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SPORTS AND PROTO INDUSTRIAL U.S. NINETEENTH CENTURY.

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Presentation on theme: "SPORTS AND PROTO INDUSTRIAL U.S. NINETEENTH CENTURY."— Presentation transcript:

1 SPORTS AND PROTO INDUSTRIAL U.S. NINETEENTH CENTURY

2 OVERVIEW URBANIZATION PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS URBANIZATION PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN AMERICAN CITIES DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN AMERICAN CITIES RELIGIOUS LEADERS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES RELIGIOUS LEADERS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES CRUSADE AGAINST “BLOOD SPORTS” CRUSADE AGAINST “BLOOD SPORTS” MUSCULAR CHRISTIANITY MUSCULAR CHRISTIANITY TURNER SOCIETIES TURNER SOCIETIES

3 URBANIZATION PROCESS IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE CIVIL WAR THE UNITED STATES EXPERIENCED AN ACCELERATED PROCESS OF URBANIZATION IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE CIVIL WAR THE UNITED STATES EXPERIENCED AN ACCELERATED PROCESS OF URBANIZATION MASSIVE POPULATION MOVEMENTS TRANSFERRED PEOPLE FROM THE COUNTRYSIDE INTO THE CITIES, AND FROM EUROPE INTO THE U.S. MASSIVE POPULATION MOVEMENTS TRANSFERRED PEOPLE FROM THE COUNTRYSIDE INTO THE CITIES, AND FROM EUROPE INTO THE U.S. ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATIONS GENERATED SIGNIFICANT DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFTS IN WHICH YOUNG MALE IMMIGRANTS AND MIGRANTS RELOCATED TO AMERICAN CITIES FROM EITHER EUROPE OR RURAL AREAS IN THE COUNTRY. ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATIONS GENERATED SIGNIFICANT DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFTS IN WHICH YOUNG MALE IMMIGRANTS AND MIGRANTS RELOCATED TO AMERICAN CITIES FROM EITHER EUROPE OR RURAL AREAS IN THE COUNTRY.

4 URBANIZATION PROCESS THE URBANIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES CREATED A CITY DEMOGRAPHIC LANDSCAPE WITH LARGE NUMBERS OF SINGLE YOUNG MALES WHO MADE A LIVING IN THE NEW MANUFACTURING AND SERVICE INDUSTRIES THE URBANIZATION IN THE UNITED STATES CREATED A CITY DEMOGRAPHIC LANDSCAPE WITH LARGE NUMBERS OF SINGLE YOUNG MALES WHO MADE A LIVING IN THE NEW MANUFACTURING AND SERVICE INDUSTRIES SUCH TRANSITION MADE POSSIBLE THE FORMATION IN AMERICAN CITIES OF LARGE GROUPS OF MEN LIVING IN A RELATIVE PROSPEROUS ENVIRONMENT WITH HIGHER INCOME THAN THEIR COUNTERPARTS IN EUROPE AND THE COUNTRYSIDE, AND MORE FREE TIME TO PARTICIPATE IN LEISURE ACTIVITIES. SUCH TRANSITION MADE POSSIBLE THE FORMATION IN AMERICAN CITIES OF LARGE GROUPS OF MEN LIVING IN A RELATIVE PROSPEROUS ENVIRONMENT WITH HIGHER INCOME THAN THEIR COUNTERPARTS IN EUROPE AND THE COUNTRYSIDE, AND MORE FREE TIME TO PARTICIPATE IN LEISURE ACTIVITIES.

