Presentation on theme: "A. The Barbarians The conversion of Europe, & the Xianizing of the whole western world, may owe its accomplishment to what appeared at first as a disaster."— Presentation transcript:
2 A. The BarbariansThe conversion of Europe, & the Xianizing of the whole western world, may owe its accomplishment to what appeared at first as a disaster to both Xianity & the empire: the invasion of vast hordes of barbarians.1. From Invasion To ConversionAlready we have seen Alaric & the Visigoths sack Rome in 410.While Augustine was dying in 430, the Vandals were besieging Hippo.Barbarian invasions were to last for 600 yrs.
3 A. The Barbarians 1. From Invasion To Conversion Already we have seen Odoacer of the Ostrogoths dethrone the last of the western emperors in 476.In rapid succession of a number of barbaric kingdoms were set up:Visigoths ( ) in Spain & southern GaulOstrogoths ( ) in ItalyBurgundians ( ) in southeastern GaulVandals ( ) in North AfricaFranks under the Merovingians ( )
4 A. The Barbarians 1. From Invasion To Conversion In rapid succession of a number of barbaric kingdoms were set up:Lombards ( ) in northern ItalyAngles, the Saxons, & the Jutes left Denmark & n. Germany & settled in south Britain ( )Slavic tribes also moved into the eastern empire.Culturally, the invaders were not savages; neither were they nomads.They were agricultural people who sought new lands because of overcrowding.
5 A. The Barbarians 1. From Invasion To Conversion In the arts they were not primitive.The Germanic people brought precise principles of law which later furnished the basis for the ecclesiastical practice of penance & indulgences.Salvian (5th c. Xtian) claimed the barbarians were morally more chaste than the nobility of the empire, & he especially commended Gaiseric, the Vandal, for closing the brothels of Carthage.
6 A. The Barbarians 1. From Invasion To Conversion Religiously, the barbarians were of 2 backgrounds.There were pagans; but many barbarians already claimed to be Xtians of the Arian variety.Most of the Goths had come to embrace Arian Xtianity under Ulphilas, the apostle of the Goths, who had given them an alphabet & translated the Bible into their tongue.All of the Teutonic tribes were eventually converted to Xtianity.
7 A. The Barbarians 1. From Invasion To Conversion From the Visigoths Xtianity came to the Ostrogoths, the Vandals & the Lombards.One of the most notable conversions of the period was that of Clovis, King of the Franks (Gaul).At the repeated insistence of his wife, Queen Clotilde, a Catholic Burgundian princess, C. finally embraced Xtianity, was baptized, & compelled his entire army to be baptized.
8 Baptism of Clovis Clovis I was king of the Franks from 481 to In 496 he con-verted to Christianity, which gain-ed him the support of the RomanCatholic Church for his conquestsof other tribes in western andCentral Europe. During his ruleClovis enlarged the Frankishterritory to include most ofmodern France and Germany.
10 A. The Barbarians 1. From Invasion To Conversion Using his new religion as a political weapon, C. overthrew the Arian king of the Visigoths, Alaric II, & consolidated his dominions with the aid of Catholic bishops & Roman officials.His codification of the Salic law & his efforts to fuse the Romans & the Teutons laid the foundations of the modern French nation.The e.g. of C. was repeated throughout all of Europe.Naturally there was little evidence of individual conversion in these mass conversions.
11 A. The Barbarians 1. From Invasion To Conversion Thus the people brought their old beliefs & mores into the ch.For Clovis, Jesus was a tribal war god; the people saw X as the heavenly ruler rather than the suffering redeemer.The archangel Michael of the flaming sword became a spiritual champion & his name was given to the citadel of Mont St. Michel.Chs & monasteries were built in great numbers, but people & rulers fell far short of NT standards.
12 A. The Barbarians 1. From Invasion To Conversion After defeat by Clovis, the Arian Visigoths settled in Spain & continued in Arianism until Recared, King of Spain was converted to orthodox Xtianity in 587.The Burgundians were the 1st barbarians to give up Arianism for orthodoxy; they provided the pagan Clovis with his Xtian queen.The Arian Ostrogoths in Italy capitulated to orthodoxy after defeats at the hands of Justinian in 553.
