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W3 WHG Era 3 – Classical Traditions, World Religions, and Major Empires, 1000 B.C.E./B.C. to 300 C.E./A.D. Part Five: ROMAN CIVILIZATION WHGCEs Middle.

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Presentation on theme: "W3 WHG Era 3 – Classical Traditions, World Religions, and Major Empires, 1000 B.C.E./B.C. to 300 C.E./A.D. Part Five: ROMAN CIVILIZATION WHGCEs Middle."— Presentation transcript:

1 W3 WHG Era 3 – Classical Traditions, World Religions, and Major Empires, 1000 B.C.E./B.C. to 300 C.E./A.D. Part Five: ROMAN CIVILIZATION WHGCEs Middle School Series - Session 7 Part V Craig Benjamin

2 Introduction: Rome, Greece and Western Culture Where the Athenians saw the symbol of their democracy embodied in the Acropolis, the Romans came to view the Forum as the symbol of their power and dominance Forum was decorated with arches and columns commemorating Roman military triumphs – reminding citizens that Rome was the capital of a world state extending from Persia to Scotland Yet the buildings of the Forum are essentially Greek in design, reminding us that Rome borrowed greatly from the Greeks and other cultures, often modifying and improving what they borrowed As such, the expansion of Roman power in the west ensured that the cultural achievements of all the earlier civilizations of West Asia, Egypt and the Mediterranean were preserved and diffused westwards throughout Europe

3 The Romans! From their origins as a small agrarian village on the banks of the Tiber to the greatest western civilization of the ancient world, the Romans met unexpected challenge after challenge with creativity, practicality and efficiency Their extraordinary engineers and architects traveled throughout much of the ancient world in the wake of the formidable military, constructing roads, walls, baths, temples, amphitheaters, bridges and aqueducts that survive as physical reminders of the role of the Romans in shaping the West Yet arguably it is the more intangible contributions – to law, literature, philosophy and cultural exchange – that are the true memorials to an extraordinary people

4 To Include Part One: Early Italian and Roman History Part Two: The Early Roman Republic Part Three: The Later Roman Republic Part Four: The Early Roman Republic Part Five: The Later Roman Empire

5 PART ONE: EARLY ITALIAN AND ROMAN HISTORY The Dates of Roman Civilization (900-509 BCE) Traditional date for founding of Rome: 753 BCE Early agrarian community established c. 900 BCE Rome fell to Gothic invaders 6 th C CE Dating end of Roman Civilization difficult – because Roman legacy dominated Europe long after Rome had fallen Roman Forum – 18 th Century View

6 Geography Italian peninsula 600 miles long - four times the size of Greece; two-thirds of California Apennine mountains a spine that runs the entire length, but Italy not as rugged as Greece Roads could be constructed across the peninsula Hills of Rome (in central plains of Latium) easy to defend Location made it easy for Rome to divide and conquer Italy Italy itself strategically located, jutting out into center of the Mediterranean; allowed Rome to dominate the region Palatine Hill, Rome

7 Italy and The Mediterranean /

8 Early Italian History Romans (like the Greeks) were also descended from migrating Indo- Europeans who invaded Aegean worlds after 2000 BCE Later iron-age wave of invaders mingled with the bronze settlements and spread throughout Italy One group were the ‘Latins’ - settled in Latium on the banks of the Tiber River to farm and trade

9 Etruscans and Greeks In the 9th century the Etruscans became dominant in central Italy Etruscans were either invaders from northern Italy, or outsiders from Asia Minor – no one knows for sure! Organized less advance Italians into a loose confederation of city-states After 750 Greek colonists settled in southern Italy and Sicily; Phoenician colony of Carthage also dominant But destiny of Rome was not to belong to any of these invaders! Pictures: Etruscan Sculpture, Vatican Museum, Rome

10 Rome founded by legendary king Romulus in 753 BCE Poet Virgil wrote that Rome was founded by Aeneas the Trojan, fleeing after the defeat of Troy Archaeological evidence exists of Latin settlements on hills in the Tiber Valley, including a common meeting place or ‘Forum’ In 625 Etruscans conquered Rome, and influenced Roman culture (alphabet; gods and prophesying by animal entrails or the flight of birds; the arch; gladiators) Rome and the Tiber River today. The original settlement was located beside a ford in the Tiber; protected by hills and marshes Origins of Rome