5 URBANIZATION PROCESS IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19 TH CENTURY THE U.S. STARTED A RAPID PROCESS OF URBANIZATION, PRECIPITATED BY THE TRANSITION TO CAPITALISM. ADVANCES IN TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS MADE POSSIBLE SUCH MASSIVE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITIONS. BY1860 THE U.S. COUNTED WITH MORE THAN 30,000 MILES RAILROAD NETWORK. IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19 TH CENTURY THE U.S. STARTED A RAPID PROCESS OF URBANIZATION, PRECIPITATED BY THE TRANSITION TO CAPITALISM. ADVANCES IN TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS MADE POSSIBLE SUCH MASSIVE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITIONS. BY1860 THE U.S. COUNTED WITH MORE THAN 30,000 MILES RAILROAD NETWORK. BY % OF THE U.S. POPULATION 20% RESIDED IN URBAN AREAS, AND APPROX. 47% OF THE GENERAL POPULATION HAD AN INCOME FROM OTHER THAN AGRICULTURE SECTORS. BY % OF THE U.S. POPULATION 20% RESIDED IN URBAN AREAS, AND APPROX. 47% OF THE GENERAL POPULATION HAD AN INCOME FROM OTHER THAN AGRICULTURE SECTORS. POPULATION MOVEMENTS, EAST TO WEST, COUNTRYSIDE TO CITIES. POPULATION MOVEMENTS, EAST TO WEST, COUNTRYSIDE TO CITIES. NATIONAL JOB MARKET: RURAL-AGRICULTURE TO URBAN-MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES NATIONAL JOB MARKET: RURAL-AGRICULTURE TO URBAN-MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

6 TECHNOLOGY AND SPORTS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (RAILROADS REPLACED STEAMERS & HORSE POWER) TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM (RAILROADS REPLACED STEAMERS & HORSE POWER) TIME-MEASURED LABOR ACTIVITIES, MASS PRODUCTION ACCORDING TO TIME- FRAGMENTED LABOR TIME-MEASURED LABOR ACTIVITIES, MASS PRODUCTION ACCORDING TO TIME- FRAGMENTED LABOR INFORMATION & MEDIA: REGULAR WEEKLY-DAILY NEWSPAPERS INFORMATION & MEDIA: REGULAR WEEKLY-DAILY NEWSPAPERS RAPID URBANIZATION RAPID URBANIZATION INCREASE PER CAPITA INCOME INCREASE PER CAPITA INCOME

7 DEMOGRAPHIC BASE FOR MODERN SPORTS PEOPLE LIVING IN THE CITIES (MERCHANTS, LABORERS, SMALL BUSINESS MEN, CLERKS, BUREAUCRATS, APPRENTICES. PEOPLE LIVING IN THE CITIES (MERCHANTS, LABORERS, SMALL BUSINESS MEN, CLERKS, BUREAUCRATS, APPRENTICES. SINGLE MEN WITH AVERAGE INCOME, SOME EDUCATION, AND FREE TIME, IMMIGRANTS. SINGLE MEN WITH AVERAGE INCOME, SOME EDUCATION, AND FREE TIME, IMMIGRANTS. INTEREST IN SOCIAL MOBILITY, OPTIMISTIC VIEW INTEREST IN SOCIAL MOBILITY, OPTIMISTIC VIEW FREE TIME AND MONEY FOR RECREATIONAL PURPOSES FREE TIME AND MONEY FOR RECREATIONAL PURPOSES RESENTMENT OF URBAN IMPERSONAL AND LONELY CHARACTER RESENTMENT OF URBAN IMPERSONAL AND LONELY CHARACTER

8 DEMOGRAPHIC BASE FOR MODERN SPORTS SPORTING COMMUNITIES WERE CREATED BY SINGLE YOUNG MEN TRYING TO FIND AND CREATE RECREATIONAL AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES IN THE URBAN LANDSCAPE SPORTING COMMUNITIES WERE CREATED BY SINGLE YOUNG MEN TRYING TO FIND AND CREATE RECREATIONAL AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES IN THE URBAN LANDSCAPE SUCH SPORTING COMMUNITIES IN LARGE AMERICAN CITIES PROVIDED THE DEMOGRAPHIC “FAN” BASE FOR THE EMERGENCE OF ORGANIZED SPORTS AND SPORTS AS FORMS OF ENTERTAINMENT SUCH SPORTING COMMUNITIES IN LARGE AMERICAN CITIES PROVIDED THE DEMOGRAPHIC “FAN” BASE FOR THE EMERGENCE OF ORGANIZED SPORTS AND SPORTS AS FORMS OF ENTERTAINMENT PRIZEFIGHTING AND BASEBALL EMERGED AS THE MOST IMPORTANT SPORTS. PRIZEFIGHTING AND BASEBALL EMERGED AS THE MOST IMPORTANT SPORTS.

