3Pax Romana Pax Romana = The Roman Peace 31 B.C. to AD 180 A period of peace and prosperity in the ancient world.
4Pax Romana In many ways the Pax Romana was an artificial peace. Rome had won her empire and her peace by war and had to maintain it by force.Even today a false or forced peace is referred to as a Pax Romana.Is there such a thing as Pax Americana?
5Pax RomanaIronically, during the Pax Romana, the Prince of Peace entered the world.He secured a true and lasting peace for mankind.
6John 14:27“Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid.”
7Augustus Octavian defeated Antony @ Battle of Actium in 31 B.C. In 27 B.C. he announced that he planned to restore the Roman Republic.Senate.Princeps – “First citizen”
8AugustusIn reality, Octavian held all the power (monarch) and the Republic was a sham.Head of the armyTitle of EmperorCaesarAugustus – title of divinity, reserved for Roman gods.
10Augustus 31 BC – AD 14 Economic Prosperity Agriculture Growth of trade Roman currency became the standardElimination of Mediterranean piracyGreek then Latin - the universal languageInternational Trade: India, China, Africa
11Augustus 31 BC – AD 14 Other benefits under Augustus Government stabilityHonesty & efficiencyQualified officialsPolice and fire servicePostal serviceBuilding programs (roads, temples, aqueducts, coliseums, etc)Attempted to restore virtue and morality
12Taxation and the Census Census to be taken every 14 yearsPurpose to see how much taxes each province should be paying.“And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed (“registered.” ) Luke 2:1
13Rome after Augustus Augustus Caesar left no designated successor. Most of his successors had a family connection to Julius Caesar.Almost all were morally decadent and corrupt.The Roman people were also corrupted.Bread & Circuses
14Augustus’ Successors Tiberius 14-37 Caligula 37-41 Claudius 41-54 Nero 54-68Vespasian 69-79Titus 79-81Domitian 81-96TrajanHadrianAntonius PiusMarcus Aurelius
20Roman Culture & Achievement A melting pot of ancient cultureInfluenced heavily by Greek cultureGreeks’ eye for beauty vs. Roman eye for usefulness.Greeks’ contributions to art & philosophyRoman contributions to law & politics
21Contribution to Law System of Justice Citizens had equal rights before the law.
22Contribution to LawMany modern European countries and the United States include many principles based on Roman law.
23Contribution to Law Some Roman Legal Principles Justice is applied to all citizens equally.Liberty is invaluable (cannot place a price on it)Freedom is beloved above all things.The burden of proof is on the accuser, not the defender.In deciding penalties, the age and inexperience of the guilty should be taken into account.Evidence is needed to convict a person, not just an accusation.
24Contribution to Law More Roman Legal Principles A witness’ credibility is important and should be weighed.The person in possession has the stronger case in a dispute.Each person is responsible for himself and not the actions of his kinsmen.
25Latin Literature & Language Cicero – master of Latin proseVirgil – “the Homer of Rome,” wrote the Aeneid, which exalted Rome as the ideal state.Horace – the “Poet of the Augustan Age”Ovid – poet who wrote of mythology and love. Metamorphoses – collection of 200 myths of the ancient world.
26HistoryLivy – historian who wrote a lengthy history of Rome based on unreliable legends, but championed the traditional virtues and patriotism of the Roman people as the foundation of Rome’s greatness.
27OthersJuvenalTacitusPlutarchGalenPtolemy – geocentric theory
28Art & ArchitectureRoman art and architecture borrowed from the Greeks’.Some differences though:Roman art is more realistic.Romans used relief sculpture.
29Art & Architecture Romans had excellent engineering skills. Arches and Vaults
32What did the Aqueducts mean to the Roman Civilization? The Romans could not have built their big cities without aqueducts.Some Roman cities wouldn't have existed at all.Romans sometimes built cities on dry plains, which would not have been possible without the transported water.With the water, they could have their baths, their fountains, and their drinking water.