13 A. The Barbarians 1. From Invasion To Conversion The barbarian states were established because they had the military might to subdue the Roman Empire, but they did not have the education or experience to govern it.Everywhere they were a minority, with the majority being Roman & Catholic.Besides the Anglo-Saxons in England, the only barbarian kingdoms which survived at the close of the 6th c. were the Franks in Gaul & the Visigoths in Spain, & they were both solidly Catholic.
14 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great The barbarian invasion provided the setting for the ascendancy of one of Catholicism’s most famous leaders—Gregory I ( ).He was the 4th & last of the traditional Latin “Doctors of the Church” (with Ambrose, Augustine & Jerome).He was pope from 590 to his death (604) & became father of the medieval papacy.Of the 180 bishops of Rome between Constantine & the Reformation, none was more influential than Gregory.
15 Dove (Holy Spirit) dictating to Gregory the Homilies onEzekiel.
17 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great The last of the Germanic tribes to enter the Roman Empire, the Arian Lombards, invaded Italy in 568 & the ineffective imperial governor was unable to combat them.This actually had a positive effect on the position of the ch at Rome; the R. bishop became the leader & protector of the people.Gregory was the son of a Roman nobleman & at 1st sought a career in civil administration.He entered monasticism in 574, selling his family estates, founding 7 monasteries, & giving the rest to the poor.
18 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great The pope made him an envoy to the court at Constantinople.He returned to R. in 585 to become abbot of his monastery.When the pope (Pelagius II) died (one of the 1st victims of the bubonic plague), the people of R. unanimously chose Gregory.He was the 1st pope to have been a monk & from this time Benedictine monasticism was closely allied with the papacy; these 2 institutions gave medieval Catholicism its distinctive character.
19 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great a. Peace with the Lombards. G. found Italy in an alarming state, devastated by famine, pestilence & Lombard invasion.According to legend, the bubonic plague was miraculously ended.G. set the civil affairs of R. in order, collected taxes, provided for welfare, repaired buildings & streets & raised & trained an army to repel the Lombards.
20 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great a. Peace with the Lombards. Although he was technically under the emperor, he acted independently, garrisoned his army, sent orders to generals in the field, & negotiated with the Lombards.No bishop or pope before G. had dared to do half as much.He appointed governors over certain areas & increased his papal authority until the papacy was the largest, wealthiest, & most powerful institution in Italy.
21 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great b. Conversion of Britain. As a monk, G. had been deeply moved by the sight of some attractive young children in the slave market.When he found they were “Angli” from England & pagans, he determined to be a missionary to that land.After he became pope, he commissioned Augustine, prior of his monastery in R., to accomplish this mission for him.
22 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great b. Conversion of Britain. Ethelbert, king of the Jutes in Kent, was one of A’s first & most notable converts; he & 10,000 subjects were baptized on Xmas Day, 597.Ethelbert was also overlord of the neighboring kingdoms of Essex and East Anglia & so Catholic Xtianity came to 3 or 12 Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.
23 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great b. Conversion of Britain. G. appointed A. archbishop & King E. gave the new archbishop his own palace in Canterbury, which became the 1st episcopal center in England.A. met opposition from the Celtic ch, which refused to adopt the Roman tradition of baptism or the Roman dating of Easter.Later, after A’s death, at the Synod of Whitby, 664, England severed her connection with the old Iro-Celtic ch in favor of Rome.
24 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great c. Gregory’s Contributions. G. left an indelible imprint on ecclesiastical & theological issues.As a theologian, he was not original, building mainly on the works of Augustine of Hippo.He did, however, initiate several enduring practices.He est. the mass as a repetition of the sacrifice of X that would benefit the living or the dead.
25 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great c. Gregory’s Contributions. He formulated the doctrine of purgatory, which played so large a part in the religion of the Middle Ages.He was interest in liturgy & popularized the Gregorian chants.His contributions to the medieval papacy were even more noteworthy.He repudiated the Patriarch of Constantinople when he used the title “Ecumenical Patriarch” (universal bishop).
