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1Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue UNIT 6, Part 2The Uncanny and MysteriousClick the mouse button or press the space bar to continue
2Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu. Unit 6, Part 2MAIN MENUThe Uncanny and Mysterious (pages 1230–1265)Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.
3Selection Menu (pages 1230–1239) Before You ReadReading the SelectionAfter You Read
4Click the picture to learn about the author. BEFORE YOU READMeet O. HenryClick the picture to learn about the author.
5Connecting to the Story BEFORE YOU READConnecting to the Story“A Retrieved Reformation” is about a pardoned criminal and the choices he makes after his release from prison. Henry incorporates irony and a surprise ending into the story.
6Connecting to the Story BEFORE YOU READConnecting to the StoryBefore you read, think about the following questions:Do you believe that a criminal can change for the better? Why or why not?What experiences or influences do you think have the power to bring about major changes?
7BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundHenry probably drew on events in his own life when he wrote “A Retrieved Reformation.” Set primarily in the South, an area familiar to Henry, the story revolves around banking and robbery, two subjects he knew well. The main character, Jimmy Valentine, demonstrates the positive results of hope and industry as well as Henry’s belief in the human capacity for goodness.
8Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READSetting Purposes for ReadingThe Uncanny and MysteriousEarly in “A Retrieved Reformation,” the prison warden says, “Stop cracking safes, and live straight.” This advice foreshadows an uncanny situation at the end of the story. As you read, look for this and other mysterious circumstances.
9Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READSetting Purposes for ReadingHumorLiterary humor relies on the writer’s ability to describe a character or an event in an amusing way. Writers use many techniques—exaggeration, puns, sarcasm, verbal irony—to create humor. As you read, watch for examples of humor in “A Retrieved Reformation.”
10BEFORE YOU READMaking PredictionsMaking predictions, or reasonable guesses, about what may happen in a story can increase comprehension. As you read, think about what may happen next. Verify, or see whether your predictions were right, at the end of the story.
11Reading Tip: Taking Notes In a chart, BEFORE YOU READMaking PredictionsReading Tip: Taking Notes In a chart,explain and support at least three predictions about the story.
12Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition. BEFORE YOU READassiduously adv. Carefully diligent; persistently attentive (p. 1232) Luis worked assiduously on the complicated assignment.retribution n. Punishment; justice (p. 1234) Do you think that detention is sufficient retribution for vandalism?Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
13Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition. BEFORE YOU READexclusive adj. single or sole; stylish, fashionable (p. 1235) The elegant new store features an exclusive line of leather purses.unobtrusively adv. inconspicuously; discreetly (p.1236) To avoid interrupting, Brook sat unobtrusively in the back.Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
14Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition. BEFORE YOU READanguish n. extreme suffering, pain, or anxiety (p. 1237) Anna felt intense anguish at hearing of her grandmother’s death.Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
16READING THE SELECTIONThe Uncanny and Mysterious Keep the following questions in mind as you read. How does your opinion of Jimmy Valentine change as the story progresses? Which aspect of the plot do you find most uncanny?
17READING THE SELECTIONAnswer: Some will come to like Valentine and be happy that he is not going back to prison. Some will think he still needs to be punished for his past crimes. You may list one of the following examples as the most uncanny: Valentine being able to save the young girl because of his criminal background, Price’s pretending not to know Valentine.
18READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyMaking Predictions Read the first text highlighted in blue on page What does this act show about Jimmy Valentine’s character? Predict how you think he might grow and change later in the story.
19READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyAnswer: Valentine seems to take his freedom or the simple things in life for granted. This suggests his eventual downfall or his learning to value simple joys.
20READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyMaking Predictions Read the second text highlighted in blue on page How does Valentine’s action here fit in with your previous prediction?Answer: This action displays a generosity that is contrary to the criminal stereotype. It shows the kind and generous side of Valentine.
21READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementHumor Read the text highlighted in purple on page Explain how this is an example of humor. If you need to, look up the definitions for some of the words.
22READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementAnswer: Valentine’s company is obviously not real; the name makes little sense: biscuit cracker is redundant, and it is unlikely that anyone would want wheat that is “frazzled”— weary or frayed.
23READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtLook at the image on page How does this image help you picture the story’s setting? Explain.Answer: This image shows the interior of a bank as it would have appeared in the late 1800’s, when O. Henry was writing stories.
24READING THE SELECTIONThe Uncanny and Mysterious Read the first text highlighted in tan on page Elusive means “mysterious.” What qualities make Valentine mysterious?Answer: You should cite “long jumps, quick getaways, no confederates, and a taste for good society” and Valentine’s ability to avoid capture.
25READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyMaking Predictions Read the text highlighted in blue on page What is happening here? What do you think will happen next?Answer: Valentine is attracted to the young woman and has already begun to fall in love. He may become a new man, stop cracking safes, go “straight,” and marry the young woman.
