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On the Verge of Empire: Defining Manifest Destiny Mr. Phipps U.S. History.

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1 On the Verge of Empire: Defining Manifest Destiny Mr. Phipps U.S. History

2 California State Standards 11.4 Students trace the rise of the United States to its role as a world power in the twentieth century. 11.4.1. List the purpose and the effects of the Open Door policy. 11.4.2. Describe the Spanish-American War and U.S. expansion in the South Pacific 11.4.4. Explain Theodore Roosevelt's Big Stick diplomacy, William Taft's Dollar Diplomacy, and Woodrow Wilson's Moral Diplomacy, drawing on relevant speeches.

3 Frederick Jackson Turner Historian from University of Wisconsin Wrote groundbreaking thesis The Frontier in American History (1893) Justified American expansionism Companion and admirer of Theodore Roosevelt, an avowed expansionist

4 Manifest Destiny The term, “Manifest Destiny” used first in 1840s, during Jackson’s expansion into the west Term later used synonymously for American expansionism and imperialism (usually positively) Used to describe:  The virtue of Americans and their democratic institutions  Their mission to spread these institutions  Their destiny, under God, to spread these virtues

5 Turner’s Thesis Turner justified American expansion by tying it to American character  The history of the U.S. was the history of expansion: Constant geographical expansion Taming the wilderness The availability of cheap land Limitless horizons, Potential  The U.S. was fundamentally different than European peers: Little competition for land Land was cheap and a safety valve for poorer classes Land grants (e.g. Oklahoma land grants) available to all classes from the government Land defined American character and actualized the experience of being “American” John Locke’s idea of“Life, Liberty, and Property”  Warned that loss of land, or inability to expand, would result in: Social struggle Urban decay Political stagnation The ending of liberty


7 So What? American identity related to land America was unique because it had so much land By 1893, when Turner published his thesis, there was still much land available The adoption and acceptance of Turner’s thesis indicates a policy shift  The U.S. has to plan ahead  The U.S. has to ensure the blessings of life, liberty, and property  If the U.S. doesn’t continue policy of expansionism, the U.S. would become like any other European monarchy

8 Distortions of the Paradigm: Why did the U.S. take it? Pragmatic School: Because it was there Ideological School: Because the U.S. wanted to spread liberty, democracy, and freedom Divine School: Because God intended the U.S. to settle, which is why (S)He allowed the Mayflower to land, the Revolutionaries to win, etc Militant School: Because there were national security threats with Britain, Spain, Mexico, Russia, France, and Germany

9 Which is the correct answer? ALL OF THEM!!! U.S. policy was motivated and shaped by individuals, by groups, by power structures (business, government, the wealthy, etc), and by the mission of the U.S. to preserve its ideals

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