26 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great c. Gregory’s Contributions. G. called this a flagrant violation of the primacy of R., & referred to himself as “the Servant of the Servants of God.”While Leo I is often recognized as “the first pope,” G. is the 1st to exercise universal authority & openly declare himself to be pope.In deed as well as name, he was patriarch of the West.
27 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great c. Gregory’s Contributions. He ordered the African bishops to oppose the Donatists & punished those who had fallen into Manichaeism—setting the precedent for the subsequent inquisitions.He brought Spain from Arianism into orthodoxy, directed the mission campaign in Britain & took the Emperor Maurice to task over his restrictions on soldiers entering sacred orders.
28 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great c. Gregory’s Contributions. Anywhere & everywhere he did whatever he deemed necessary to govern the entire ch.G’s period as pope, by its extension of the pope’s authority, marks the transition from the ancient world of imperial R. to medieval Xtendom united by the Roman Catholic Ch.The Medieval Period (Middle Ages) is so called because of its chronological position between ancient & modern times.
29 A. The Barbarians 2. Gregory The Great c. Gregory’s Contributions. It forms the transition from Greco-Roman civilization to the Romano-Germanic civilization which was to control the future of the western world.Pope G. stood on the threshold between the old & the new order of things.He was the last Church Father as well as the 1st medieval theologian.He was the last Roman bishop & the 1st medieval pope.
30 A. The Barbarians 3. Missions On The Continent. Xtians in the R. Empire immediately saw & met the challenge of converting the barbarians who had come to them.But there were some with a wider vision who were awakened to the possibility of missions in the homelands of the invaders & beyond.a. Willibrord in the Netherlands ( )Wilfrid began with a brief preaching tour in Frisia on a trip to Rome; on his return to Eng. he called for missionaries for Frisia & monks swarmed over north-western Europe.
31 A. The Barbarians 3. Missions On The Continent. Xtians in the R. Empire immediately saw & met the challenge of converting the barbarians who had come to them.But there were some with a wider vision who were awakened to the possibility of missions in the homelands of the invaders & beyond.a. Willibrord in the Netherlands ( )Wilfrid began with a brief preaching tour in Frisia on a trip to Rome; on his return to Eng. he called for missionaries for Frisia & monks swarmed over north-western Europe.
34 A. The Barbarians 3. Missions On The Continent. a. Willibrord in the Netherlands ( )The most successful was Willibrord of Saxon Northumbria, the “Apostle to the Netherlands.”W. went to Frisia in 690 & was made archbishop of Frisia in 695.By his death he had established the archepiscopal see of Utrecht & had converted most of the people of the southern part of the Low Countries.
35 A. The Barbarians 3. Missions On The Continent. b. Boniface in Germany ( ).Willibrord’s assistant for 3 yrs was Winifrid who became known as Boniface, “doer of good,” who became known as the “Apostle of Germany.”He was so successful that Pope Gregory II made him missionary bishop to Germany in 722.One of B’s major achievements was the consolidation of existing chs into one ecclesiastical body.
36 A. The Barbarians 3. Missions On The Continent. b. Boniface in Germany ( ).Extremely popular, he single-handedly demolished their superstitions, nature divinations & ritual incantations.Before he was 60 he had converted practically the whole territory east of the Rhine & north of the Danube.
38 Martyrdom of St. Boniface (15th c. French painting
39 A. The Barbarians 3. Missions On The Continent. c. Scandinavian Missions.Denmark & Sweden were first evangelized by Anskar ( ), the “Apostle of the North.”Norway was Christianized from Eng. thru the efforts of 2 Norwegian kings, Olaf Tlryggvason ( ) & Olaf Haraldson ( ).The 1st Xtian king in Sweden was Olaf Lapking, baptized in 1007.From the Scandinavian countries Xtianity spread to Iceland, Finland, & Greenland.
