Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: Cells, Reproduction, and Heredity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 1: Cells, Reproduction, and Heredity Cells are the basic units of all living things. Groups of cells form tissues that gather into organs and into organ systems. All of the characteristics of an organism are dictated to DNALesson 1: How Do Plant and Animal Cells Differ?Lesson 2: How Do Cells Work Together?Lesson 3: How Do Cells Reproduce?Lesson 4: How Are Traits Inherited?
2 Chapter 1: Cells, Reproduction, and Heredity ObjectivesExplain the cell theoryDescribe the functions of the various parts of plant and animal cellsDescribe how cells are organized in multicellular organismsDescribe the functions of organs and organ systemsDescribe the role of DNA in cell reproductionCompare and contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosisRecognize that an animal’s or a plant’s traits are inherited from its parentsDescribe how dominant and recessive genes affect inheritance of traits
3 Scientists noticed that every living organism they studied had cells. 30 - Lesson 1 - How Do Plant and Animal Cells Differ? 32 – The Cell TheoryIt was almost 200 years after the first microscope, that scientists began studying cells in detail.Scientists noticed that every living organism they studied had cells.They then developed a three-part theory about cells.
4 Cells are the building blocks of life 30 - Lesson 1 - How Do Plant and Animal Cells Differ? 32 – The Cell TheoryThree-Part TheoryCells are the building blocks of lifea. All living things are made up of cells.All life processes take place in cellsa. Growth and reproductionAll new cells are produced from existing cellsa. Living things begin life as a single cell, then divides. Each single cell divides until they begin to take on different function.
5 What are the three parts of the cell theory? Cells are building blocks of lifeAll life processes take place in cellsAll new cells are produced from existing cells
6 Organelles called vacuoles 34-The Part of a CellBoth Animal and Plant cells have organelles (which keep the cell alive and healthy) and cytoplasm (which holds them in place).Plant Cellanimal CellContain organellescalled chloroplastCell MembraneOrganelles called vacuolesNucleusHave mitochondriaCytoplasmNucleus MembraneDon’t have Cell WallsHas a cell wallVacuoles are small and have more than 1One large vacuole takes up most of the cell
7 Vocabulary34 – Chloroplasts – make the plant’s food by the process of photosynthesis34 – Cell Wall – A stiff outer layer that surrounds and protects the cell and give it shape.35 – Nucleus – The cell’s control center, directs all of the activities that take place inside the cell.35 – Chromosomes- The structures that carry an organism’s genetic information.
8 What are the functions of different organelles in plant and animal cells? The nucleus holds chromosomesMitochondria release energy from foodVacuoles store food and wastesChloroplasts manufacture food
9 Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins. 36 – The NucleusThe chromosomes in the nucleus contain instructions for all cell activities.Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins.DNA contains the codes that determine physical characteristics such as flower color in plants and hair color in humans.
10 Vocabulary36 – DNA – A chemical that provides detailed instructions to the cells about every function of life.
11 Why is the nucleus considered the control center of a cell? The chromosomes in the nucleus have instructions for all cell activities.
12 Lesson 1 Review Complete numbers 1-2 and 4-6 as a group. I will come around and stamp answer that are correct, all must have the same answer as that on the paper I stamp.
13 40 - Lesson 2 – How do cells work together 40 - Lesson 2 – How do cells work together? 40 – Specialized cells and tissuesSpecialized cells with similar structure and function form a tissue. This is the next level of organization above cells in both plants ad animals. There are 4 tissue types in humans.1. Epithelial tissue-contains cells that are packed together tightly2. Connective tissue-add support and structure to the body, fills spaces and stores fat.3. Muscle tissue-like elastic, job is to contract and relax.4. Nerve tissue-found in brain, spinal cord, nerves and sensory receptors. These are messages that are sent to the brain.
14 Vocabulary40 – Tissue – Specialized cells with similar structure and function
15 List the steps of how tissues help your hand move when you touch a hot stove Nerves in your hand send a message to the spinal cord.A reflex takes place when nerves in the spinal cord send signals to muscles in your hand that cause you to jerk it off the stove.Nerves send a message up the spinal cord.The brain receives pain from the burn.