9 URBANIZATION, RELIGION AND SPORTS THE RAPID PROCESS OF URBANIZATION IN 19 TH CENTURY U.S. GENERATED A SIGNIFICANT SHIFT IN THE WAY RELIGIOUS LEADERS VALUED AND CONCEPTUALIZED SPORTS. THE RAPID PROCESS OF URBANIZATION IN 19 TH CENTURY U.S. GENERATED A SIGNIFICANT SHIFT IN THE WAY RELIGIOUS LEADERS VALUED AND CONCEPTUALIZED SPORTS. FROM CONSIDERING SPORTS A DISTRACTION AND DEVIATION FROM SABBATH ACTIVITIES, RELIGIOUS LEADERS STARTED TO VIEW SPORTS AS A HEALTHY VENUE TO KEEP YOUNG MEN OCCUPIED AND AWAY FROM POTENTIAL TROUBLE IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT. FROM CONSIDERING SPORTS A DISTRACTION AND DEVIATION FROM SABBATH ACTIVITIES, RELIGIOUS LEADERS STARTED TO VIEW SPORTS AS A HEALTHY VENUE TO KEEP YOUNG MEN OCCUPIED AND AWAY FROM POTENTIAL TROUBLE IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT. PHYSICAL ACTIVITES WERE NOW CONSIDERED A POSITIVE ANTIDOTE AGAINST THE DANGERS OF URBANIZATION PHYSICAL ACTIVITES WERE NOW CONSIDERED A POSITIVE ANTIDOTE AGAINST THE DANGERS OF URBANIZATION

10 URBANIZATION, RELIGION AND SPORTS TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE: SPORTS=DISTRACTION FROM GOD, DISTRACTION FROM WORK. TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE: SPORTS=DISTRACTION FROM GOD, DISTRACTION FROM WORK. SPORTS= NEST FOR VICE, CRIME, SINS. SPORTS= NEST FOR VICE, CRIME, SINS. GAMBLING= DISHONEST EARNINGS, ECONOMIC RUIN FOR HOUSEHOLDS. GAMBLING= DISHONEST EARNINGS, ECONOMIC RUIN FOR HOUSEHOLDS. GAMBLING= FORETELLING THE FUTURE, KNOWLEDGE RESERVED ONLY TO GOD. GAMBLING= FORETELLING THE FUTURE, KNOWLEDGE RESERVED ONLY TO GOD. RELIGIOUS LEADERS LOOK FOR WAYS TO SEPARATE URBAN SPORTS FROM DRINKING AND GAMBLING RELIGIOUS LEADERS LOOK FOR WAYS TO SEPARATE URBAN SPORTS FROM DRINKING AND GAMBLING

11 URBANIZATION, RELIGION AND SPORTS AS MORE PEOPLE LIVE IN CITIES UNSUPERVISED BY RELIGIOUS AUTHORITIES, A CRUSADE AGAINST SPORTS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING GAMBLING AND DRINKING BEGAN TO GAIN SUPPORT IN THE COUNTRY AS MORE PEOPLE LIVE IN CITIES UNSUPERVISED BY RELIGIOUS AUTHORITIES, A CRUSADE AGAINST SPORTS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING GAMBLING AND DRINKING BEGAN TO GAIN SUPPORT IN THE COUNTRY THE CAMPAIGNS AGAINST “BLOOD SPORTS” AND “NIGHT LIFE” WERE ACCOMPANIED BY A STRONG CONDEMNATION TO PROHIBITION OF BOXING, COCKFIGHTING, ANIMAL BAITING, ANIMAL CONTESTS. THE CAMPAIGNS AGAINST “BLOOD SPORTS” AND “NIGHT LIFE” WERE ACCOMPANIED BY A STRONG CONDEMNATION TO PROHIBITION OF BOXING, COCKFIGHTING, ANIMAL BAITING, ANIMAL CONTESTS. BLOOD SPORTS AT THE ROOT OF DRINKING, GAMBLING AND CRIME. BLOOD SPORTS AT THE ROOT OF DRINKING, GAMBLING AND CRIME. BOXING BECAME AN ILLEGAL ACTIVITY ACROSS THE COUNTRY BOXING BECAME AN ILLEGAL ACTIVITY ACROSS THE COUNTRY