40 A. The Barbarians 3. Missions On The Continent. d. Slavic Missions. “The Apostles of the Slavs” were 2 brothers from a Gk family in Thessalonica, Cyril & Methodius.Emperor Michael III sent them as missionaries to what is now Moravia.Cyril invented an alphabet for the people called Glagolithic (also Cyrillic) & became the founder of Slavonic literature.A Xtian princess brought Xtianity to Bohemia, & from there it spread to Poland & Hungary.
42 B. The MoslemsWhile Xtianity was making great gains among the barbarian tribes of western Europe, a new storm was swirling down upon the empire from the deserts of Arabia.Marching under the banner of a new theocracy called Islam, they posed the greatest external threat yet to both empire & Xtendom.
43 B. The Moslems 1. Mohammed The Prophet The religion of Islam was the product of the mind & spirit of a single individual, Mohammed, its prophet ( ).Orphaned at 6, M. was reared by an uncle in the Quraysh tribe, which had control of the Kaaba, the national religious shrine of the Arabs.The Kaaba contained the sacred Black Stone & the well reputedly kicked up by the infant Ishmael when Hagar left him to search for water (Gen. 21:8-21).
45 B. The Moslems 1. Mohammed The Prophet M. became disillusioned by the idolatrous worship & degenerate behavior he observed in connection with Arabian religion, & when he began making caravan trips to Syria & Palestine, his religious feelings increased.He became the business manager of a rich widow, Khadijah, whom he married.His 2 sons by Khadijah died in childhood, & only 1 of 4 daughgters, Fatima, survived.
46 B. The Moslems 1. Mohammed The Prophet His wealth enabled him to have wider religious contacts & more leisure time for long periods of reflection on religion.One night in the hills near Mecca, in a cave on Mt. Hira, he said that he had a vision of the angel Gabriel telling him to recite.He went home & produced the entire 96th sura of the Koran.In a 2nd appearance, Gabriel commissioned him a prophet of the Lord, & subsequent revelations that make up the Koran came frequently.
47 B. The Moslems 1. Mohammed The Prophet M. began proclaiming the Day of the Lord in the marketplace.The day was to be one of resurrection, final judgment, & everlasting fire.Though people were impressed with his poetic oratory, after 4 yrs he had only 40 converts.Because of his attacks on the Kaaba, the Quraysh disturbed his meetings with violence, & he feared for his life.
48 B. The Moslems 1. Mohammed The Prophet 300 mi to the north, 6 men left the Medina to seek out Mohammed as the leader who might bring the tribes of Medina & Mecca together.They arrived in Mecca just in time to help him escape assassination.Thus, in 622, M. & his followers made their great Hegira flight to Medina, marking the beginning of the Islamic calendar.In Medina he became the undisputed leaders of a religious theocracy, defended the city against Meccan attacks & boldly attacked & captured Mecca itself.
51 B. The Moslems 1. Mohammed The Prophet Within 8 yrs M. had become the strongest chieftain in all Arabia.He stripped the Kaaba of its idols & images, but continued to pay tribute to the Black Stone.By 632 M. was dead at 62, but he had instituted a new religion that would unify the Arabian people into one brotherhood.
52 B. The Moslems 1. Mohammed The Prophet The strict monotheistic faith of Islam made rigid moral & spiritual demands on the people which they eagerly accepted, for M. had convinced them that they were divinely appointed to bring all peoples into submission to the will of God.
54 B. The Moslems 2. The Religion of Islam Islam implies “submission to the will of God,” & means “the submitters.”It must be understood in order to evaluate the historical developments of wars, conquests, & expansion.The fanatical followers of M. have always been on a holy crusade to capture & convert the world for the God (Allah).Islam is built around 5 basic doctrines:
55 B. The Moslems 2. The Religion of Islam 1) There is no God but Allah, & M. is his prophet.2) God’s work is carried on among men by angels, the mediating spirits of God.3) The will of Allah is written down in the Koran, which contains all a Moslem needs to know to obtain salvation.4) The great figures of Judaism & Xtianity are revered by Islam, but its own prophet M. surpasses them all.
