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Imperialism during the late 19 th and early 20 th century.

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Presentation on theme: "Imperialism during the late 19 th and early 20 th century."— Presentation transcript:

1 Imperialism during the late 19 th and early 20 th century

2 Goal 6: Emergence of the United States in World Affairs Imperialism: United States extending beyond its borders to acquire overseas colonies and territories

3 Reasons for United States Imperialism Economic – could create more economic markets – Spheres of Influence concept: territories or nations over which a nation exercised control – Mercantilism-policy which holds that the nation should accumulate wealth by exporting more products than imports



6 What is the message in this political cartoon?

7 Reasons for United States Imperialism Security – 1890: Captain Alfred T. Mahan- suggested in his book titled “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History” the United States must build a powerful navy if it ever hoped to be a world power and protect it’s interests abroad – By 1900, United States had one of most powerful navies in the world

8 Reasons for United States Imperialism Adventure & Purpose (National Spirit & Destiny) – United States had conquered the western hemisphere, so it was time to tackle the eastern hemisphere – Frederick Jackson Turner 1861-1932: FRONTIER THESIS

9 Reasons for United States Imperialism Manifest Destiny – United States should expand it’s borders nationwide and even past the Pacific & Atlantic Oceans – Many saw it as God’s plan for United States to take the responsibility of whites civilizing and taking democracy to the rest of the world

10 Reasons for United States Imperialism Social Darwinism – What is Social Darwinism? – United States should exercise it’s control over “less fit” and “inferior” races and nations

11 Reasons for United States Imperialism Racial Superiority – People like Josiah Strong 1847-1916 believed in racial superiority – Anglo-Saxon Superiority: idea that English speaking whites are biologically superior to other races  thus expansion was both noble and nation’s destiny

12 Why did the United States imperialize?

13 1st Attempt @ United States Imperialism United States attempted conquest during Spanish American War Rudyard Kipling: British writer who wrote a famous poem “White Man’s Burden”

14 Goal 6.01 Practice EOC Questions

15 What was Frederick Jackson Turner’s MAIN reason for encouraging imperialism? – He believed in mercantilism – He believed it essential to maintain the national spirit and keep the US strong – He believed that the US had to have a strong navy – He believed it was the “white man’s burden”

16 1.How did imperialists in the US interpret Kipling’s poem, The White Man’s Burden?

17 What is mercantilism and why did its supporters want to see the United States engage in imperialism? A.Mercantilism is the belief that a nation should conquer new territories and establish colonies. Its supporters advocated imperialism because imperialism would guarantee that the US exported more than it imported B.Mercantilism is the belief that white society has an obligation to civilize “lesser” peoples. Its supported advocated imperialism because they felt that the best way to accomplish this was through conquest C.Mercantilism is the belief that a nation should build wealth by exporting more than it imports. Its supporters advocated imperialism because it would allow the US to acquire ore resources and become less depended on foreign nations D.Mercantilism is the “white man’s burden”. It’s supporters advocated imperialism because they wanted to conquer the Philippines

18 Goal 6: Emergence of the United States in World Affairs Goal 6.02- Areas of United States Involvement

19 Alaska 1867: Secretary of State William Seward – Negotiated the buying of Alaska from Russia – Most people in US thought it was a useless purchase – Transaction became known as “Seward’s Folly” – However, Seward correctly saw Alaska as a land rich in natural resources and full of great economic potential for the US

20 Hawaii a.As time passed, these owners gained economic control over the islands i.Also struggled for power with the Hawaiian monarchy ii.1893: wealthy white plantation owners rebelled against Queen Liliuokalani (1838- 1917) i.Queen Lil opposed the increasing control of the owners ii.With the help of US troops from a nearby ship, the plantation owners seized the islands and deposed the queen 1898: the United States annexed Hawaii and made it a US territory

21 Spanish-American War Late 1800s: the island of Cuba was still under Spanish rule 1895: the Cuban people rebelled, and Spain sent 150,000 troops to restore power As part of their strategy, the Spanish relocated thousands of Cuban citizens into concentration camps Camps had miserable conditions and many Cubans died Pressure began to mount for United States intervention

22 Spanish-American War William Randolph Hearst & Joseph Pulitzer Competing newspaper owners who began printing stories about the abuses carried by the Spanish Often exaggerated and untrue stories that were aimed to selling papers – this idea came to be known as “yellow journalism” – yellow journalism was served to ignite the emotions of the US people Citizens in the US began to call for a tougher stance towards Spain and a more aggressive foreign policy

23 Spanish-American War Jingoism- this sentiment came to be known as jingoism – one of the many voices calling for war was that of Asst. Sec. of Navy Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) – when the United States finally did go to war with the Spanish, Roosevelt resigned his position in the administration to become a Lt. Colonel and command a group of volunteers known as the Rough Riders

24 “A Splendid Little War” February 15th 1898: war officially erupts with Spain USS Maine battleship exploded while anchored in a Cuban harbor Congress had declared war on Spain in April 1898 Commodore George Dewey (1837-1917) Upon hearing the resolution for war, Dewey set sail for another Spanish colony- the Philippines – Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet there and seized control of the Philippines Islands

25 “A Splendid Little War” Theodore Roosevelt & Rough Riders Roosevelt- led the Rough Riders in bold charges up Kettle and San Juan Hills – became most famous incident of the war and helped US achieve victory over Spanish In less than 3 months United States defeated Spain in Cuba and Philippines Americans viewed this as a relatively easy victory

26 “A Splendid Little War” John Hay- future Sec. of State and good friend with Theodore Roosevelt captured what most felt regarding conflict with Spain when he referred to the taking of the Philippines as “a splendid little war”