12 URBANIZATION, RELIGION AND SPORTS URBAN LIFE, NEGATIVE IMPACT ON FAMILIES: SEPARATION FROM THEIR ORIGINAL COMMUNITY, ORIGINAL VALUES. URBAN LIFE, NEGATIVE IMPACT ON FAMILIES: SEPARATION FROM THEIR ORIGINAL COMMUNITY, ORIGINAL VALUES. HOUSEHOLD HEAD, NO LONGER A PERMANENT-STABLE STATUS. HOUSEHOLD HEAD, NO LONGER A PERMANENT-STABLE STATUS. BOYS GROWING UP IN THE CITIES WITHOUT CONTROL OR SUPERVISION. BOYS GROWING UP IN THE CITIES WITHOUT CONTROL OR SUPERVISION. SHIFT FROM PHYSICAL TO WHITE COLLAR OCCUPATIONS, DISASTROUS EFFECTS IN MEN’S CHARACTER. SHIFT FROM PHYSICAL TO WHITE COLLAR OCCUPATIONS, DISASTROUS EFFECTS IN MEN’S CHARACTER. COUNTRYSIDE MEN: STRONGER, MORE MASCULINE, BETTER VALUES, BETTER LIFE. COUNTRYSIDE MEN: STRONGER, MORE MASCULINE, BETTER VALUES, BETTER LIFE.

13 URBANIZATION, RELIGION AND SPORTS RELIGIOUS AND EDUCATION LEADERS SEARCHED TO DEVELOP NEW KINDS OF MODERATE, NON-VIOLENT EXERCISE, IDEAL FOR BOYS IN URBAN AREAS. RELIGIOUS AND EDUCATION LEADERS SEARCHED TO DEVELOP NEW KINDS OF MODERATE, NON-VIOLENT EXERCISE, IDEAL FOR BOYS IN URBAN AREAS. TEAM SPORTS, CHARACTER SHAPING ACTIVITY. TEAM SPORTS, CHARACTER SHAPING ACTIVITY. SPORTS UNDER SUPERVISION STARTED TO BE RECONCEIVED AS IDEAL VENUES TO CHANNEL AND FACILITATE THE TRANSITION TO TURN BOYS INTO MEN. SPORTS UNDER SUPERVISION STARTED TO BE RECONCEIVED AS IDEAL VENUES TO CHANNEL AND FACILITATE THE TRANSITION TO TURN BOYS INTO MEN.

14 MUSCULAR CHRISTIANITY DOCTRINE ORIGINATED IN ENGLAND, VERY POPULAR IN THE U.S. 19 TH CENT. ORIGINATED IN ENGLAND, VERY POPULAR IN THE U.S. 19 TH CENT. PHYSICAL EXERCISE WAS LINKED TO SPIRITUAL HEALTH AND HIGH MORAL VALUES PHYSICAL EXERCISE WAS LINKED TO SPIRITUAL HEALTH AND HIGH MORAL VALUES URBANIZATION DEPRIVED YOUNG MEN OF THEIR ANCESTORS’ STRENGHT AND COURAGE IN THE COUNTRYSIDE URBANIZATION DEPRIVED YOUNG MEN OF THEIR ANCESTORS’ STRENGHT AND COURAGE IN THE COUNTRYSIDE

15 MUSCULAR CHRISTIANITY EXERCISE/SPORTS= AN ANTIDOTE TO SEXUAL DRIVE AND BODY SELF-CONTROL IN YOUNG MEN EXERCISE/SPORTS= AN ANTIDOTE TO SEXUAL DRIVE AND BODY SELF-CONTROL IN YOUNG MEN SEXUAL EXCESS AND DEVIATIONS LINKED TO LACK OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY SEXUAL EXCESS AND DEVIATIONS LINKED TO LACK OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CITY LIFE VICES COULD BE PREVENTED BY SUPERVISED EXERCISE AND SPORTS. CITY LIFE VICES COULD BE PREVENTED BY SUPERVISED EXERCISE AND SPORTS. SEXUAL RESTRAINT ACHIEVABLE THROUGH SPORTS SEXUAL RESTRAINT ACHIEVABLE THROUGH SPORTS