56 B. The Moslems 2. The Religion of Islam There are 6 great prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus & Mohammed, the greatest of them all.5) There will be a resurrection day & a final judgment for every individual; the followers of M. will cross into the Gardens of Paradise, & infidels (non-Moslems) & sinful Moslems will fall into the abyss of hell.There are 4 religious practices to which every Moslem is bound:
57 B. The Moslems 2. The Religion of Islam There are 4 religious practices to which every Moslem is bound:1) prayer, 5 times a day, facing Mecca in the bodily position described in the Koran;2) almsgiving, including both the Jewish tithe & additional charity;3) fasting from all gratifications of the senses during the entire month of Ramadan;4) pilgrimage to Mecca during one’s lifetime, either personally or by proxy.
58 B. The Moslems 3. The Moslem Conquests Believing that they were divinely commissioned to subdue all people to God’s will, Moslems did not hesitate to organize, train & give military expression to their missionary call.In developing Arabian unity around Islam, M. used violent as well as nonviolent means with his own people.Then he personally led them in their first military conquests of Xtianity in 629.
59 B. The Moslems 3. The Moslem Conquests It was not, however, until after his death that Islam spread like a devouring fire over the East.Armed with the belief that death in combat on behalf of Allah would ensure entrance into paradise, the terrifying Moslems swept down on Damascus in 635, conquering it almost instantly.Jerusalem held out longer, but fell under a bloody siege in 637.
60 B. The Moslems 3. The Moslem Conquests 638 saw the fall of Antioch, Tripoli, Tyre, Caesarea & 15 other cities on the Mediterranean coast.By the end of 639 nothing of the eastern empire was left in Syria.Mesopotamia surrendered, by 641 all of Egypt had been conquered, & the advance across N. Africa had begun.Iraq fell in 637, & by 649 had subdued all of Persia; by 652 (only 12 yrs) Moslems controlled most of Asia Minor.
61 B. The Moslems 3. The Moslem Conquests Attempting to capture Constantinople, they were turned back by the awesome Taurus Mountains.Determined to take C. they organized a navy & took Cyprus (648), Aradus (649) & Cos & Rhodes (654).They defeated Emperor Constans II in a naval battle at Phoenix (655), but the Moslems were spread too thin.For 5 yrs ( ) they tried to take C. by land & sea, but were repeatedly driven back.
62 B. The Moslems 3. The Moslem Conquests A peace of sorts was affected in 679, but hostilities resumed in 695.In 732 Charles Martel, ruler of the Franks, turned the tide in the West by his decisive victory over the “Saracens” (a word used by medieval writers of Arabs generally & later applied to the M. nations against whom the crusaders fought.The Battle of Tours (732) was the decisive event.
64 B. The Moslems 3. The Moslem Conquests If the invading Arabs had not been turned back at Tours, they might well have engulfed all of Europe.Though they had finally been stopped, the Moslems in 45 yrs ( ) had torn from the eastern empire some of its richest & most populous provinces, & had left it only a shadow of its former self.The occupation of the Holy Land by the Moslems was especially offensive to Xtians throughout the world.
65 B. The Moslems 3. The Moslem Conquests Centuries later, the Crusades of the 11th, 12th & 13th c. were undertaken to recover the Holy Land from the clutches of Islam.
66 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity Xtianity had been depleted like the empire.The gains of Xtianity in the West had been counterbalanced by excessive losses in the East.a. The Consolidation of the Church.3 of the patriarchs were now in Moslem territory.Rome was gaining political autonomy, & C. was enjoying imperial patronage, but Alexandria, Antioch, & Jerusalem had been humiliated.
67 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity The patriarchs of Alexandria & Antioch lived abroad in exile, but Sophronius stubbornly remained in Jerusalem.Multitudes of Xtians found it more expedient to exchange Xtianity for Islam, & within a generation, the majority of the population of N. Africa, Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, & even Palestine became Moslem.The Xtianity that survived was greatly modified, & faithful Xtians found themselves cut off from the rest of Xtendom for centuries.
68 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity These events were beneficial for the consolidation of the ch.The patriarch of C, which had been one among 4 equals, became the head of eastern Catholicism.The 424 dioceses throughout the Balkan peninsula & Asia Minor came under the direct rule of the see of C.The loyalty and integrity of the clergy were strengthened with new & stringent requirements.
