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North South Divisions and Westward Expansion

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1 North South Divisions and Westward Expansion
SSUSH8: The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward Expansion

2 Abolitionists Sarah and Angelina Grimke- daughter of a southern slave-holder. Angelina wrote a book An appeal to Christian Women in the South, which compelled women to overthrow slavery as a system of cruelty and oppression. William Lloyd Garrison- abolitionist who after years of fighting slavery joined the women’s movement

3 Nat Turner’s Rebellion
Born into slavery, Nat Turner was a preacher who felt he was called by God to lead people out of slavery. He led a bloody rebellion- 60 (approx.) white men, women, and children dead. The retaliation for this crime was the vicious death of over 200 slaves at the hands of their masters. Turner’s bloody rebellion strengthened the resolve of Southern whites to defend slavery and maintain control of them.

4 Slavery in America The people were very divided about slavery: many felt that slaves were dangerous and needed to be brought into submission, and many others thought that slaves were desperately trying to break free of the bonds of slavery and would be good citizens once freed. This was defined by an obvious North/South Division

5 Missouri Compromise Missouri Compromise: a series of agreements passed by Congress in to maintain balance of power between slave states and free states. This meant that when a territory asked to be admitted to the Union, they would have to declare whether or not they would be free or not, and the number of slave states could never outnumber the number of free states. This created the Mason Dixon line dividing the North from the South.

6 8c. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of State’s Rights ideology; include the role of John C. Calhoun and the development of sectionalism. Nullification: a state’s refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional. The Nullification Crisis refers to the way that many states began to use this as a way to defy the National government, especially the southern states on issues of slavery. State’s Rights: idea that every state should have the right to govern itself

7 John C. Calhoun Vice President under both Adams and Jackson, he, at first, was a strong federalist; but after a bad year for cotton crops in his home state of South Carolina, and the protective tariff he passed to raise revenue for the government devastated the economy of the state he decided to back state’s rights and nullification.

8 Sectionalism Placing the interests of one’s own region ahead of the interests of the nation as a whole. The South definitely began doing this, again mainly over the issue of slavery.

9 Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso- an amendment to an 1846 military appropriations bill, proposing that none of the territory acquired in war with Mexico would be open to slavery. Popular Sovereignty: idea proposed in the Compromise of 1850, that each region should decide by popular vote as to whether they should be “slave” or “free”

10 Compromise of 1850 A series of congressional measures intended to settle the major disagreements between free states and slave states Henry Clay, writer of the compromise was afraid that slavery would eventually result in disunion of the US. John C. Calhoun did not approve of the compromise, who wanted the issue of slavery to be decided within each state- not by Congress

11 Civil War Unit 9 SSUSH9: The Student will identify key events, issues, and individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of the Civil War

12 9a: Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott Case, and John Brown’s raid. Kansas Nebraska Act-law enacted in 1854, that established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and gave their residents the right to decide whether or not to allow slavery This area was not widely populated yet- and it created a “race” among people from the North and South

13 Failure of Popular Sovereignty
Nebraska was north of the 36*30’ line, so when it was voted to become a slave state- causing serious issues in Congress Senator Douglas brought a bill that proposed a repeal of the Missouri Compromise, this ended in a bitter dispute in Congress that spilled over into the population.

14 Dred Scott case Dred Scott’s master brought him from MO (slave state) into IL (free state) then tried to bring him back to MO as a slave. Scott argued that because he was “free” for a time, he should remain free. Supreme Court said he wasn’t a citizen, and had no right to bring a lawsuit in the first place. Plus: the lawsuit ended all efforts to ban slavery in all states for the future, bans in slavery were ruled unConstitutional. (5th)

15 John Brown’s Raid John Brown was a “moral” abolitionist, and led many raids to gain attention for his cause. Harper’s Ferry He was eventually hung for treason in 1859.

16 President Abraham Lincoln
When Lincoln won the election of 1860, several southern states began the process of seceding from the Union beginning with South Carolina, followed by 6 more states within a few weeks, forming the “Confederate States of America” Jefferson Davis led the new confederacy

17 North Vs. South When Southern forces opened fire on Union forces at Fort Sumter, they began a war that would last four years and take 821,000 soldiers lives. South has greater disadvantage. The North had economic and industrial superiority.

18 Lincoln takes charge… He suspended habeas corpus: meaning that people could be arrested without being told why: the Constitution does allow for “emergency powers” such as this. (Jefferson Davis followed his lead in the South) Emancipation Proclamation: proclaimed the freedom of slaves in the South, but could not be enforced yet.