16 tissues make up the organs 40 - Lesson 2 – How do cells work together? 42 – OrgansAn organ is a structure made up of at least two types of tissues that work together to perform a specific job in the body.The different organs are:BrainHeartBlood VesselsLungsSense OrgansStomachSmall IntestineLiverPancreasCells make up tissues;tissues make up the organs
17 Vocabulary42 – Organ– A structure made up of at least two types of tissues that work together to perform a specific job I the body.
18 Describe the levels of organization from cells to organs Cells make up tissuesTissues make up organs
19 Digestive: digests food 40 - Lesson 2 – How do cells work together? 42 – Organs SystemsAn organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function.Organ Systems are:Digestive: digests foodRespiratory: controls breathingCirculatory: Gives body oxygenSkeletal & Muscular: Provide & support movement for bodyIntegumentary: Skin, hair & nails that cover bodyExcretory: Removes wastes from bloodReproductive: Produces individualsEndocrine: Makes and sends chemicals called hormones to help control body activities
20 40 - Lesson 2 – How do cells work together? 42 – Organs Systems Plants have organs and organ systems.Roots, stems and leaves ore some of them.Inside the stem:Xylem tissue & Phloem: transport water and nutrientsEpithelial TissueRoot System: anchors the plant in the ground.Shoot System: Stems and LeavesStems: support the plantLeaves: make food
21 Describe the path of a blood cell as it leaves the heart until it returns to the heart. A red blood cell leaves the heart in an artery and goes to the lungs.In the lungs, the red blood cell picks up oxygen.The blood cell ten leaves the lungs and goes back to the heart.Next, the blood cell leaves the heart through the aorta and is carried by arteries and capillaries to all parts of the body.As it meets cells, it gives up its oxygen and takes on waste carbon dioxide.This blood returns to the heart via veins.
22 40 - Lesson 2 – How do cells work together? 46 – The Organism An organism is a complete living thing that relies on cells for life functions.What makes up an organism:Groups of cellsTwo or more tissuesAll organsAll organ systemsEvery human cell needs oxygen and nutrients and needs to get rid of carbon dioxide and other chemicals it can’t use.All the systems help one another work. No system or organ can work well alone.Humans are complex multicellular organisms.
23 List in order the levels of organization in the human body CellsTissuesOrgansOrgan Systems
24 Lesson 2 Review Complete numbers 1 and 3-6 as a group. I will come around and stamp answer that are correct, all must have the same answer as that on the paper I stamp.
25 50 - Lesson 3 – How Do Cells Reproduce? 50 – How Organisms Grow Asexual Reproduction-offspring of a single-cell gets all of its traits.Fertilization is where an egg cell and a sperm cell unite to form a single cell. The single cell then divides until an embryo is formed.As the cell grows, tissue is made to form organs and organ systems.Plants reproduce in a similar way. They form embryo’s inside the seeds. It doesn’t grow until conditions are right (weather).DNA controls your genes. They carry all the information for how you look, how you grow and how your body functions.
26 What happens within a fertilized egg, from the time it is a single cell to the time it forms tissues?It begins as a single cell that divides and becomes two cells.Thos two cells divide and there are four cells.Cell division continues until cells become specialized and form tissues.
27 Body cells make more body cells by mitosis. Mitosis has 6 stages. 50 - Lesson 3 – How Do Cells Reproduce? 52 – MitosisBody cells are not involved in producing offspring, but reproductive cells are.Body cells make more body cells by mitosis.Mitosis has 6 stages.After mitosis, the two new cells have the same number of chromosomes as the starting cell.
28 50 - Lesson 3 – How Do Cells Reproduce? 52 – Mitosis The 6 stages of Mitosis:1. Each chromosome duplicates itself. They are connected at their centers and bunched inside the nucleus.2. Chromosomes become rod-shaped. Nucleus membrane dissolves and chromosomes go into the cytoplasm.3. Long fibers attach to each chromosome pair to help position the chromosomes in the center of the dividing cell.4. Two copies of each chromosome separate and move to opposite ends of the cell.5. The fibers break down, chromosomes uncoil and nuclear membrane forms around each set of choromosomes.6. The cell then divides, forming two new cells. Mitosis is complete.