69 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity Society in general appeared to be intensely religious during this period.Attendance at ch was large & regular.Worship developed into an exquisitely beautiful art, with sacramental worship, rather than preaching, becoming central.Baptism was universally & officially conferred upon infants.Penance was not obligatory, but was encouraged.
70 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity Marriage was regulated & controlled by the chFasting before communion was required.Theological writings were few & inconsequential; there seemed to be an abnormal desire to spurn the spiritual & intellectual, & to fix religion in concrete terms.This was especially expressed in the compulsion of people everywhere to see, handle & kiss relics & icons.This widespread practice precipitated one of the greatest controversies in the eastern ch with effects in modern times.
71 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.Icons, technically speaking, are flat pictures, usually painted in oil on wood, but also made in mosaic, ivory, & other materials, used to represent X, the Virgin Mary, or some saint.Iconoclasm, used in our vocabulary as a synonym for destruction, means the shattering of something established to make room for something new & different.In ch. hist. it refers to the effort to abolish images, pictures, or any material likenesses of any sacred personage or event.
72 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.The iconoclast thus were the destroyers of icons or sacred images.The iconoclasts called the people who worshiped or venerated images the iconolaters.1) Leo the Iconoclast.In 726, Emperor Leo III published an edict declaring all images idols & ordering their destruction, thus becoming known as Leo the Iconoclast.
75 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.1) Leo the Iconoclast.Leo believed that the use of icons was a chief obstacle to the conversion of Jews & Moslems.The Jews were offended by icons because of the 2nd com which forbids the making of graven images.As a soldier on the eastern frontier of the empire, Leo had been impressed with the Moslem rejection of idolatry in any form.
76 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.1) Leo the Iconoclast.When he became emperor, L. accepted iconoclasm as a divine mission he was ordained of God to perform & set about to eliminate image worship from his empire.The b. of R. condemned Leo for his iconoclastic decree, & in retaliation the emperor reapportioned Sicily, southern Italy, & the entire western part of the Balkans & Greece from R. to the patriarchate of Constantinople.
77 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.1) Leo the Iconoclast.Disturbances erupted throughout the empire, & a systematic persecution was loosed against the more ardent defenders of the icons.John of Damascus wrote apologies against the iconoclasts, & Pope Gregory III held two synods at Rome condemning Leo’s supporters.
78 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.1) Leo the Iconoclast.In 741, was L. was succeeded by his son Constantine V who continued his father’s policies.In 753, he called the Synod of Hieria; the synod held that by representing only the humanity of X, the icon worshipers either divided his unity as the Nestorians or confounded the two natures as the Monophysites.
79 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.1) Leo the Iconoclast.The synod also declared that the icons of the Virgin Mary & the saints were idols & decreed the destruction of all of them.2) John of Damascus ( ).The iconoclastic disputes produced the greatest medieval theologian of the eastern ch who was also the ablest defender of images in the early days of the controversy.
80 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.2) John of Damascus ( ).J. appealed to the images mentioned in the Bible, the brazen serpent in the wilderness, & the lions in Solomon’s temple, but his primary argument was from the incarnation & the Eucharist.If God himself became flesh, then physical things cannot be evil, & if X is bodily present in the bread & wine, then sensory aids to religion are not wrong.
82 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.2) John of Damascus ( ).He also argued from Plato’s notion that everything in this world is really an imitation of the eternal, original “form.”J’s work greatly influenced the 787 council at Nicaea where images were sanctioned again.Under Constantine’s son, Leo IV (775-80), the persecution subsided.
83 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.2) John of Damascus ( ).After his death, the Empress Irene, acting as regent reversed the policy of her predecessors.She called the 7th General Council at Nicaea in 787 which undid the work of the Synod of Hieria, set limits to icon veneration, & decreed their restoration throughout the country.Iconoclasm, however, retained a strong following, especially in the army.