11 The Roman Monarchy (753-509) Power of Rome’s early kings (last three Etruscan) was called imperium Early Rome had a popular assembly, but king conferred with a council of nobles called the Senate Senators (chosen for life) belonged to patrician class (pater = father) Lower classes called plebians In 509 Etruscans overthrown and new form of government called the Republic established Roman imperium was symbolized by an axe bound up in a bundle of rods (called fasces). 20th C. Italian dictator Mussolini used this term to describe fascism

12 PART TWO: EARLY ROMAN REPUBLIC (509-133 BCE) Establishment of the Republic Last Etruscan king (Tarquin) driven out because he acted despotically Patricians replaced monarchy with aristocratic form of government called republica (res publica – common wealth) Two magistrates (consuls) elected annually to represent patricians In war or emergency extraordinary magistrate (dictator) could be selected Roman Senators controlled the early Republic. The Popular assembly was retained, but patricians controlled it through their plebian clients who voted as they were told. Senators on their way to the Senate, Column of Augustus (1 st C)

13 Plebian Struggle for Equality – Tribunes and Laws For two centuries plebeians struggled for equal rights; patricians acceded to many of their demands Plebeians granted right to their own political body (Concillium Plebis) presided over tribunes Tribunes could pass laws binding on the plebeians (plebiscites) and had the right to veto unfair consul laws by veto (‘I forbid’) By 450 BCE Roman law was codified and written on 12 bronze tablets set up in the forum I Forbid! The Veto – Aurus Metellus

14 Plebeians Achieve Political Equality The plebeians (soldiers) used military crises to maximize their bargaining power Trade and commerce also dominated by the plebeians; patricians mainly wealthy landowners In 367 one consulship was reserved for the plebeians, who were also eligible for new magistracies like the Praetor (chief legal officer) Quaestor (treasurer) and Censor (public morality and state contracts) In 287 the long struggle ended when laws passed by the plebian assembly (now called the Tribal Assembly) became binding on all citizens Patricians guarded their privileges even more fiercely after this, culminating in a renewed class struggle in 133 BCE

15 Republican Society and Religion Basic unit of society the family – the father had absolute power Strict discipline used to bring children up with Roman virtues and character - loyalty, courage, self-control, respect for law Men involved with military and political affairs; women with family duties and supervising household and estate Everyday religion revolved around lesser gods and spirits of the family The major gods and goddesses of the state were personified – Jupiter (sky spirit and patron god); Mars (god of war); Janus (guard of the city) Mars – God of War - Pompeii Naples Museum

16 Images of Roman Women Roman Marriage: Relief from Trajan’s Palace The Goddess Diana: Louvre Museum

17 Roman Conquest of Italy – Etruscans and Gauls Growth of Rome from small city-state to master of the Mediterranean world took less than 400 years (509-133) Expansion result of response to security threats After driving out the Etruscans in 509, Rome and the Latin League formed a defensive alliance – becoming the chief power in central Italy But in 390 a raiding army of Gauls invaded Italy, destroyed the Roman army and nearly burnt the city to the ground; after Gauls withdrew after being paid a large ransom Rome then rebuilt its defenses and its army, employing small maneuverable units of 120 men called maniples armed with javelins

18 Conquest of Italy: Latins and Greeks Latin League alarmed at Rome’s increasing power – declared war! Rome defeated the League in 338; all Latin cities forced to sign treaties with Rome Wars then fought with the aggressive Samnium tribes of the mountains, extending Roman power as far as the Greek colonies of the south Greeks feared war with Rome, and called in the mercenary king Pyrrhus of Epirus. Pyrrhus defeated Romans twice, but very costly triumphs (‘Pyrrhic Victory’) – he withdrew By 270 Rome master of all the city- states of southern Italy King Pyrrhus of Epirus

19 Treatment of Conquered Peoples Romans treated conquered peoples fairly, ensuring loyalty. No tribute was demanded, no captives were enslaved States retained self-government and agreed to support Roman foreign policy and supply troops for the army Coin struck to commemorate Roman victory of the Samnites

20 The Punic Wars Rome’s only remaining rival in the Western Med was Carthage - wealthy with a powerful navy The First Punic War began in 264 when Carthage landed a force in Sicily In naval battles Rome lost 500 ships but forced Carthage to sue for peace in 241 Rome annexed Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica – the beginning of its empire New provinces ruled and taxed by governors Carthaginian Empire – 3 rd Century BCE

