Presentation on theme: "The Romantic Era. Chapter 17: The Romantic Era OUTLINE The Concerns of Romanticism The Intellectual Background Music in the Romantic Era Beethoven Instrumental."— Presentation transcript:
The Romantic Era
Chapter 17: The Romantic Era OUTLINE The Concerns of Romanticism The Intellectual Background Music in the Romantic Era Beethoven Instrumental Music after Beethoven The Age of the Virtuosos Musical Nationalism Opera in Italy: Verdi Opera in Germany: Wagner Romantic Art Painting and the Turn of the Century: Goya Painting and Architecture in France: Romantics and Realists Painting in Germany and England Literature in the Nineteenth Century Goethe Romantic Poetry The Novel The Romantic Era in America American Literature American Painting Outline Chapter 17
Timeline Chapter 17: The Romantic Era Blake, Songs of Innocence and Experience 1798 Wordsworth, "Lines Written a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey" 1804 Beethoven, "Eroica" Symphony (to honor Napoleon) 1810 Goethe, Faust, Part I 1814 Goya, Executions of May 3, Mary Shelly, Frankenstein Balzac, The Human Comedy (90 realistic novels) 1834 Daumier, The Legislative Belly (Realism) 1837 Dickens, Oliver Twist 1840 Turner, The Slave Ship 1848 Marx, The Communist Manifesto 1854 Thoreau, Walden 1870 Homer, Eagle Head, Manchester, Massachusetts Timeline Chapter 17
The revolutionary changes that ushered in the nineteenth century, and that were to continue throughout it, profoundly affected society and culture. The industrialization of Europe produced vast changes in the life styles of millions of people. The Greek struggle for independence, the unification of Italy and of Germany, and the nationalist revolutionary uprisings of 1848 in many parts of Europe all radically changed the balance of power and the nature of society. The same period, furthermore, saw the gradual assertion of the United States, tested and tried by its own Civil War, as one of the leading Western nations. By the end of the nineteenth century America had not only established itself as a world power; it had produced artists, writers, and musicians who created works with an authentically American spirit. 19 th Century: The Results of Revolutions
A period of such widespread change was naturally also one of major intellectual ferment. The political philosophy of Karl Marx and the scientific speculations of Charles Darwin, influential in their day, remain powerful and controversial in the late twentieth century. The optimism of Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Hegel and the pessimism of Arthur Schopenhauer were reflected in numerous works of art. Intellectual Ferment: Darwin and Marx Charles DarwinKarl Marx
Romanticism in the Arts The artistic movement that developed alongside these ideas was romanticism. The romantics, for all their divergences, shared a number of common concerns. They sought to express their personal feelings in their works rather than search for some kind of abstract philosophical or religious "truth." They were attracted by the fantastic and the exotic, and by worlds remote in time-the Middle Ages-or in place-the mysterious Orient. Many of them felt a special regard for nature, in the context of which human achievement seemed so reduced. For some, on the other hand, the new age of industry and technology was itself exotic and exciting. Many romantic artists identified with the nationalist movements of the times and either supported their own country's fight for freedom (as in the case of Verdi) or championed the cause of others (as did Byron).
Music: Beethoven and his Successors In music the transition from the classical to the romantic style can be heard in the works of Ludwig van Beethoven. With roots deep in the classical tradition, Beethoven used music to express emotion in a revolutionary way, pushing traditional forms like the sonata to their limits. Typical of the age is his concern with freedom, which appears in Fidelio (his only opera), and human unity, as expressed in the last movement of the Ninth Symphony. Ludwig van Beethoven
Music: Other Composers Many of Beethoven's successors in the field of instrumental music continued to use symphonic forms for their major works. Among the leading symphonists of the century were Hector Berlioz, Johannes Brahms, and Anton Bruckner. Other composers, although they wrote symphonies, were more at home in the intimate world of songs and chamber music; they included Franz Schubert and Robert Schumann. The romantic emphasis on personal feelings and the display of emotion encouraged the development of another characteristic of nineteenth-century music: the virtuoso composer-performer. Frederic Chopin, Franz Liszt, and Niccolu Paganini all won international fame performing their own works. The nationalist spirit of the times was especially appealing to musicians who could draw on a rich tradition of folk music. The Russian Modest Moussorgsky and the Czech Bedrich Smetana both wrote works using national themes and folk tunes.