84 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.In 814, the “Second Iconoclastic Controversy” took place under Leo V the Armenian, a general elected emperor by the army.Again icons were removed from chs & public buildings, & defenders of icons were exiled, imprisoned, & martyred.Leo was assassinated in 820; his son & grandson followed his policies, but on the death of the grandson, Theophilus, the tide turned once more.
85 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.Theodora, widow of Theophilus, acting as regent, had the monk Mehtodius elected patriarch in 843.On the first Sunday of Lent a great feast was celebrated in honor of the icons, a feast which has been solemnly kept ever since in the eastern ch as the “Feast of Orthodoxy.”The long controversy was over.The icons had persevered & won.
86 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.The iconoclastic controversy in the East had very little theological repercussions in the West, but it did have a profound practical effect.This particular controversy is usually considered the last step toward the great schism between East & West, before the actual breach.
87 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.The iconoclastic issue was a showcase example of Caesaropapism, the system whereby an absolute monarch has supreme control over the ch within his dominions & exercises it even in doctrinal matters normally reserved to ecclesiastical authority.The popes in R. viewed the flagrant Caesaropapism in the East during the icon dispute with growing apprehension.
88 B. The Moslems 4. Effect On Christianity b. The Iconoclastic Controversy.The unity achieved by imperial decree at Nicaea in 787 & again in 843 proved to be temporary.With the development of the temporal power of the papacy, the way was prepared for the final separation between the independent ch of the West & the ch of the Byzantine Empire.
89 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire In the 700s the Lombards were again threatening to overthrow Rome.But if R. were to maintain any semblance of independence from Constantinople, it would have to look for protection from some other source than the emperor.1. The Donation of PepinIn 739 Gregory III appealed to Charles Martel for aid against the Lombards, but in vain.
90 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 1. The Donation of Pepin When Charles Martel died, his son Pepin the Short became virtual ruler of the Franks.He quickly saw that he & the papacy could be of mutual assistance to each other.He desired the kingly title as well as the kingly power in France so he sought the moral sanction of the ch for a revolution against the last of the Merovingians.He received this approval from Pope Zacharias.
91 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 1. The Donation of Pepin In 751 P. was formally made king of France, crowned by no less than Boniface, the great missionary to Germany.In exchange for papal assistance, P. had agreed to drive the Lombards from Italy, which he did in 755 & 756.P. has been eclipsed by his son Charlemagne, but he must be remembered for establishing two critically important precedents.
92 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 1. The Donation of Pepin The 1st was the acquiring of the throne by the sanction of the pope.Charlemagne’s coronation is much more famous, but P’s was actually the 1st demonstration of the papacy’s power in setting up governments, which led to the reestablishment of the empire in the West.The 2nd precedent was the granting of territory positions to the pope.
93 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 1. The Donation of Pepin After defeating the Lombards, P. created the papal states, consisting of 22 cities & their environs, stretching across Italy from Rome to Ravenna.In this action known as the “Donation of Pepin” (756), he gave outright to the R. ch & its bishops all the cities won by him from the Lombards.This act was justified by the precedent of a fabled document called “The Donation of Constantine.”
94 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 1. The Donation of Pepin In this document Constantine the Great was supposed to have donated grants of land to Pope Sylvester for curing him of leprosy.In this spurious account, C. gave Sylvester & all succeeding popes all the cities of Italy & the western regions.So Pepin appeared to be merely returning lands to their “rightful” overlord.
96 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 1. The Donation of Pepin The “Donation of Constantine” was generally accepted as authentic throughout the Middle Ages, until its forgery was exposed by Nicholas of Cusa in 1433 & Lorenzo Valla in 1440.The imp result of the “Donation of Pepin” was the establishment of an entirely new commonwealth on the map of Europe, a commonwealth which was to continue in existence from 756 until the unification of Italy in 1870.
98 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 1. The Donation of Pepin P. had laid the foundation of the ch-states & constituted himself & his successors as protectors of the Holy See.2. The Reign of CharlemagneP. died in 768 & his kingdom was divided between sons, Charles & Carloman; when Carloman died in 771, C. became sole ruler & began the legendary reign that fused his name with greatness—Charlemagne (Charles the Great).
