports l “30 bodies were found in Pilar”

24 Collection of Ante Mortem information Building a relation of confidence and trust. Building a relation of confidence and trust. Respect cultural and religious context. Respect cultural and religious context. Interviews with different members of the family and friends. Interviews with different members of the family and friends. More than one meeting, proper time and place. More than one meeting, proper time and place. Use of specific forms. Use of specific forms. Specific strategy for blood/saliva samples for DNA. Specific strategy for blood/saliva samples for DNA. Medical, anthropological, odontological information. Persona effects, clothing. Medical, anthropological, odontological information. Persona effects, clothing.

25 East Timor, meeting with relatives before exhumations, 2005

26 Darfur, Sudan, 2004, recording graves

27 How to organize the information? The use of computer experts: working with investigators. The use of computer experts: working with investigators. Defining what do we want to collect. Defining what do we want to collect. Data bases on: Data bases on: List of victims (name, sex, age, date of disapp., place). List of victims (name, sex, age, date of disapp., place). Ante mortem information. Ante mortem information. Location of possible grave sites. Location of possible grave sites. Chronology of the conflict. Chronology of the conflict. Information from the media. Information from the media. Official documents. Official documents. Sharing information among NGO´s. Sharing information among NGO´s. Security of the information. Security of the information.

28 2 nd stage - Forensic Archaeology Forensic archaeology applies the techniques of the traditional archaeology to a legal context. Forensic archaeology applies the techniques of the traditional archaeology to a legal context. Capacity and knowledge to analyze a “crime scene” that involves exhumation of bodies, recovery of remains and objects spread about the surface. Capacity and knowledge to analyze a “crime scene” that involves exhumation of bodies, recovery of remains and objects spread about the surface. Minimum field team: Forensic physician, Forensic anthropologist/archaeologist, Scene of crime officers, Photographer, Planimetry, and Security. Minimum field team: Forensic physician, Forensic anthropologist/archaeologist, Scene of crime officers, Photographer, Planimetry, and Security.

29 Guatemala

30 South Africa

31 El Salvador

32 Ethiopia

33 Croacia

34 Argentina

35

36 Argentina

37 El Salvador

38 Argentina

39

40 Argentina

41

42 Interdisciplinary Team Forensic physician Forensic physician Forensic anthropologist Forensic anthropologist Forensic odontologist Forensic odontologist Forensic radiologist Forensic radiologist Other disciplines (Biologists, entomologists, chemists, etc.) Other disciplines (Biologists, entomologists, chemists, etc.)

43 Are the remains human? Is the case of forensic interest? How many individuals are there in the sample? Identification Cause of death

44 PREPARATION OF THE REMAINS X-Raying Taking samples

45 CLEANING

46 RECONSTRUCTION

47 LABELLING EXTENSION IN ANATOMICAL POSITION INVENTORY DEAL WITH NON BIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE (records, transfers)

48 Biological Profile DETERMINATION OF SEX DETERMINATION OF SEX ESTIMATION OF AGE ESTIMATION OF AGE ESTIMATION OF ANCESTRY ESTIMATION OF ANCESTRY ESTIMATION OF STATURE ESTIMATION OF STATURE DESCRIPTION OF PATHOLOGIES, ANOMALIES & ANTE-MORTEN TRAUMAS DESCRIPTION OF PATHOLOGIES, ANOMALIES & ANTE-MORTEN TRAUMAS ODONTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ODONTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS COMPARISON OF PRE & POST-MORTEM DATA: IDENTIFICATION COMPARISON OF PRE & POST-MORTEM DATA: IDENTIFICATION

49 EAAF

50 Identification of the victims The information from the study is contrasted with the ante-mortem data obtained through historical investigations and interviews with relatives, as well as with the contextual information and artifacts from the excavation (type of burial, presence of ballistic material or elements indicative of violence, etc.). Hypothesis of identity In the absence of medical, x-rays, dental records, etc., this hypothesis should be verified through genetic analysis.

51 Genetic analysis In the laboratory of molecular genetics the DNA extracted from bone material of the skeleton (teeth, segments of large bones, etc.) is compared with the blood of the presumed family In the laboratory of molecular genetics the DNA extracted from bone material of the skeleton (teeth, segments of large bones, etc.) is compared with the blood of the presumed family. LIDMO Laboratory (Córdoba,Ar g.)

52 Number Location Sequence Trajectory Gunshot wounds Peri mortem: classification generally by causal agent

53 Argentina Absent by Forced Disappearance Law. Economic compensations for victims and relatives. Trials on child kidnapping (Condor Operation). Opening of processes on the disappearance of foreigners (Spain, Italy, Sweden, France, Germany). 2003: Annulment of amnesty laws, with congressional support Supreme Court overturns Due Obedience and Full Stop immunity laws. Reopening of criminal cases detained, 54 condemned, 60 fugitives, 64 trials. 95 young disappeared found by Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo. CDCs opened as remembrance places and museum.

54 EAAF’s achievements in Argentina Exhumations: aprox. Exhumations: aprox. Identifications: 300 Identifications: 300 Blood samples: Blood samples: Bone samples: 600 Bone samples: 600 Results expected: Results expected: : continue : continue Latin American Initiative for the Identification of the Disappeared (LIID)

55 Argentina


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