26READING THE SELECTIONThe Uncanny and Mysterious Read the second text highlighted in tan on page Explain what is uncanny and mysterious about this information.
27READING THE SELECTIONAnswer: It is uncanny that Valentine has become attracted to a woman whose father owns the very bank that he may have been planning to rob. Another possible mystery is whether Annabel Adams will cause Valentine’s reformation or his downfall.
28READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementHumor Read the fifth complete paragraph on page What about the boy’s lines adds humor to the story?Answer: The short lines of dialogue speed up the pace, and the line about the bulldog is unexpected.
29READING THE SELECTIONThe Uncanny and Mysterious Read the third complete paragraph on page 1236 of your textbook. What is uncanny about Ben Price’s arrival?Answer: It is strange that Ben Price finds Valentine just as Valentine is making his final commitment to living the straight life.
30READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyMaking Predictions Read the second to last paragraph on page 1236 of your textbook. Why has the author included a scene in the bank safe? What do you think is going to happen next?Answer: You will probably predict that someone is going to get locked in the safe or that Valentine is going to have to break into it for some other reason.
31READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyMaking Predictions Read the text highlighted in blue on page Explain the irony in this passage and the possible ways that this drama could end.
32READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyAnswer: Some ironies: Valentine, an accomplished safecracker, just happens to be present. He could save himself by not revealing that he can open the safe, or he can expose himself by opening it and thus saving the child’s life.
33READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementHumor Read the text highlighted in purple on page Explain how this small detail provides amusement.Answer: Valentine’s asking for the rose in the midst of this crisis is a quirky gesture that implies that love has led him to reveal his criminal skill to save the child.
34READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtLook at the painting on page What personality does this woman convey? Does it reflect that of Annabel Adams?Answer: Answers will vary. You may say that the woman seems friendly and wealthy. Her apparently upbeat attitude seems similar to that of Annabel Adams.
35READING THE SELECTIONEncountering the Unexpected Read the second column on page Do you find Price’s action believable?Answer: Some will say no because it is Price’s job to arrest Valentine; some will find the action believable because Price recognizes that Valentine has changed.
37Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRespond(a) What do you think of Ben Price’s action at the end of the story? (b) How would you have acted if you were in his position? Why?Answer: Answers will vary.
38Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) Where is Jimmy Valentine at the beginning of the story? (b) Why do you think he “expected to stay only about three months”?Answer: (a) In prison (b) He had powerful friends on the outside.
39Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) What reason does Mike Dolan give for not getting Jimmy out earlier? (b) How do you think Dolan obtained the governor’s pardon?Answer: (a) The governor almost “balked” after a protest in Springfield. (b) The governor was threatened or bribed by Dolan’s or Valentine’s powerful friends.
40Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) Describe the contents of Valentine’s suitcase. (b) What do these contents tell you about him?
41Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and InterpretAnswer: (a) The “finest set of burglar’s tools in the East,” “drills, punches, braces and bits, jimmies, clamps, and augers,” and “two or three novelties invented by Jimmy himself” (b) He was probably guilty of the crime he was convicted of and plans to steal again.
42Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and Evaluate(a) How does the comparison of Ralph Spencer to the legendary phoenix help the reader understand him as a character? (b) Explain why you think that this comparison is effective or ineffective.
43Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateAnswer: (a) It shows that Valentine made his work look easy. (b) The simile creates an image of the adeptness of the principal character.
44Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and Evaluate(a) Analyze the symbolic meaning of Valentine asking for Annabel’s rose. What effect do you think O. Henry means to create? (b) How effective is the author in creating it?
45Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateAnswer: (a) The rose can symbolize love, beauty, and tenderness. It shows here that Valentine (note the romantic name) knows that his next action may land him in jail but chooses this sacrifice as his last act as Ralph Spencer before he reverts to being Jimmy Valentine. (b) Answers will vary.
46Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyConnectThe Uncanny and MysteriousExplain the ironic situation that Valentine finds himself in at the end of the story.Answer: After choosing family life over a life of crime, he must use his criminal skills to save a member of his fiancée’s family.
47AFTER YOU READHumorMuch of the humor in O. Henry’s stories revolves around ironic situations, in which the outcome is contrary to the reader’s expectations, such as Valentine falling in love with a bank owner’s daughter.
48AFTER YOU READHumorO. Henry’s detective story character archetypes in this selection are also humorous. Give one example.Answer: Jimmy Valentine, the criminal, is generous and softhearted rather than tough and frightening.
49Answer: Answers will vary but should be supported. AFTER YOU READHumorExplain whether your example shows irony, coincidence, or something else.Answer: Answers will vary but should be supported.
50Writing About Literature AFTER YOU READWriting About LiteratureEvaluate Figures of Speech In this selection, O. Henry uses several figures of speech. In similes and metaphors, unlike things are compared to help the reader visualize the action. A simile is a direct comparison in which like or as is used; a metaphor is an implied comparison.