99 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of CharlemagneC. soon began his conquests—Lombardy, Saxony, Bavaria, northern Spain, Austria, etc.Everywhere that C. marched & conquered, he took the message & organization of Roman Xtinaity.His military conquests & accompanying missionary efforts were especially appreciated by R.
102 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of CharlemagneHe ratified the donation of his father, made a sacred compact with the pope, extended the territories of the states of the ch, & promised his protection always.In response to Pope Leo III’s enemies, C. declared that “the Apostolic See has the right to judge everyone but can itself be judged by no one.”
103 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of Charlemagne2 days later, on Xmas Day, 800, while C. was kneeling at the altar in St. Peter’s, Pope Leo III, evidently with no warning to C., placed an imperial crown on his head.The assembled nobility & churchmen cried aloud: “To Charles Augustus, crowned by God, great and peaceful emperor of the Romans, long life and victory.”It signaled to Constantinople that C. was more than the king of France, he was supreme ruler of the western world.
105 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of CharlemagneIt also signaled to Con. that the center of the empire had returned to Rome.For the church, it announced that the new emperor was dependent for his authority upon the pope who had voluntarily conferred it upon him.a. The State of ReligionC. was devout, concerned & involved in affairs of the ch.
106 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of Charlemagnea. The State of ReligionEvery morning he went to mass & every evening to vespers.He took an active part in the life of the ch, summoning councils & interfering with their decisions.The ch was virtually a department of state, but C. never ascribed to himself any religious designation.
107 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of Charlemagnea. The State of ReligionInstead, he preferred the role of David, who with his sword defended the Ark of the Lord.There was outward reformation & inward revival of monasticism under C’s pursuit of genuine & spiritual Xtianity.New ch bldgs were erected, & a new architecture emerged which proved to be the forerunner of the later Gothic style.
108 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of Charlemagnea. The State of ReligionBecause of C’s personal preference, the Gregorian chant experienced a real revival.Baptism by immersion was replaced by pouring, and the baptistry gave way to the font.The one abiding contribution which the West made to theology during this period was the addition of the filioque to the Nicene-Constantinople creed.
109 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of Charlemagnea. The State of ReligionFilioque means “from the Son,” & was added to the creed as an affirmation that the HS proceeds equally from the Father & the Son.Although generally adopted in the West, the East refused the addition, preferring to say the HS proceeds from the Father by the Son.
110 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of Charlemagneb. The Carolingian RenaissanceC inaugurated a revitalizing of culture and learning by inviting to his court the most renowned scholars of his time to from the nucleus of a palace school where administrators for the state & ch could be trained.The Anglo-Saxon Alcuin ( ) was head of the cathedral school at York when called to C’s court.
112 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of Charlemagneb. The Carolingian RenaissanceAs royal tutor he established a palace library; he also, as Abbot of Tours, set up an important school & library at the monastery.A. was the principal intellect & architect of the Carolingian Renaissance.He revived the ancient disciplines of grammar, rhetoric & dialectic.
114 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of Charlemagneb. The Carolingian RenaissanceClassical Xtian culture was revived; A. dreamed of “a new Athens enriched by the sevenfold fullness of the Holy Spirit.”A. informed C. that he was not to use his sword, the political power of the state, to impose religion.He was the 1st to use the figure of the 2 swords with reference to the roles of ch & state.
115 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of Charlemagneb. The Carolingian RenaissanceThru A. (& others scholars) C. promoted the revival of classical Xtian culture, & people were taught to read & write & appreciate books.Perhaps more than any other sovereign in history, Charlemagne was head over all things in his day.He was a warrior of great gifts, a patron of learning, the kindly master of the ch, & the preserver of order.
116 The East-West Schism A. The Holy Roman Empire 2. The Reign of Charlemagneb. The Carolingian RenaissanceWhen he died, he ruled all of modern France, Belgium, Holland, nearly half of modern Germany & Austria-Hungary, more than half of Italy, & northeastern Spain.He expanded his kingdom as conqueror, but stabilized it as benefactor & educator.