29 What has to happen before a cell can divide? The chromosomes must be duplicated.
30 50 - Lesson 3 – How Do Cells Reproduce? 54 - Meiosis Reproductive cells are produced by Meiosis and are responsible for reproduction in plants and animals.Before cells divide in Meiosis, the chromosomes are copied.Each group then separates and the two chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell and then divide. Each new cell has half of the chromosomes of the original cell, but has 2 copies of each.Each cell divides again and move to opposite sides of the cell. Each of the 4 new cell has ½ the chromosomes of the original cell.
31 How does Meiosis make four cells with 23 chromosomes from one cell with 46 chromosomes? It makes copies of its chromosomes first; then it divides into two cells, each with 46 chromosomes. Then these cells divide into two more cells, each with 23 chromosomes.
32 50 - Lesson 3 – How Do Cells Reproduce 50 - Lesson 3 – How Do Cells Reproduce? 56 – Genetic Variations in OrganismsAsexual reproduction occurs through mitosis. Cells that are produced have genetic material identical to their original cell. Which means, there is no genetic difference between a parent organism and its offspring.Sexual reproduction has genetic differences. This is a result of Meiosis. When a sperm and egg unite, they produce an organism with unique genetic makeup…it has only ½ its genes from each parent.
33 Which part of meiosis makes it possible for offspring to vary? When chromosomes from the parents come together, they split up randomly. Some chromosomes may exchange DNA with another. These steps allow for genetic variation.
34 Lesson 3 Review Complete numbers 2 and 4-6 as a group. I will come around and stamp answer that are correct, all must have the same answer as that on the paper I stamp.When finished, illustrate an example of mitosis and meiosis.
35 What are some traits that the Zebras on this page have? Zebras are long-lived animals that move quickly for their large size and have teeth built for grinding and cropping grass. Zebras have horse like bodies, but their manes are made of short, erect hair, their tails are tufted at the tip and their coats are striped.Did you know:Zebras have black skin under their stripes. Each zebra has its own stripe pattern much like each human’s fingerprints. The stripes are inherited traits.
36 How are traits Inherited? What are some human physical traits?
37 Mendel is considered the “father of genetics 59-Lesson 4 - How Are Traits Inherited? 60-Mendel’s ExperimentMendel observed and studied peas, plants and wildlife to find out how traits are passed on from generation to generation.He chose pea plants because he could control how they were fertilized and they are distinctive.Mendel cross-pollinated pea plants for many years and recorded his observations.Mendel is considered the “father of genetics
38 Exit TicketPlease include: One thing you learned today One thing you still want to know
39 Lesson 4 - How Are Traits Inherited Lesson 4 - How Are Traits Inherited? 62 – Dominant and Recessive FactorsTraits of the first generation had only one kind of trait. The traits of their offspring, always had a ratio of 3:1.One factor stays hidden in the first generation, but seen in the second generation.Some factors are stronger-dominant.Others are weaker-recessive.If an offspring has either 1 or 2 dominant factors, the trait will show up.A trait with a recessive factor will only show up if you have two of those recessive factors.TT=T Tt=T tt=t
40 Brown Eyed or Blue Eyed? One parent has Brown eyes One parent has Blue eyesBrown is the dominant colorChoose two cards to see what color of eyes you would have if you were their child.
41 What caused Mendel to conclude that the factor for tallness is dominant? Because the tall plant showed up three times as often as the short plant in the second generation.
42 Lesson 4 - How Are Traits Inherited? 64 – Genes and Inheritance There are about 35,000 genes on human DNAGenes from different parents combine randomly through sexual reproduction. That is why there are many possible variations in offspring.Traits are limited to appearance. playing sports, painting, singing, writing, personality, etc.These traits can skip generations of offspring.Example: My grandparents can draw, my parents can’t, my sister and I can!
43 Lesson 4 Review Complete numbers 1 and 3-6 as a group. I will roll the dice at the end of 30 minutes to see how we will be grading our papers!When finished, illustrate an example of mitosis and meiosis.