19 Civil War Military Leaders Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses Grant: war hero for the North, Grant fought diligently and heroically- helping the North win the Battle of Vicksburg, a key fight that gave the North control over the Mississippi River Grant believed in full-out war, and along with his trusted friend, William T. Sherman went to work disabling the South- farm by farm to prevent the survival of the southern troops

20 Robert E. Lee Lee was an abolitionist, but because of his loyalty to his home state of Virginia, he led militarily for the South. Lee was a strong leader who brought much destruction to the North, specifically to Sherman’s troops- but he was no match for the leadership team of Grant and Sherman Lee was defeated at Battle of Gettysburg, and surrendered to General Grant at the end of the Civil War

21 “Stonewall” Jackson General for the South, graduated from West Point
Won the First Battle at Bull Run Fought alongside General Lee at Antietam and Second Bull Run Died in battle

22 Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address
Lincoln was reelected in 1864 Even though he knew the North would win the Civil war, he did not boast He expressed sorrow over the loss of human life and sadness that they could not solve things peacefully Stated that slavery was evil, but no one should seek revenge on slaveholders Speech begged for reconstruction of a great union without malice

23 Major Battles of the Civil War
Union and Confederate forces fought many battles in the 4 years of the Civil war. We will look at four major battles.

24 Antietam- September 1862 Robert E. Lee, Antietam Creek, Maryland.
1st Northern Battle, lasted 1 day, 26,000 died- but it was a draw Lee withdrew to the South, and the Union did not follow Lee’s failure to win here led to Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation

25 Gettysburg- April 1863 Lee, Gettysburg, PA
Chance meeting of North and South troops, 51,000 died- deadliest battle of the Civil war Lee had been asking for French and British help- none came, he gave up trying to invade the North after this Led to the Gettysburg Address and the Gettysburg National Cemetary

26 Gettysburg Address November 1863, 4 months after the battle, Lincoln spoke eloquently about the loss of this Battle The purpose of this speech was to raise spirits and encourage Northerners and Southerners to unite once again as a great nation.

27 Vicksburg- May-July 1863 Major Ulysses S. Grant took 7 weeks to defeat the Confederate army and take over this strategic hill on a bend in the Mississippi Once in power over this fort, he controlled all traffic on the River and cut off supplies to the Confederate forces in the South

28 Atlanta- July- September 1864
General Sherman took six weeks to take control over this center of Confederate manufacturing and the center of their RR. He burned it to the ground and destroyed everything in his path on his march to the Atlantic Ocean This was when the South realized they would lose

29 Significance of the Emancipation Proclamation
As discussed earlier, there were 3 main reasons for the Emanicipation Proclamation: Lincoln knew slaves in the south would run, weakening the Confederacy It gave hope to the northern slaves that the US would eventually be a free country It gave purpose to the Union military

30 The Disparity between the North and the South
Make a chart of the advantages and disadvantages of fighting as the North and the South.

31 RECONSTRUCTION During reconstruction, African Americans made progress in many areas. Some gains lasted, while others did not. Many A.A. children attended free schools for the first time. A.A.’s started newspapers, served in public office and attended new colleges established for them. Morehouse College was established in Atlanta in 1867 as the Augusta Institute.

32 Death of Lincoln Lincoln was killed by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865 Andrew Jackson became president, and was therefore charged with the job of continuing Reconstruction

33 Morehouse College circa: 1900

34 Freedmen’s Bureau Created by Congress to help African Americans (A.A.) make the transition to freedom. They helped: Former slaves with food, clothing, jobs, medicine and medical-care facilities. Helped some former slaves acquire land. Helped set up schools

35 Drawing of a Freedmen’s school during reconstruction.

36 40 Acres and a Mule Although General Grant promised freed slaves land after the war, all land was returned to its former owners. Congress finally set aside several million acres for former slaves, but the land was swampy and no good for farming. Without land, and few skills outside of farming, the newly freed slaves had few options other than sharecropping or tenant farming. This caused them to work for former slaveholders in much the same conditions as slavery.

37 The Significance of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments.
13th: Abolished slavery in the U.S. 14th: Gave citizenship to all people born in the U.S. Guaranteed no citizen would lose their rights without due process. 15th: Removed restrictions on voting based on race, color or ever having been a slave. Gave all men the right to vote at age 21.

38 Southern Resistance to Racial Equality During Reconstruction
After the 13th Amendment abolished slavery, all former slave states enacted black codes. These codes were laws written to control the lives of former slaves. Black Codes kept freed slaves from: Voting Traveling without a pass Serving on juries Testifying against white people Marrying white people

39 KKK This secret society was formed by veterans of the Confederate Army to fight against Reconstruction. They used murder, arson and other threatening actions to control ex-slaves and white people who helped ex-slaves. Some southern leaders urged the Klan to step down because Federal Troops would not leave the South as long as they were needed to protect the former slaves.

40 The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson in Relationship to Reconstruction
President Johnson wanted to curb the hostile treatment of Southern leaders by the Radical Republicans. To prevent this, Congress passed a law saying that a President could not remove a cabinet member from office during the term of the President who appointed him. This law was passed to protect a radical republican sympathizer in Johnson’s cabinet. Johnson felt that this was unconstitutional, and dismissed the cabinet member anyway.

41 President Johnson

42 The Radical Republicans used this as a reason to impeach Johnson on 11 counts.
After a three month trial in the senate, Johnson missed being convicted by one vote, and was not removed from office. This was a victory for democracy, because Johnson was not impeached just for having political opinions that were unpopular with politicians who had the power to impeach him

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