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WESTERN FRONTIER 1865-1900. SETTLEMENT Before 1860, nicknamed the “Great American Desert” –Winter blizzards –Hot summers –Discouraged settlement By 1900-covered.

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Presentation on theme: "WESTERN FRONTIER 1865-1900. SETTLEMENT Before 1860, nicknamed the “Great American Desert” –Winter blizzards –Hot summers –Discouraged settlement By 1900-covered."— Presentation transcript:


2 SETTLEMENT Before 1860, nicknamed the “Great American Desert” –Winter blizzards –Hot summers –Discouraged settlement By 1900-covered with settlers –Miners, cattlemen (cowboys), farmers

3 MINERS 1848-Gold discovered in California 1859-Gold discovered in Colorado & silver discovered in Nevada 1/3 rd of all miners were Chinese Establishment of major western cities –Sacramento –San Francisco –Denver –Known as “safety values” Civilized society in an uncivilized land

4 CATTLEMEN (COWBOYS) Open grassland of Great Plains-ideal for running cattle Learned from Mexican vaqueros Texas Longhorns Cattle towns-ship cows on railroad to Chicago for butchering –Abilene, Kansas-most famous Most cowboys-former slaves & Mexicans Long drives end due to drought, blizzards, & homesteaders


6 FARMERS (HOMESTEADERS) Homestead Act (1862) –Gave 160 acres of land to any family who would farm it for 5 years –500,000 families signed up Barbed Wire (1874) –Invented by Joseph Glidden –Fenced in the land from invaders Great Oklahoma land race (1889)


8 “TURNER’S THESIS” 1890-US census declared the “frontier” settled Frederick Jackson Turner –Writes “The Significance of the Frontier in American History”(1893) Known as “Turner’s Thesis” –Frontier necessary Promoted independence Broke down social barriers Encouraged invention Condemned to follow pattern of class division & social conflicts in European countries

9 AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION By late 1800s, farmers minority in America –amount of farm land increased (more acres) –Number of farmers decreased Why? –New farm machinery –Specialization –Small farmers can’t compete Sell or lose farms Lower prices & rising costs hurt all farmers Decide to fight back against banks & railroads through the government

10 NATIONAL GRANGE MOVEMENT 1868-Oliver Kelley organizes the Patrons of Husbandry –Purpose: social & educational activities for farmers –Talk turns to politics-Became “Grangers”

11 NATIONAL GRANGE MOVEMENT Grange laws-reduced rates of railroads Interstate Commerce Act –First federal regulation of private industry –Public utilities-”rates must be reasonable & just” –Interstate Commerce Commission By 1890-one million farmers had joined

12 FARMERS’ ALLIANCE 1890-Grange changes name to Alliance Third political party status Platform –Direct election of Senators –Lower tariff rates –Graduated income tax –Regulated banking system –Increase money in circulation –Federal storage for crops –Federal loans for farmers

13 POPULIST PARTY 1892-Farmers’ Alliance changed name to Populist Met in Omaha, NE –Nominate candidates –Form platform Platform –Direct election of senators –State laws agreed by voters –Increase money supply –Graduated income tax –Federal ownership of public utilities –Stabilize farm prices –8 hour day for industrial workers-why?

14 POPULIST PARTY Successful? –Election of 1892-James Weaver Received 1 million popular votes & 22 electoral votes More than any other 3 rd party candidate –Election of 1896-William Jennings Bryan Nominated by both Democrats & Populists Fails to win industrialized north –Declined after 1896, but… Two planks of platform eventually passed by Progressive Party –Direct election of senators & graduated income tax


16 REMOVAL OF NATIVE AMERICANS Since the 1830s-Reservation Policy With American settlement of the Great Plaines-need to move Natives again Plans interrupted by Civil War & Natives took advantage by leaving reservations

17 INDIAN WARS 1870-1890 Civil War veterans sent to “take care” of Indian problem Better weapons & desensitized to war By 1868-90% of Natives on Reservations, the rest considered “hostile” and were warned to go to reservations Conducted “winter campaigns” –Tribes stationary –Horse in hibernation –Culture taught-catch Indians off guard

18 INDIAN WARS 1870-1890 Most known battle-Little Big Horn –June 25, 1877 –7 th Calvary led by George Armstrong Custer –Sioux Indians led by Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse –Custer’s Big Mistake –Custer killed & Calvary massacred


20 INDIAN WARS 1870-1890 Longest hold out –Chief Joseph & Nez Perce tribe –“I will fight no more forever.” Slaughter of the buffalo & poisoning of the rivers led to ultimate demise of Plaines Indians Dawes Act (1887) –New Indian policy-assimilation/destroy Indian Culture –Established Indian Bureau of Schools

21 INDIAN WARS 1870-1890 Ghost Dance –Indians losing hope –Dream of Nevada Paiute-Wovoka “Messiah” Indian-save from reservation & bring back buffalo Created Ghost Dance-all Natives perform at same time 1890-Federal government outlaws ghost dance

22 INDIAN WARS 1870-1890 Massacre at Wounded Knee –Group of Sioux Indians on way to reservation –Camp outside of military fort –Performed the Ghost Dance –Troops come to arrest leaders & take weapons –Fighting breaks out-troops win –Blizzard hits-lasts for 3 days –When troops go back to camp-only 6 adults & 3 children left out of 300 –Considered the last battle of the Indian Wars


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