51Writing About Literature AFTER YOU READWriting About LiteratureAn idiom is a phrase that conveys meaning beyond a literal definition of its words. Write a one or two-page analysis evaluating the effectiveness of the similes, metaphors, and idioms in “A Retrieved Reformation.” Use evidence from the story to support your opinions.
52AFTER YOU READMaking PredictionsAfter reading a selection, it is useful to review your predictions and verify them.
53Answer: Answers will vary. AFTER YOU READMaking PredictionsHow many of your predictions about ”A Retrieved Reformation“ proved to be correct? List them.Answer: Answers will vary.
54What new information did you acquire while verifying your predictions? AFTER YOU READMaking PredictionsWhat new information did you acquire while verifying your predictions?Answer: Verification should include one or more points about the plot or characters.
55AFTER YOU READPracticePractice with Context Clues Read the sentences on the following slides and use context clues to select the most likely meaning for each vocabulary word.
56Janet stayed up all night assiduously working on her algebra homework. AFTER YOU READPracticeJanet stayed up all night assiduously working on her algebra homework.inconsistentlyindustriouslystrangelycalmly
57AFTER YOU READPracticeNoah was angry and demanded retribution for the vandal’s damage to his car.fair dealingpaymentticketspunishment
59Selection Menu (pages 1240–1255) Before You ReadReading the SelectionAfter You Read
60Click the picture to learn about the author. BEFORE YOU READMeet Joan AikenClick the picture to learn about the author.
61Connecting to the Story BEFORE YOU READConnecting to the StoryOne of the most important characters in the story you are about to read is someone who may at first seem powerless or insignificant in the face of the story’s conflict.
62Connecting to the Story BEFORE YOU READConnecting to the StoryBefore you read the selection, consider the following questions:Have you ever suddenly noticed someone who seemed insignificant prior to that moment?Do you think people who treat others badly eventually pay for their behavior? Explain.
63BEFORE YOU READBuilding BackgroundIn medieval Europe, tenant farmers called serfs were bound to a plot of land and to the will of the landowner. A serf, through his productivity, provided his own clothing and food. After giving a substantial part of the harvest to his lord, he was able to keep a small portion for himself and his family. Serfs lacked many personal liberties. Landlords frequently treated serfs cruelly, but serfs had no legal rights and therefore no way of stopping such treatment. Unless he was formally freed by his lord, the only way a serf might escape his bondage would be to run away.
64Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READSetting Purposes for ReadingUncanny and MysteriousAs you read “Lungewater,” observe the mysterious characters and circumstances. Then decide for yourself if something uncanny is occurring.
65Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READSetting Purposes for ReadingMoodMood is the emotional quality or atmosphere of a work. Authors create mood through their choice of subject matter, setting, language, diction, and tone. Gothic literature, such as “Lungewater,” has a particularly gloomy, foreboding mood and contains elements of mystery, horror, and the supernatural.
66BEFORE YOU READAnalyzing Text StructureAnalyzing text structure means looking critically at the pattern used to present events and ideas in a literary work. “Lungewater” is a frame story—a story within which another story unfolds. The frame is the outer story, which usually precedes and follows the inner and more important story.
67BEFORE YOU READAnalyzing Text StructureReading Tip: Charting Structure As you read, use a Venn diagram like the one shown on the next slide to keep track of characters, events, and places in the inner and the outer story. In the middle of the diagram, note what the two stories have in common.
68Analyzing Text Structure BEFORE YOU READAnalyzing Text Structure
69Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition. BEFORE YOU READaccosted v. approached someone in order to speak (p. 1242) The woman accosted the postal carrier to ask about the rising cost of stamps.guttural adj. sounding as if coming from the throat (p. 1243) The dog let out a guttural sound and then began to bark?Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
70Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition. BEFORE YOU READimpediment n. something that hinders or obstructs (p. 1245) Ted’s speech impediment prevented him from debating.brooded v. thought fretfully or anxiously about (p.1247) the seniors brooded over their forthcoming college applications.Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
71Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition. BEFORE YOU READsonorous adj. loud, forceful, or heavy in sound (p. 1252) The preacher’s sonorous voice filled the cavernous church.Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.
73READING THE SELECTIONThe Uncanny and Mysterious Keep the following question in mind as you read. What elements of the text contribute to its eeriness and mystery?Answer: The text is made eerie by its mood, subject matter, and strange characters. Its mystery is provided by the frequent twists in its plots and by its frame-within-a-frame structure.
74READING THE SELECTIONThe Uncanny and Mysterious Read the text highlighted in tan on page How has the author introduced the element of mystery here?Answer: The narrator’s admission that he or she never takes the path alone makes the reader wonder what is so scary about the path.
75READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtLook at the painting on page How is the setting in this painting similar to or different from the setting at the beginning of the story?
76READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtAnswer: The bus depot in the painting is in a teeming metropolis, whereas the bus stop where the narrator is sitting at the beginning of the story is described as one of many “cheerless wayside bus stations.”
77READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementMood Read the text highlighted in purple on page How do you feel about this character after he is first described by the narrator?Answer: The man’s height, baldness, and tall boots give him an air of mystery. The description helps establish the story’s mood of ominous foreboding.
78READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyAnalyzing Text Structure Read the text highlighted in blue on page What is the function of this and the previous paragraph?Answer: The paragraphs function as the beginning of the story inside the frame, or the story within the story. They cover many years in a short amount of time, as in a fairy tale.
79READING THE SELECTIONWriter’s TechniqueCharacter Read the first column on page 1243 of your textbook. What does the narrator’s behavior say about him or her?Answer: The narrator is considerate; she is reluctant to express her true feelings to adults.
80READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtLook at the painting on page What similarities do you find between these women and the beautiful lady?Answer: Answers will vary. You may point out that the setting seems to be that of an upper-class estate. Or you may point out that the count was a lonely, friendless man who never would have thrown such a pleasant party.
81READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyAnalyzing Text Structure Read the text highlighted in blue on page What role does Christmas Eve play in the structure of the story?Answer: It is Christmas Eve in the present of the story and Christmas Eve in the story-within-the-story. That particular day is a repeating element in the structure of the story.
82READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyAnalyzing Text Structure Read the text highlighted in blue on page Why might an author choose to frame a story within a story?Answer: By framing, an author is able to tell two stories at once, thus increasing a story’s complexity and, hopefully, enjoyableness.
83READING THE SELECTIONThe Uncanny and Mysterious Read the text highlighted in tan on page What does the narrator’s response to this name suggest?Answer: It suggests that the narrator recognizes the name of the house.
84READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtLook at the painting on page Could this scene take place at the count’s Lungewater home? Why or why not?Answer: You may say that the count does not have an older servant and would have been unlikely to have guests at his home.
85READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementMood Read the text highlighted in purple on page What mood does this description help create?Answer: This description creates a frenzied, crazed, and sinister mood associated with the count’s letter writing.
86READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyAnalyzing Text Structure Read the text highlighted in blue on page How does the repetition of the events surrounding the count’s letter writing affect the story?
87READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyAnswer: The repetition of the letter writing and the count’s order for Stiva to deliver it gives the story the feel of a folktale. In folktales, something usually happens three times before the climax of the story. The repetition helps the reader experience the count’s refusal to take no for an answer.
88READING THE SELECTIONWriter’s TechniqueFirst-Person Point of View Read the first column on page 1247 of your textbook. The decision to use first person point of view is crucial to how a story is relayed. As a class, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of “Lungewater” as told through the first-person point of view.
89READING THE SELECTIONWriter’s TechniqueAnswer: Advantages: narrator is likeable, readers are easily drawn to story because they feel invited by the “I”; disadvantages: feelings of other characters cannot be explored thoroughly.
90READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtLook at the painting on page In what ways does this painting reflect the story’s setting?
91READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtAnswer: This painting could be a depiction of the Stride-the Ravine into which Stiva and the count fall to their deaths. The bridge in the background could be the foot bridge that Stiva crosses when he delivers the first two poems. The River Lunge seems to be missing.
92READING THE SELECTIONThe Uncanny and Mysterious Read the text highlighted in tan on page Why do you think the count chooses to follow Stiva this time?Answer: Because of the lady’s failure to respond to his letters, the count may be suspicious of Stiva and is following him to see if he is really delivering the letters.
93READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyAnalyzing Text Structure Read the text highlighted in blue on page How does the story’s structure shift here?Answer: The narrator’s comments help merge the two existing stories, the present and the past.
94READING THE SELECTIONWriter’s TechniqueDialogue Read the first column on page Is it possible for a scene to consist only of dialogue? Explain.Answer: Yes. The characters’ words not only can move the story along but also can present past action, introduce conflict, and describe the setting.
95READING THE SELECTIONThe Uncanny and Mysterious Read the text highlighted in tan on page What might Thorne have found mysterious about Stiva’s situation?Answer: Thorne might wonder why Stiva has stayed with the count when he could be a free man. He might also wonder at how cruel the count must be to keep Stiva thinking that he is an enslaved person.
96READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtLook at the painting on page Could the man in this painting represent the count? Why or why not?
97READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtAnswer: The man in the painting—with arms crossed, chest puffed out, and chin raised—exudes the same self-absorption and haughtiness as does the count. But he would not have been seen in public with a woman other than his love across the River Lunge.
98READING THE SELECTIONThe Uncanny and Mysterious Read the text highlighted in tan on page What seems uncanny about the river as the narrator describes it?
99READING THE SELECTIONAnswer: The physical description of the water makes it seem very powerful, much more powerful than humans, able to destroy both nature (broken branches) and the things humans make (tools and boards). It seems alive and threatening.
100READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementMood Read the text highlighted in purple on page How does this observation by the old man enhance the mood?Answer: The man suggests explicitly what the mood implies—that the area is mysterious and likely haunted.
101READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtLook at the painting on page Is the boy portrayed here similar to the image you have developed of Stiva? Explain.
102READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtAnswer: Answers will vary. You may point out that this boy looks older than an undernourished Stiva would look. Also, Garwhal is in India, at the foot of the Himalayas, not in Bulgaria. This difference could cause discrepancies between the image of the boy portrayed the painting and the image that you may have generated in your mind.
103READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementMood Read the text highlighted in purple on page How does the author’s word choice here contribute to the story’s mood?
104READING THE SELECTIONLiterary ElementAnswer: The language in this passage makes it seem as though the narrator is falling into a trance brought on by the ghost of the Stride. The passage complicates the mood of fear with the hypnotic pull of the place. The words “a wish, a will” suggest a sinister agency that beckons people to plunge to their deaths.
105READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtLook at the painting on page What mood is evoked by this scene? Is it similar to the story’s mood?Answer: With its shining sun and picturesque setting, this scene has an idyllic mood. It is not similar to the story’s mood, which is much darker and more harrowing.
106READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtLook at the painting on page What mood is expressed by this scene? Does it match the mood at the conclusion of this story? Explain.
107READING THE SELECTIONViewing the ArtAnswer: The scene has a mood of mystery and suspense. The woman in the doorway seems equally intrigued by the situation. This does not match the mood in the story, where the woman receiving the love letter quickly burns it.
108READING THE SELECTIONReading StrategyAnalyzing Text Structure Read the first text highlighted in blue on page How do the inner story and the outer story come together here?Answer: The two stories have merged with the introduction of the character of the great-aunt. She is a character in both stories, so she bridges the action in each.
110Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRespondWere you satisfied with the story’s ending? Explain.Answer: Answers will vary.
111Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) Where and when does the story begin? (b) Give specific reasons that might explain the author’s choice to begin the narrative here.Answer: (a) In a dilapidated bus shelter in England on a recent Christmas Eve (b) Answers will vary.
112Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) Who is Stiva? (b) Why does he remain with Count Boyanus?Answer: (a) The enslaved person of Count Boyanus (b) He is illiterate and ignorant of his rights.
113Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) What is the shortest route between Count Boyanus’s and the lady’s properties? (b) What is strange about the count’s insistence that Stiva take this route?
114Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and InterpretAnswer: (a) By way of the Stride, a dangerous location (b) He has no compassion for Stiva and does not seem to realize that if Stiva plunges to his death, the letters will be lost.
115Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyRecall and Interpret(a) What happens to Stiva? (b) How is what happens to Stiva related to what happens to the count later?Answer: (a) He fatally falls down the ravine when forced to jump the Stride. (b) Later, the count supposedly tries to jump the Stride and falls, some say pulled into the river by Stiva’s ghost.
116Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and Evaluate(a) How does Joan Aiken present the story of Count Hugo Boyanus? (b) How does this decision affect the structure of the story?
117Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateAnswer: (a) As a story within a story (b) The outer story, set in the present day, becomes the frame for the inner story.
118Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and Evaluate(a) How does Aiken communicate the lady’s feelings for Count Boyanus to the reader? (b) How well does the author reveal important information without explicitly stating it? Explain.
119Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and EvaluateAnswer: (a) Through her refusal to respond to the count (b) She does not assign motives to the characters but allows the reader to interpret what they say and do.
120Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyAnalyze and Evaluate(a) How does the old man’s story connect him to the narrator? (b) How believable is this connection? Explain.Answer: (a) The narrator is the great grandchild of the lady, and the old man is the brother of Stiva. (b) Answers will vary.
121Responding and Thinking Critically AFTER YOU READResponding and Thinking CriticallyConnectThe Uncanny and MysteriousWhat strikes you as the most uncanny or mysterious element in this story? Explain.Answer: Answers will vary but should be supported by details in the text.
122AFTER YOU READMoodWhen determining the mood of a piece, first contemplate the emotional effect it has on you. Then try to link the cause of your feelings to specific elements of the text. By doing so, you can more easily identify the mood of the piece and which elements contribute most to it.
123AFTER YOU READMood(a) Describe the mood of “Lungewater,” using examples from the story as support. (b) How does the author establish this mood?
124AFTER YOU READMoodAnswer: (a) “Lungewater” has a gothic mood: gloomy, eerie setting and elements of mystery, horror, and the supernatural. (b) Through descriptions of the misty weather, violent river, and deep ravine and the count’s personality
125Do you believe the mood is fitting? Explain. AFTER YOU READMoodDo you believe the mood is fitting? Explain.Answer: The mood fits the plot well: Both are sad and eerie.
126Writing About Literature AFTER YOU READWriting About LiteratureAnalyze Style Style is the expressive quality of an author’s work, consisting of the sentence structure, word choice, and use of figurative language and imagery that make the writing unique.
