Presentation on theme: "IT PROJECT MANAGEMENT SUMMERY PAPER Arash Izadpanah Farzan Forouzandeh Kiarash Sepahmansour Sasan Bahrami ITEC 511."— Presentation transcript:
IT PROJECT MANAGEMENT SUMMERY PAPER Arash Izadpanah Farzan Forouzandeh Kiarash Sepahmansour Sasan Bahrami ITEC 511
LIST OF ARTICLES 1.Early Warning Signs of IT Project Failure (Kappelman L., McKeeman R., and Zhang L.) 2.Project management: cost, time and quality; two best guesses and a phenomenon (Aktinson R.) 3.Turner’s five-functions of project-based management and situational leadership in IT services projects (Lee-Kelley L., Leong K.) 4.The role of project management methodology in the learning organization (Phelps R., Ledgerwood T.) 5.Project Management in Information Systems and Information Technologies Industries (Hartman F., Ashrafi A.)
WHAT IS “ EWS ” !? Warning sign : An event or indication that predicts, cautions, or alerts one of possible or impending problems. EWSs are early warning signs
RISK OF IT PROJECTS About 20 percent of IT projects are canceled before completion Less than a third are finished on time and within budget with expected functionality Effective risk managementWhat author suggest!?
CATEGORIES OF IT PROJECT RISKS 1.Social subsystem risks (People) 2.Project management risks (Process) 3.Technical subsystem risks (Product) Dominant Dozen Early Warning Signs of IT Project Failure Categories Process relatedPeople related
PEOPLE RELATED RISKS Lack of top management support Weak project manager No stakeholder involvement and/or participation Weak commitment of project team Team members lack requisite knowledge and/or skills and subject matter experts are overscheduled.
PROCESS RELATED RISKS Lack of documented requirements and/or success criteria No change control process (change management) Ineffective schedule planning and/or management Communication breakdown among stakeholders Resources assigned to a higher priority project No business case for the project
WHAT ABOUT TECHNICAL RISKS ? IT projects almost never fail because of technical causes (despite the fact that people and process problems may manifest technically. Technical risks can be mitigated with proper people and process practices Technical risks cannot be eliminated, but they can be managed.
WHY PROJECTS FAIL? Projects continue to fail despite of the two factors of time and cost.
WHAT IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT? Different description of project management and still include time, cost and quality
WHY PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONTINUE TO FAIL? Despite of, cost, time, and quality, which even if these limited set of criteria are achieved simply demonstrate the chance of matching two best guesses and a phenomena
SUCCESS CRITERIA Do we need Criteria? How do we find new criteria?
SUCCESS CRITERIA Maybe our factors are in errors It is also unreasonable to suggest that the factors that we focused over years are in errors It is possible to consider errors in two types
TWO TYPE ERRORS Type I : Things that has been done wrong. Type II: Things that has not been done as well as it could be.
CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS The delivery stage: the process : doing it right Post delivery stage: the system: getting it right Post delivery stage: the benefits : getting them right
THE DELIVERY STAGE: THE PROCESS : DOING IT RIGHT Everybody accept time, cost and quality as success criteria but NOT exclusively Temporary criteria are availabe during the delivery stage to gauge whether the project is going to plan Temporary criteria is used to carry out the measurement as a method of control.
THE DELIVERY STAGE: THE PROCESS : DOING IT RIGHT Some are in believe that when cost are used as control, they measure progress, which is NOT same as success. Projects measured against cost, time and quality are measuring the delivery stage,doing something right.
CONSIDER TABLE BELOW: The overarching purpose of a measurement system should be to help the team rather than top managers, gauge its progress. A truly empowered team must play the lead role in designing its own measurements system. Because the team is responsible for a value-delivery process that cuts across several functions … it must create measures to track that process. A team should adopt only a handful of measures (no more than 15), the most common results measures are cost and schedule
POST DELIVERY STAGE: THE SYSTEM: GETTING IT RIGHT Four most important stakeholders to decide are: Project manager Top manager Customer-client Team members Plus users and project staff
POST DELIVERY STAGE: THE SYSTEM: GETTING IT RIGHT SIX POST IMPLEMENTATION SYSTEMS CRITERIA TO MEASURE SUCCESS System quality Information quality Information Use Users satisfaction Individual impact Organisational impact
POST DELIVERY STAGE: THE BENEFITS : GETTING THEM RIGHT Iron triangle (time, cost and quality) is the subpart of The Square Route Square route is consist of Information system, organizational benefits and stakeholder community benefits.
TURNER’S FIVE-FUNCTIONS OF PROJECT-BASED MANAGEMENT AND SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN IT SERVICES PROJECTS investigate the critical elements of managing IT services projects by using Turner’s five-functions model to examine the relationships between project definition and scope, project organisation and the triangle of critical project outcomes.
THE RISE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN MODERN BUSINESS OPERATIONS Leach’s Observation : the quantitative evaluations of past projects indicate that as many as 30% of projects are cancelled before completion and surviving projects usually fail to deliver the full initial project scope or incur cost and time overruns, points to the need to understand how to manage for project success.
THE RISE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN MODERN BUSINESS OPERATIONS Increasing market pressures and technological changes have forced companies to look to project management as the ‘new’ form of general management. Present day project management has developed from a simple form to a more complex form for better overall control, improved customer relations and increased returns. Turner views project scope and project organization as the essential functions of project management. -Time, cost and quality of performance are ‘constraints’ which are influenced by the project scope and organization.