27 After the War Spanish-American War ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1898 Attached to Congress’ 1898 war resolution was the Teller Amendment Teller Amendment promised that the US would allow for Cuban independence by not annexing the territory However, to protect US business interests, President William McKinley installed a US military government for three years to restore stability In 1900,when the Cubans began drafting their own constitution, the US continued to exert influence by insisting that the document include the Platt Amendment

28 After the War Platt Amendment- amendment put limits on what Cuban government could do Gave the US two naval based in Cuba Stayed in effect until the early 1930s Finally, as a result of the war, US acquired the territories of Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam



31 The Panama Canal William McKinley was assassinated in 1901 Afterwards-Theodore Roosevelt became the 26th president of the US Roosevelt wanted to enable US ships to move more quickly between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans In order to do this Roosevelt envisioned a canal across the isthmus of Panama

32 The Panama Canal Canal would serve US military and economic interests by allowing ships to travel between US territories in the Pacific and those in the Atlantic without having to go around South America Territories in the Pacific: Philippians, Hawaii, and Guam Territories in the Atlantic: ports in Cuba and Puerto Rico Unfortunately for the president, the Columbian government which controlled the territory refused to sell the lance necessary for the project

33 The Panama Canal 1903: the Panamanian people revolted against the Columbians Roosevelt provided US support, which helped the Panamanians with their independence In return, the Panamanians allowed US to lease the land needed for the canal Construction got under way in 1905  and in 1914, after battles with malaria (a disease common in tropical environments) and moving more than 175 million cubic yards of earth, workers finally finished building the Panama Canal

34 Goal 6.03: US Impact on Other Countries

35 Trouble With Mexico As US was trying to finish Panama Canal, a civil war was raging in Mexico August 1914: with the help of US, Venustiano Carranaza took over the Mexican government Two years later, one of Carranza’s enemies---a man named Pancho Villa (1878-1923) Pancho Villa: crossed the Rio Grande and killed 19 people in New Mexico

36 Trouble With Mexico – in response, President Wilson sent a force of 15,000 troops under the leadership of General John Pershing to capture or killed the Mexican rebel – Pershing’s troops went 300 miles into Mexican territory in pursuit of Villa nearly causing a war between the US and Mexico – WWI eventually drew Wilson’s attention away from the situation and US troops were recalled from Mexico – The Pancho Villa raids ended up going unavenged

37 The Western Hemisphere 1.By 1900s, US was becoming a major player in world affairs a.In 1904, President Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary b.This basically expanded Monroe Doctrine c.Monroe had said that the US would not allow European powers to colonize newly independent nations in the Western Hemisphere, nor would the US interfere with such nations

38 Roosevelt Corollary – US had right to intervene in the region if a nation had trouble paying its debts – This led to increased US involvement in the Caribbean and Latin America – This increased involvement came to be known as Roosevelt’s big stick diplomacy – This approach came from a West African proverb which said “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far” – It meant that the US did not intend to be a threatening presence in the region, but neither would it hesitate to forcefully protect its own interests

39 Dollar Diplomacy – Following Roosevelt, President William Taft sought to “substitute money for bullets” and promoted a policy known as dollar diplomacy – Dollar diplomacy-belief that the US could best maintain order in nations by increasing US foreign investments – As a result, his administration encouraged US bankers to invest in Latin America and the Caribbean and wired US financial help to China to finance railroads – Unfortunately, Taft’s policy sometimes meant huge losses for US businesses – It also created enemies among some Latin American peoples who opposed US involvement and resent US efforts to “buy influence” in the region

40 Woodrow Wilson – 1913: President Woodrow Wilson succeeded Taft and renounced dollar diplomacy – Instead, he advocated what came to be known as “missionary diplomacy” – Wilson based his foreign policy on the idealistic view that it was the role of the US to promote democracy and moral progress in the world – For this reason, he opposed imperialism and proclaimed that the US would not, “….seek one additional foot of territory by conquest”

41 – Unfortunately for Wilson, However, events abroad would test his conventions – In 1915: when a series of revolutions and assassinations rocked the nation of Haiti, Wilson sent in the US Marines to protect US property and banking interests which had been established under dollar diplomacy – Fearing that the US intended to make the country a US territory, many Haitians responded violently – Following a series of bloody skirmishes, the Haitian government ended the violence by signing a treaty that made Haiti a protectorate—but not a territory---of the United States

42 The Pacific and Southeast Asia – As a result of acquiring Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, and the Philippines, the United States now possessed territories that spanned the Pacific Ocean – In addition to protecting these areas, trade with China became a major concern entering the 20th century – Fearing that European imperial powers would try to gain control over Chinese exports and markets, the United States insisted on an “Open Door Policy” that would leave China open to the US and various other nations for trade and commerce – Some Chinese nationalists, however, wanted to bring an end to foreign influence in China altogether – Known as the “Boxers,” these nationalists massacred 300 foreigners and Chinese Christians in 1900 to launch the Boxer Rebellion – The US and other imperial powers sent troops to fight the nationalists and eventually put down the rebellion – The US, fearing that other imperialist nations would use the rebellion as an excuse to seize more Chinese territory, strongly reaffirmed its devotion to keeping an Open Door Policy in the region

43 Goal 6.03 Practice EOC Questions “Speak softly and carry a big stick……..” is associated with the foreign policy of which US president? – Theodore Roosevelt – William Taft – Woodrow Wilson – William McKinley What did Wilson hope to see flourish as a result of his “missionary diplomacy”? – US business interests in Haiti – Federal protection of citizens in New Mexico – Democracy in the Western Hemisphere – US investments in Latin America What was meant by the term “Open Door Policy” and how did this policy lead to US troops being involved in the Boxer Rebellion?

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