127Writing About Literature AFTER YOU READWriting About LiteratureIn “Lungewater,” Joan Aiken uses elements of style to paint a vivid picture of one strange, dark Christmas Eve journey. In an essay, examine Aiken’s use of figurative language and imagery in “Lungewater” and how they contribute to her distinct style.
128AFTER YOU READAnalyzing Text StructureA writer may use a variety of techniques in structuring a literary work. Stories are often arranged chronologically, and the action moves straightforwardly through time. Other techniques include repetition, flashback, and framing.
129Does “Lungewater” have a chronological structure? AFTER YOU READAnalyzing Text StructureDoes “Lungewater” have a chronological structure?Answer: “Lungewater” jumps back and forth from the past to the present.
130How would the story change if it did not have a frame? Give examples. AFTER YOU READAnalyzing Text StructureHow would the story change if it did not have a frame? Give examples.Answer: Answers will vary.
131AFTER YOU READPracticePractice with Antonyms Choose the best antonym for each vocabulary word.
132AFTER YOU READPracticeaccostedapproachedretreated
138Exploring Science Fiction WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryExploring Science FictionConnecting to Literature In “A Sound of Thunder,” Ray Bradbury takes the reader to another world, where a machine can make the sun stop “in the sky” and cause time to roll “backward.” This type of writing is called science fiction. It has all the elements of fiction—including characters, events, and a plot—but it deals with the impact of technology, real or imagined, on society and individuals. Science fiction is also often set in the future or in an alternative world. Study the rubric below to learn the goals and strategies for writing a successful science fiction story.Writing Workshop
140Exploring Science Fiction WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryExploring Science FictionAssignmentWrite a science fiction story that contains dialogue. As you move through the stages of the writing process, keep your audience and purpose in mind.Audience: classmates and peersPurpose: to entertain by including all of the elements of a good short story, including setting, characters, events, exposition, conflict, rising action, resolution, falling action, and dialogueWriting Workshop
141Analyzing a Professional Model WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryAnalyzing a Professional ModelIn the short story on pages 1257–1259 of your textbook, Isaac Asimov presents a not-so-future world in which computers are used to create conditions for, and to fight, wars. As you read the story, identify story elements as well as features of science fiction. Pay close attention to the comments in the margin. They point out features that you might want to include in your own story.Writing Workshop
142Analyzing a Professional Model WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryAnalyzing a Professional ModelReading-Writing Connection Think about the writing techniques that you have just encountered and try them out in the science fiction story you write.Writing Workshop
143Short Story Prewriting WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryPrewritingBrainstorm Setting, Characters, Events, and Focus Before writing your story, think through many ideas and then choose the best ones.Begin by thinking about where and when your story will take place. Make a list of possible settings.Think about who will appear in your story. List your characters.Writing Workshop
144Short Story Prewriting WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryPrewritingDecide what will happen to your characters. List possible events.Create a science fiction focus. Brainstorm about issues related to science and technology that you could explore in a story.Writing Workshop
145Short Story Prewriting WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryPrewritingMake a Story Map A story must have a conflict or a problem to solve. It must also be told in a logical order. Making a story map will help ensure that you have ideas for all the story elements before you begin writing. It will also help you put your ideas, especially the events, in order.Writing Workshop
147Short Story Prewriting WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryPrewritingTalk About Your Ideas Meet with a partner. Use your story map to help you summarize the ideas you have for your story so far. Ask your partner for suggestions about what to add, take out, or do differently. To develop your writing voice, listen to your own speaking voice now as you retell the most important or exciting parts of the story, such as the conflict or high point of the action. Work with your partner to identify the words and phrases that reflect your voice—which should be part of your written story. Jot down those words and phrases.Writing Workshop
148Short Story Prewriting WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryPrewritingDevelop Dialogue Look at your events again. Decide what the characters will be thinking to themselves or saying to one another at the most important moments of the story. Also think about how the characters’ words and thoughts can help you get the story started or move the plot along. Make some notes.Writing Workshop
149WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryDraftingCreate paragraphs Whenever the time or place changes, or when you write dialogue, be sure to create a new paragraph. Finally, your ending or resolution should be stated in a separate paragraph.Writing Workshop
150Analyzing a Workshop Model WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryAnalyzing a Workshop ModelOn page 1261 of your textbook is a final draft of a science fiction story. Read the story and answer the questions in the margin. Use the answers to guide you as you write.Writing Workshop
151WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryRevisingPeer Review When you finish your draft, ask a classmate to read it. Have your classmate identify the characters, the problem or conflict, the events, and the resolution or ending. Then ask your reviewer to make suggestions about where to change background information or dialogue, or add more details about the conflict and how it builds up. Ask your reviewer to review the traits of strong writing, too; then think about how they apply to your work.Writing Workshop
152WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryRevisingUse the rubric below to help you evaluate your writing.Writing Workshop