16 MUSCULAR CHRISTIANITY SPORTS, A TOOL IN BUILDING CHARACTER SPORTS, A TOOL IN BUILDING CHARACTER URBAN LIFE CREATED EFFEMINATED AND SOFT MEN, ONLY EXERCISE AND SPORTS COULD RESTORE MANHOOD. URBAN LIFE CREATED EFFEMINATED AND SOFT MEN, ONLY EXERCISE AND SPORTS COULD RESTORE MANHOOD. SPORTS DISCIPLINE AND VALUES WOULD TURN BOYS INTO MEN IN A GRADUAL PROCESS. SPORTS DISCIPLINE AND VALUES WOULD TURN BOYS INTO MEN IN A GRADUAL PROCESS.

17 TURNER SOCIETIES IN ADDITION TO THE MUSCULAR CHRISTIANITY DOCTRINE, OTHER EUROPEAN TRADITIONS REGARDING PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTS INFLUENCED THE U.S. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE 19 TH CENTURY. IN ADDITION TO THE MUSCULAR CHRISTIANITY DOCTRINE, OTHER EUROPEAN TRADITIONS REGARDING PHYSICAL EXERCISE IN SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTS INFLUENCED THE U.S. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE 19 TH CENTURY. TURNER SOCIETIES, A TRADITION BROUGHT IN TO THE UNITED STATES BY GERMAN IMMIGRANTS, PLAYED A SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN THE INTRODUCTION OF THE “GYMNASIUM” AS A SEPARATE SPACE SPECIFICALLY DEDICATED TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN RECREATIONAL CLUBS FIRST AND SCHOOLS LATER. TURNER SOCIETIES, A TRADITION BROUGHT IN TO THE UNITED STATES BY GERMAN IMMIGRANTS, PLAYED A SIGNIFICANT ROLE IN THE INTRODUCTION OF THE “GYMNASIUM” AS A SEPARATE SPACE SPECIFICALLY DEDICATED TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN RECREATIONAL CLUBS FIRST AND SCHOOLS LATER.

18 TURNER SOCIETIES GERMAN SOCIAL CLUBS FOR THE YOUTH GERMAN SOCIAL CLUBS FOR THE YOUTH BERLIN 1811 TURNVEREIN CREATED BY FREDERICK L. JAHN. BERLIN 1811 TURNVEREIN CREATED BY FREDERICK L. JAHN GENERATION IMMIGRANTS BROUGHT THE TURNERS INTO THE U.S GENERATION IMMIGRANTS BROUGHT THE TURNERS INTO THE U.S. SOCIAL CENTERS W/ LIBRARY, BAR, DANCING HALL AND GYM. SOCIAL CENTERS W/ LIBRARY, BAR, DANCING HALL AND GYM.

19 TURNER SOCIETIES 1851 NATIONAL GYMNASTICS FESTIVAL IN PHILADELPHIA 1851 NATIONAL GYMNASTICS FESTIVAL IN PHILADELPHIA 1881 U.S.-GERMANY COMPETITIONS 1881 U.S.-GERMANY COMPETITIONS PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE CLUBS PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE CLUBS 1893 CHICAGO’S WORLD FAIR, EXERCISE DISPLAY 1893 CHICAGO’S WORLD FAIR, EXERCISE DISPLAY 1898 U.S. COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION INTRODUCED SCHOOL GYMNASTICS AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION, INSPIRED BY THE TURNER MODEL U.S. COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION INTRODUCED SCHOOL GYMNASTICS AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION, INSPIRED BY THE TURNER MODEL.

20 CLASS HOMEWORK READ THE HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS IN RIESS’ BOOK ON McCOY’S DEATH AND THE “BOSTON RAT PITS” PP. 54 AND 56. READ THE HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS IN RIESS’ BOOK ON McCOY’S DEATH AND THE “BOSTON RAT PITS” PP. 54 AND 56. USING THESE EXAMPLES, CONSIDER THE PROS AND CONS OF PROHIBITING “BLOOD SPORTS”. USING THESE EXAMPLES, CONSIDER THE PROS AND CONS OF PROHIBITING “BLOOD SPORTS”.


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