Opera: Wagner and Verdi The world of opera was dominated by two giants, Giuseppe Verdi and Richard Wagner. The former took the forms of early-nineteenth-century opera and used them to create powerful and dramatic masterpieces. An enthusiastic supporter of Italy's nationalist movement, Verdi never abandoned the basic elements of the Italian operatic tradition-expressive melody and vital rhythm-but he infused them with new dramatic truth. Wagner's quest for "music drama" led him in a very different direction. His works break with the operatic tradition of individual musical numbers; the music, in which the orchestra plays an important part, runs continuously from the beginning to the end of each act. In addition, the use of leading motifs to represent characters or ideas makes possible complex dramatic effects. Wagner's works revolutionized the development of both operatic and nonoperatic music, and his theoretical writings on music and much else made him one of the nineteenth century's leading cultural figures.
Romanticism and Realism in Nineteenth-century Painting: Goya Just as Beethoven spanned the transition from classical to romantic in music, so Francisco Goya, some of whose early works were painted in the rococo style, produced some of the most powerful of romantic paintings. His concern with justice and liberty, as illustrated in Execution of the Madrileos on May 3, 1808 and with the world of dreams, as in The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, was prototypical of much romantic art.
Francisco Goya The Clothed Maja Oil on canvas. The Nude Maja Oil on canvas.
Francisco Goya, continued THE 3th of MAY 1808 IN MADRID: THE EXECUTIONS ON PRINCIPE PIO HILL, 1814
Romanticism and Realism in Nineteenth-century Painting: Gericault, Delacroix, Daumier, Ingres In France, painters were divided into two camps. The fully committed romantics included Theodore Gericault, also concerned to point out injustice, and Eugene Delacroix, whose work touched on virtually every aspect of romanticism: nationalism, exoticism, eroticism. The other school was that of the realists. Honore Daumier's way of combating the corruption of his day was to portray it as graphically as possible. In the meantime Ingres waged his campaign against both progressive movements by continuing to paint in the academic neoclassical style of the preceding century-or at least his version of it.
Gericault The Raft of the Medusa 1819 Portrait of Insane Woman, 1822
Delacroix Moroccan Horseman Crossing a Ford about 1850 The Massacre at Chios 1824
Daumier The Uprising c. 1860
Ingres Odalisque with a Slave 1840 The Turkish Bath 1862
The World of Nature: Friedrich, Constable, Turner Painters in England and Germany were particul arly attracted by the romantic love of nature. Caspar David Friedrich used the grandeur of the natural world to underline the transitoriness of human achievement, while in John Constable's landscapes there is greater harmony between people and their surroundings. Joseph M. W. Turner, Constable's contemporary, falls into a category by himself. Although many of his subjects were romantic, his use of form and color make light and movement the real themes of his paintings.
Caspar David Friedrich Wanderer above the Sea of Fog 1818
Constable The Leaping Horse 1825
Turner Ulysses deriding Polyphemus 1829 The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, 16th October, 1834, 1835
Turner, continued Rain, Steam and Speed 1844
From Neoclacissism to Romanticism in Literature Goethe In literature no figure dominated his time more than Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the German poet, dramatist, and novelist. One of the first writers to break the fetters of neoclassicism, he nonetheless continued to produce neoclassical works as well as more romantic ones. The scale of his writings runs from the most intimate love lyrics to the monumental two parts of his Faust drama. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
The Romantic Poets and the Novel The work of the English romantic poets William Wordsworth, Percy Bysshe Shelley, John Keats, and George Gordon, Lord Byron touched on all the principal romantic themes. Other English writers used the novel as a means of expressing their concern with social issues, as in the case of Charles Dickens, or their absorption with strong emotion, as did Emily BrontÎ. Indeed, the nineteenth century was the great age of the novel, with HonorÈ de Balzac and Gustave Flaubert writing in France and-above all-Leo Tolstoy in Russia. Lord George Gordon Byron Percy Bysshe Shelly John Keats
The Nineteenth Century in America The Romantic Era was the first period in which American artists created their own original styles rather than borrow them from Europe. Love of nature inspired writers like Henry David Thoreau and painters like Thomas Cole. The description of strong emotions, often personal ones, characterizes the poetry of Walt Whitman and many of the paintings of Winslow Homer. Thomas Eakins, with his interest in realism, made use of a nineteenth-century invention that had an enormous impact on the visual arts: photography.
Thomas Cole The Voyage of Life: Childhood begun 1839 The Voyage of Life: Youth begun 1839
Winslow Homer Watching the Tempest 1881 Watercolor over graphite The Woodcutter 1891 Watercolor over graphite
Thomas Eakins The Biglen Brothers Racing 1873 Max Schmitt in a Single Scull 1871
The situation at the end of the 19 th Century By the end of the century the audience for art of all kinds had expanded immeasurably. No longer commissioned by the church or the aristocracy, artworks expressed the hopes and fears of individual artists and of humanity at large. Furthermore, as the revolutionaries of the eighteenth century had dreamed, they had helped bring about social change. 19th Century US Expansion 19 th Century Europe