153Short Story Using Dialogue WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryUsing DialogueDialogue in a story helps bring characters to life. It can show their motives, thoughts, and values. It can also reveal their relationships to other characters and to the conflict. As you revise your narrative, look for places where you can add dialogue or replace flat statements with dialogue. Note how dialogue improves the passage from the Workshop Model on the following slides.Writing Workshop
154Short Story Using Dialogue Draft: WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryUsing DialogueDraft:As I make my way to the bridge, I remember how upset Laura was when I told her of my plan to join the crew of the Zodiac, a space explorer. She worried about how much I’d be gone, so I asked her to come with me. I said I’d get her a job on the Zodiac.Writing Workshop
155Short Story Using Dialogue Revision: WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryUsing DialogueRevision:As I make my way to the bridge, I remember how upset Laura was when I told her of my plan to join the crew of the Zodiac, a space explorer.“You’ll be gone so much. I may not see you again!” she cried.1“Come with me,” I pleaded. “I can get you a job on the Zodiac, too.”1: shows character’s feelings2: shows character’s valuesWriting Workshop
156Editing and Proofreading WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryEditing and ProofreadingGet It Right When you have completed the final draft of your story, proofread it for errors in grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling. Refer to the Language Handbook, pages R46–R60, as a guide.Writing Workshop
157Correcting Shifts in Point of View WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryCorrecting Shifts in Point of ViewStories are often told from the third-person point of view. The narrator uses pronouns such as he, she, and they to tell the story. Many stories are told from the first-person point of view. A character in the story uses the pronoun I to tell what is happening. You should tell your story in third person or first person, but not both. You should also avoid shifting to the second person. On the following slides are examples of shifts in point of view and corrections from the Workshop Model.Writing Workshop
158Correcting Shifts in Point of View WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryCorrecting Shifts in Point of ViewProblem: The narrative shifts from the first person to the third person.I knew that the wide-open universe was calling me. He packed his things, and in the morning he left—but not without a few tears of his own.Writing Workshop
159Correcting Shifts in Point of View WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryCorrecting Shifts in Point of ViewSolution: Make sure that all personal pronouns are first-person pronouns.I knew that the wide-open universe was calling me. I packed my things, and in the morning I left—but not without a few tears of my own.Writing Workshop
160Correcting Shifts in Point of View WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryCorrecting Shifts in Point of ViewProblem: The narrative shifts inappropriately to the second person (you).The atmosphere is so toxic there that you couldn’t last thirty seconds without a suit.Solution: Use a noun or another pronoun that makes sense in the context of the sentence.The atmosphere is so toxic there that a person couldn’t last thirty seconds without a suit.Writing Workshop
161Short Story Presenting WRITING WORKSHOPShort StoryPresentingOne Last Look If you word process your work, read it again after you print it out. Sometimes, it is easier to see errors on paper than on the screen. Make all corrections neatly in red or blue ink. To cross something out, draw a single line through the word or words.Writing Workshop
162Presenting an Oral Interpretation of a Short Story SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPGroup DiscussionPresenting an Oral Interpretation of a Short StoryConnecting to Literature Science fiction stories such as “A Sound of Thunder” are often full of interesting events, complicated choices, moral questions, and characters in conflict. Like other literary genres, they offer much to discuss—and much to discover through the process of sharing interpretations. In this workshop, you will learn how to participate in a group discussion in which all group members present their oral interpretations of a science fiction story.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
163Presenting an Oral Interpretation of a Short Story SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPGroup DiscussionPresenting an Oral Interpretation of a Short StoryAssignmentIn a group, discuss and interpret a science fiction story, using accurate and detailed references to the text.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
164Planning Your Group Discussion SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPGroup DiscussionPlanning Your Group DiscussionIn a group discussion, every member must be an active participant, contributing through active speaking and listening strategies. To ensure that everyone takes an active role, assign specific group tasks such as the following:Leader or Facilitator This person introduces the topic, keeps the discussion focused, and keeps track of time.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
165Planning Your Group Discussion SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPGroup DiscussionPlanning Your Group DiscussionRecorder This person keeps track of the most important points and takes the lead in summarizing the discussion.Group Participants All group participants, including the leader and the recorder, present ideas and ask questions about the literature; support their opinions with details from the literature; and evaluate, respect, and respond to the interpretations and questions of others.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
166Planning Your Group Discussion SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPGroup DiscussionPlanning Your Group DiscussionAfter you assign roles, work with the rest of the group to plan ways to achieve the following goals for a group discussion that interprets a story:Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
167Planning Your Group Discussion SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPGroup DiscussionPlanning Your Group DiscussionMake judgments about the story.Support each judgment with words and passages from the story.Point out stylistic devices (such as imagery) and their effects.Discuss the questions raised in the text, such as the problems created by new technology.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