FIVE-FUNCTIONS OF PROJECT- BASED MANAGEMENT Scope Organization Time Quality Cost
THE RISE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT (MANAGEMENT THREE FUNCTIONS) Cost Schedule Time The cost breakdown structure represents the types of labor, materials and overhead costs budgeted for consumption by the project.
THE RISE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT (MANAGEMENT THREE FUNCTIONS) Time And Schedule The schedule of activities and their times is tracked through the use of networks and bar charts while quality is managed using techniques such as total quality management and other quality standards.
Turner views project scope and project organization as the essential functions of project management. Time, cost and quality of performance are ‘constraints’ which are influenced by the project scope and organization.
IT PROJECT MANAGEMENT IT project management is a sub-discipline of project management in which information technology projects are planned, monitored and controlled. The scope of the project is limited and is managed is managed through the product and work breakdown which are derived in authority of objectives from ‘vision, mission, facility, team and individual objectives.
IT PROJECT MANAGEMENT The project organization details the resources to be used and the organizing form of the project team whether functional, matrix or a hybrid mix of various forms. - In project management, structure adds value by defining tasks, responsibilities, authority levels, work-roles, and channels of communication and control systems.
LEADERSHIP IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT Turner mentioned that people roles such as leadership, member roles and teamwork by the size of organization are not easily discerned from the model. Leader’s role The project leader’s role in the constitution and maintenance of a team climate that is conducive to goal congruence is key.
WHAT IS ABOUT ? This paper examines the application of project management methodology to the development and delivery of online units within university environments, drawing from the experiences of three project managers at Southern Cross University.
Cultural change and staff development THE CHALLENGES OF ONLINE DEVELOPMENT
Is this a project (online course development) ? Is this process a management ? PROJECT MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY
ONLINE DEVELOPMENT: CULTURAL TRANSITION OR "PROJECT"? A project or transition ?
A ENVIRONMENT FOR DEVELOPING TOGETHER Partnerships and teamwork
The concept of the learning organisation repositions the focus away from "management" and onto "leadership". The learning organisation favors empowerment, individual capability, teams, learning and flexibility, over the more traditional models of management.Learning (and consequently staff development) is not seen as something which has to be organised by others. Rather, individuals have the capacity to learn continuously and in real time by interacting with their environment. LEARNING ORGANISATIONS: AN ALTERNATIVE PHILOSOPHY
IT & IS IN INDUSTIRES In this Fast growing technologies Competitive edge Organization’s success depends on effectively developing and adopting IS
FAILURE OF SOFTWARE Management Organizational or behavioral nature not technical In the computer industry their causes are covered up or ignored
MOST COMMONLY REPORTED CAUSES OF SOFTWARE PROJECT FAILURE Misunderstood requirements (business, technical, and social) Optimistic schedules and budgets Inadequate risk assessment and management Inconsistent standards and lack of training in project management Management of resources (people more than hardware and technology) Unclear charter for a project Lack of communication
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS (CSFS) The CSFs are the elements that make a project a success. These include trust, effective communication, top management support, etc.
KEY RESULT AREAS (KRAS) Key result areas (KRAs) are specific results that are needed to deliver a successful project.
PROJECT METRICS Proper measurement tools and metrics are necessary for effective control of projects A number of researchers have commented on the lack of project success criteria and on a lack of proper project metrics
PROJECT’S SUCCESS The first of these aspects is to identify what KRAs would be crucial to the successful accomplishment of the project. The second aspect is to link these KRAs and CSFs to corporate strategy and to gel buy-in of all the major stakeholders. The third aspect is to monitor, control, and measure those elements regarded as critical for project success.
PROJECT’S SUCCESS The fourth aspect is to identify project business drivers. This helps make project priorities very clear to everyone. The fifth aspect is to align all major stakeholders and the project team on KRAs, CSFs, project drivers, and metrics. Finally, it is important to have an understanding of the dynamics of these elements over various phases of the project.
OVERALL 10 MOST IMPORTANT CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS AND METRICS RankCritical success factorsProject metrics 1 Owner is informed of the project status and his/her approval is obtained at each stage Project completed on time or ahead of schedule 2 Owner is consulted at all stages of development and implementation Milestones are identified and met 3 Proper communication channels are established at appropriate levels in the project team Deliverables are identified 4 The project has a dearly defined mission The scope of the project is clearly defined and quantified 5 Top management is willing to provide the necessary resources (money, expertise, equipment) Activities and logical sequences are determined and scheduled (CPM) 6 The project achieves its stated business purposeProject completion is precisely defined 7 A detailed project plan (including time schedules, and milestones) with a detailed budget in place The project Is completed within a predetermined budget 8 The appropriate technology and expertise are available Resource requirements are identified and supplied as needed 9 Project changes are managed through a formal process Responsibilities are assigned 10 The project is completed with minimal and mutually agreed scope changes A specific new technology is adopted and accepted by end users
FOUR MOST SIGNIFICANT ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED AND TESTED IN THIS STUDY Link your project to corporate business strategy; Align major stakeholders on key issues; Simplify project controls and metrics; Make sure effective communication and expectation management is maintained throughout the project life.