21 The War with Hannibal Young Carthaginian general called Hannibal set out to avenge defeat of Carthage - attacked the Spanish town of Sarguntum, a Roman ally Rome declared Second Punic War in 218 BCE; Hannibal led 50,000 troops and war elephants across the Alps and into Italy Hannibal defeated Roman legions at three major battles, including Battle of Cannae But Rome’s Italian allies remained loyal; Hannibal unable to inflict a mortal blow Roman general Scipio Africanus then invaded Africa and attacked Carthage, forcing Hannibal to withdraw At Battle of Zama in 201 Hannibal was defeated, and Carthaginian power crushed

22 Hannibal the Great Hannibal Crosses the Alps Site of the Battle of Cannae – 216 BCE Battle of Zama 201 BCE www.naptus.tripod

23 After Hannibal’s Defeat? Roman Expansion in the East Philip V of Macedon (pictured below) had allied himself with Hannibal, so Rome turned to Macedonia in 200 BCE to punish him Roman legions defeated old-fashioned Macedonian phalanxes in 197; Rome then ‘liberated’ Greece from Macedonian control Seleucid emperor attempted to involve himself in Greek affairs; Rome forced him to retreat and pay a huge indemnity In 168 Seleucids defeated again when they attempted to invade Egypt In 146, Rome crushed a Greek uprising in Corinth, and annexed Greece

24 By 133BCE Rome was Supreme in the Mediterranean Brief Carthaginian revival crushed in 146 and Carthage utterly destroyed By 133 Rome had its first province in Asia when the king of Pergamum bequeathed his kingdom Rome now had provinces in Europe, Asia and Africa – she was the supreme power of western Eurasia Carthage today

25 PART THREE – LATER ROMAN REPUBLIC (133-30 BCE) Effects of Roman Expansion on the Land As a result of expansion, Rome faced critical economic and social problems by the mid- 2nd Century Small farms had been destroyed by Hannibal; farmers recruited as soldiers Many unemployed and discontented proletariat (only contribution was proles – children) Patrician farmers bought up all the land and grew profitable olive oil and wine instead of grain Slave labor used to work the huge Senatorial estates, worsening the unemployment problem

26 Corruption! Roman provincial governors were largely corrupt; businessmen scrambled for lucrative government contracts Government was still a senatorial oligarchy – the tribunes were puppets of the Senate Government focused on protecting the rights of the rich and powerful; had no solutions for lower class poverty, or how to govern a world state Increasing gulf between wealthy few and impoverished many undermined Roman values - Rome seethed with discontent Ultimate result of this was the collapse of the Roman Republic, and the emergence of the Empire

27 133 BCE Tiberius Gracchus and Social Reform Tiberius Gracchus introduced social reforms to restore small landowner to central position in Roman society Elected tribune in 133 - attempted to introduce an act that limited the amount of public land individuals could hold Wanted to reclaim land from large landholders and grant it back to the poor in small plots of up to 18 acres Senate persuaded tribunes to veto the measure; Tiberius had popular assembly depose the tribune, and still pass the law Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus

28 Tiberius ran for office in the Tribal Assembly (which was unconstitutional). The Senate accused him of acting like a king - he and 300 of his followers murdered (pictured below)

29 122 BCE - Gaius Gracchus Younger brother Gaius was elected tribune in 123 Proposed establishing colonies which could be farmed by military veterans in southern Italy and north Africa To protect against fluctuating grain prices, he legislated for government to control grain distribution to the urban masses at half the market price This became the dole; later used by politicians to buy votes Gaius also proposed granting Roman citizenship to Italian allies, a move opposed by the popular assembly; he was not re elected in 121 On election day a riot broke out and 3000 of his followers were killed; Gaius committed suicide Senate remained in control, leading to three civil wars and the collapse of the Republic

30 First Civil War: Marius v Sulla 111 -105 BCE Roman legions defeated in Africa and Germany During the crisis lower and middle classes appointed Gaius Marius as consul in 107 Marius put down foreign uprisings, and reshaped Roman army, recruiting from landless peasants New professional soldiers felt loyalty to their commander, not the state – the emergence of a ‘personal army’ that ambitious generals could use to threaten the government Marius

31 Sulla Becomes ‘Dictator of the Senate’ In 88 BCE Senate sent their general Sulla to put down an uprising in Asia Minor; Tribal Assembly chose Marius for the same war Led to First Civil War, which Sulla won. He was appointed ‘dictator by the Senate, giving Senate control of legislation before he retired in 79 BCE Sulla