39EpicureansEpicureans believed happiness rested in the virtues of simple pleasure & peace of mind.This belief was corrupted to a seeking pleasure as the greatest good and became an excuse for the worse excesses of behavior.
40StoicsStoicism teaches that the highest good is the pursuit of the virtues of courage, dignity, duty, simplicity of life, and service to fellow men.All of these virtues are Christian virtues, but without Christ they are empty. “Good behavior doesn’t make one good in the sight of God.”
42Christianity was born under the Roman Empire. Why then?
43Galatians 4:3-5Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world. 4 But when the fullness of the time had come, God sent forth His Son, born[a] of a woman, born under the law, 5 to redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive the adoption as sons.
44From where do we get most of our knowledge about Jesus?
46John 3:16-17New International Version (NIV)16 For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. 17 For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him.
47How did the Jews respond to the arrival of the Messiah?
48John 8:56-59 "Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it and was glad." 57The Jews therefore said to Him, "You are not yet fifty years old, and have You seen Abraham?" 58Jesus said to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was born, I am." 59Therefore they picked up stones to throw at Him; but Jesus hid Himself, and went out of the temple."
49John 10:27-36, "My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me; 28and I give eternal life to them, and they shall never perish; and no one shall snatch them out of My hand. 29"My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father's hand. 30"I and the Father are one." 31The Jews took up stones again to stone Him. 32Jesus answered them, "I showed you many good works from the Father; for which of them are you stoning Me?" 33The Jews answered Him, "For a good work we do not stone You, but for blasphemy; and because You, being a man, make Yourself out to be God." 34Jesus answered them, "Has it not been written in your Law, 'I said, you are gods'? 35"If he called them gods, to whom the word of God came (and the Scripture cannot be broken), 36do you say of Him, whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, 'You are blaspheming,' because I said, 'I am the Son of God'?"
50How did the Romans respond to the arrival of this “King of the Jews?” John 18:28-29Matthew 27:54
51_______________ was the Roman Emperor at the time of Jesus’ death. _______________ was the Roman governor in Judea at the time of Jesus’ arrest.(Pontius Pilate)_______________ was the Roman Emperor at the time of Jesus’ death.(Tiberius)
52His life and death constitute the turning point of history. What was proven when Jesus rose from the dead?His life and death constitute the turning point of history.
53What is the “gospel?”God sent his son Jesus to life a sinless life and to die in the place of sinful humans so they may be forgiven of their sins.
54What is the “Great Commission?” “Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.” Matthew 28:18-19
55What were the conditions that were favorable for the spread of Christianity? 1. Jerusalem – center of Judaism.2. Many Jews believe.3. New believers are persecuted.4. Christians scatter and take their message.5. Roman roads.6. Latin/Greek – common languages.
57Spread of Christianity The early Christians took their call to teach others about Jesus very seriously and under the early leaders such as Paul Christians went out as missionaries or messengers to tell others of Christ.
58Spread of Christianity The common Greek language allowed them to tell others easily without having to translate.The Roman roads allowed the missionaries to travel with relative ease.
59Spread of Christianity The Destruction of ________________ in 70A.D. also led to the dispersion of the Jews and Christians from the area of Palestine.This caused people to separate Judaism and Christianity in their minds.
60Church Organization Simple Met in private homes or synagogues Read Scripture, pray, singPartake of the Lord’s Supper (Communion)
61I Corinthians 11:23-26 (The Message) Let me go over with you again exactly what goes on in the Lord's Supper and why it is so centrally important. I received my instructions from the Master himself and passed them on to you. The Master, Jesus, on the night of his betrayal, took bread. Having given thanks, he broke it and said, ”This is my body, broken for you. Do this to remember me.”After supper, he did the same thing with the cup: ”This cup is my blood, my new covenant with you. Each time you drink this cup, remember me.”What you must solemnly realize is that every time you eat this bread and every time you drink this cup, you reenact in your words and actions the death of the Master. You will be drawn back to this meal again and again until the Master returns. You must never let familiarity breed contempt.