168Interpreting the Literature SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPGroup DiscussionInterpreting the LiteratureWhat can you say about the literature? Follow these steps for thinking of your own interpretations and questions.Review the story under discussion. Summarize the story, or make a story map showing its main events, its conflict, and its resolution, or ending.Ask questions. Many of the best questions about literature begin with the questions why, how, or how well. Complete an organizer like the one shown on the following slide, substituting your own questions.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
169Interpreting the Literature SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPGroup DiscussionInterpreting the LiteratureSpeaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
170Preparing for the Group Discussion SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPGroup DiscussionPreparing for the Group DiscussionAs a group member, you can prepare for the discussion this way:Plan a logical order in which to present your points.Rehearse the points you will make.Gather references to the text or quotations from the story as support.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
171Preparing for the Group Discussion SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPGroup DiscussionPreparing for the Group DiscussionAs a group, you can prepare for the discussion this way:Decide on a format. For example, will each person have a certain amount of time to speak? Will the discussion follow a specific order?Decide how and when to end discussion and how to summarize.Speaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
172Preparing for the Group Discussion SPEAKING, LISTENING, AND VIEWING WORKSHOPGroup DiscussionPreparing for the Group DiscussionSpeaking, Listening, and Viewing Workshop
173What does it mean to be a criminal? Unit 6, Part 2BELLRINGERCriminalWhat does it mean to be a criminal?Once someone is a criminal, is that person a criminal for life?A Retrieved Reformation Bellringer
174Do you believe in the supernatural? Explain. Unit 6, Part 2BELLRINGERDo you believe in the supernatural? Explain.Lungewater Bellringer
175Where did Jimmy go first upon his release from prison? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhere did Jimmy go first upon his release from prison?Richmond, Indianaa restauranta bankthe train depotA Retrieved Reformation Checkpoint
176He tries to behave like another man. CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSAccording to the narrator, what happens to Jimmy when he see Annabel Adams for the first time?He tries to behave like another man.He is struck by a feeling that he knows the woman.He realizes that she is the key to robbing the bank.He decides that the Elmore bank job will be his last.A Retrieved Reformation Checkpoint
177Why does Jimmy open a shoe business in Elmore? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhy does Jimmy open a shoe business in Elmore?He always wanted to open a shoe store.He adored the community.He needed more time in which to plan the bank robbery.He fell in love and decided to quit being a burglar.A Retrieved Reformation Checkpoint
178What happened to Agatha while at the bank? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat happened to Agatha while at the bank?She is scolded by Jimmy for revealing the contents of his suitcase.She faints at the sight of Ben Price.She gets locked in the vault.She see Jimmy’s “Most Wanted” poster on the wall.A Retrieved Reformation Checkpoint
179What does Ben Price do after Jimmy frees Agatha from the Vault? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat does Ben Price do after Jimmy frees Agatha from the Vault?He takes Jimmy’s suitcase.He tells Annabel and her family all about Jimmy’s past.He pretends he doesn’t know Jimmy and lets him go.He arrests him on the spot.A Retrieved Reformation Checkpoint
180CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat does the Hungarian man do to pass the time with the narrator while they wait for the bus?tells the narrator about his clothestells the narrator the story of Count Hugo Boyanusplays cards with the narratorsings songs to the narratorLungewater Checkpoint
181Why did Count Boyanus leave Hungary? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhy did Count Boyanus leave Hungary?All his money was in banks in England.He was a wanted criminal.He wanted Stiva to grow up in England.He was forced to leave because of a revolution.Lungewater Checkpoint
182What did the count do to try to change the woman’s mind? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat did the count do to try to change the woman’s mind?He gave her money.He helped take care of her family’s estateHe wrote the woman poems.He visited her everyday.Lungewater Checkpoint
183What happened to Stiva and Count Boyanus? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWhat happened to Stiva and Count Boyanus?The count was arrested and Stiva was set free.Stiva disappeared when the count died of old age.Stiva and the count returned to Hungary.Stiva and the count both fell into the Stride.Lungewater Checkpoint
184Who was the old Hungarian man who was with the narrator? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONSWho was the old Hungarian man who was with the narrator?Stiva’s younger brother, MatveyWill Thorne’s brotherThe ghost of Count BoyanusStivaLungewater Checkpoint
185Unit 6, Part 2 Literary Terms Handbook Test-Taking Skills Handbook REFERENCELiterary Terms HandbookTest-Taking Skills HandbookReading HandbookDaily Language Practice TransparenciesFoldablesWriting HandbookGrammar and Writing Workshop TransparenciesBusiness WritingLanguage Handbook
186Unit 6, Part 2 To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product: HELPTo navigate within this Presentation Plus! product:Click the Forward button to go to the next slide.Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide.Click the Section Back button to return to the beginning of the section you are in. If you are viewing a feature, this button returns you to the main presentation.Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu.Click the Help button to access this screen.Click the Speaker button to listen to available audio.Click the Speaker Off button to stop any playing audio.Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show.Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Handbook, Literature Online, and others are located in the left margin of most screens. Click on any of these buttons to access a specific feature.