63Persecution Why were Christians persecuted in the Roman Empire? Charged with being disloyal because they refused to worship the emperor as god.They were “weird” and didn’t participate in Roman cultural events (pagan festivals, gladiator games, etc.)The Romans were afraid of the rapid growth of the Church.
64PersecutionThe Christians were blamed for many of the evils that plagued the empire.The fire that burned Rome.Earthquakes, etc.
65PersecutionAt first, persecution was _______ and confined to __________ ____________.SporadicSmall areasNero - persecutorPolycarp - persecuted
66PersecutionLater persecution became more widespread throughout the empire as the Romans hoped that persecution would cause Christians to recant and others to fear converting to Christianity.Destroying churchesBurning ScripturesExecution
67Persecution to Acceptance Emperor Constantine publicly embraces Christianity.In the Edict of Milan 313 AD, he declares Christianity legal.
70Constantine’s Changes Rome went from being the persecutor of the Church to a protector of the Church.Property which had been confiscated from Christians was restored.Sunday became a legal holiday.The Roman government gave funds for building churches.The Roman government encouraged people to become Christians.
71The Government and the Church are now tied together. Is this a good idea?
72Problems with merger of Church & State Decline in purity of the Church as people joined because it was fashionable to do so.Pagan ideas, practices, and heresies entered the Church.Arianism – denied the Deity of ChristMonasticism – people wanted to separate themselves to live holy lives
73Scriptures on Monasticism John 17:14-16 (New International Version)14I have given them your word and the world has hated them, for they are not of the world any more than I am of the world. 15My prayer is not that you take them out of the world but that you protect them from the evil one. 16They are not of the world, even as I am not of it.
74Patriarchs Patriarchs – bishops of the most important cities Church developed hierarchical structure.Followed the political and geographic divisions of the Roman empireParish, Diocese, Bishop, Archbishop, PatriarchatesPatriarchs – bishops of the most important cities
783rd Century A.D. (201-300) Political disorder Inefficiency Waste Unstable leadership
79Collapse of the Roman Empire Economic troublesCost of maintaining the armyExpenses of a large government bureaucracyIncreasing tax burdenReduction of silver content in coins – devaluation of currency-> inflationTrade deficit
80Collapse of the Roman Empire Moral decayGreedGovernment provided free food and amusement (bread & circuses)Family life disintegratedSuperstition
81Reform Attempts Reforms of Diocletian & Constantine Reorganized governmentSupreme authority of emperorEstablished a co-emperor – called augustusDivided empire into east and westEach co-emperor assistant – called caesarSet price controls (maximum prices)New gold & silver coins
82Collapse of the Roman Empire The reform attempts led to greater government control and regulation.Also increased the problems.System of joint rule fell apartConstantine – moved capital to Byzantium, later Constantinople.Empire permanently divided in 395 A.D. under Theodosius I.
83Barbarian InvasionsGermanic peoples: Angles, Saxons, Franks, Vandals, GothsCalled “barbarians” by the Romans because they did not share in Greek & Roman culture.
89Barbarian InvasionGermanic tribes, such as the Visigoths, fled into Roman territory.Roman mistreatment led the Visigoths to rebel and kill the emperor at the Battle of Adrianople in 378 A.D. defeating the Roman legions
91Fall of RomeAlaric led the Visigoths into the Italian peninsula to plunder the city of Rome in 410 A.D. The Visigoths settled in Spain.
92The Franks moved into northern Gaul and later shaped France. The Angles and Saxons went to Britania.Attila the Hun also invaded Rome but was repelled.
93Fall of RomeLater the Vandals, another Germanic tribe, raided and pillaged Rome.The very word “vandal” became associated with the destruction of property. (vandalism)476 A.D. Roman rule ended with the establishment of a non-Roman as emperor in the west.
94The Eastern Empire, however, endured for another 1,000 years.