32 Changing political climate fueled ambitions of younger leaders Pompey, a former supporter of Sulla, elected consul in 70 BCE Gained plebian support by passing laws supporting the power of the Tribal Assembly; also crushed piracy in the East Julius Caesar elected consul in 59; spent the next nine years campaigning in Gaul. Accumulated a fortune and trained a personal army Pompey and the Senate demanded the Caesar disband his army before crossing the Rubicon River. Caesar refused and marched on Rome Pompey and most of the Senate fled to Greece, where Caesar pursued and defeated them. The war ended in 45 BCE Second Civil War: Pompey v Caesar

33 Caesar Dictator! Victorious Caesar now assumed the title of ‘dictator for the administration of public affairs’ Granted citizenship to the Gauls; invited Italians into the Senate Reduced debts for the poor; established colonies outside of Italy; declared 1/3 rd of laborers on estates had to be ‘free’ This reduced the number of people on the dole in Rome from 320,000 to 150,000 (total pop. about 500,000) Reformed the calendar – still the basis of our calendar today: 365 and ¼ days per year Caesar argued that the Republic was dead; many viewed him as a tyrant. He was assassinated on the Ides of March (March 15th 44 BCE) by Brutus and others claiming they were attempting to restore Roman liberty

34 Third Civil War: Anthony v Octavian Caesar’s 18 year old adopted son Octavian formed an alliance with Mark Anthony and defeated the conspirators Anthony took charge of the East and fell in love with Cleopatra; Octavian declared Rome had been ‘polluted’ Octavian defeated Anthony’s armies - Anthony and Cleopatra committed suicide Rome now united under one leader; Octavian hailed as ‘father of the country’ At this moment the Republic gave way to the permanent dictatorship of the Empire Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh as Anthony and Cleopatra; St. James Theater 1951 www.manderandwww.manderand

35 Cleopatra: (69- 30 BCE) Queen of Ancient Egypt, belonged to the Ptolemaic dynasty and was de facto ruler of Egypt from 51 to 30 BCE Cleopatra revived the Ptolemaic powers through diplomatic skills, in addition to her using her personality to make alliances with Roman rulers, and to have Egyptian competitors murdered Her fame is connected to a turbulent life of love affairs with the most influential men of her time Her life story has inspired playwrights and movie makers, making her the most famous personality of Ancient Egypt

36 PART IV: THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE Octavian and the ‘Restoration of the Republic’ Octavian governed as a dictator while appearing to rule with the Senate Senate named him Augustus – the ‘revered one’ Total control of the army meant he was also called imperator (‘victorious general’) - ‘Emperor’ Augustus had total power, but disguised this by appearing to rule through the old Republican institutions AUGUSTUS IMPERATOR!

37 Augustus and the Pax Romanum After a century of civil war Augustus attempted to restore traditional Roman values Permanent court set up to prosecute adulterous wives and their lovers – his own daughter and granddaughter banished Reduced corruption; established a permanent standing army; founded colonies for veterans Reforms gave rise to a new era of peace (Pax Romanum) and optimism that was celebrated in the brilliant literature of Virgil and Horace Julia, Augustus’ Daughter

38 Augustus’ Successors – Julio-Claudian Emperors After his death in 14 CE, Augustus’ descendants ruled until 68 Tiberius and Claudius able administrators (Claudius began the Roman occupation of Britain in 43 CE) Caligula was a madman who thought he was a god and had his horse made a Senator! Caligula

39 Nero Fiddles While Rome Burns! Nero murdered his wife and mother, persecuted the Christians, and ‘fiddled while Rome burned’!

40 The Antonines: ‘Five Good Emperors’ The Antonine emperors (96-180) excellent leaders Rome reached the height of its prosperity and power Hadrian (117-138) stabilized the Empire by giving up indefensible regions and erecting defensive walls in Britain and Germany; founded new cities and instituted great public works Marcus Aurelius (161- 180) was a philosopher who beat back invasions by Germanic peoples and wrote a book of stoic philosophy – Meditations Statue of Marcus Aurelius Capitoline Museum, Rome July 2008

41 Hadrian’s Wall in Britain

42 Growth of the Roman Empire

43 The Year 180 CE - The Pinnacle of Roman Prosperity! Empire contained 100 million people - stretched from Scotland to the Euphrates; stable, prosperous and peaceful Internal tolls abolished; trade flourished (particularly luxury goods with Central Asia, India and China via the Silk Roads) But trade with the East resulted in a serious drain of money (100 million sesterces a year) Economic stagnation ensued when Italian agriculture suffer from overproduction. Farmers subsidized under the Antonines Eventually political anarchy and inflation caused economic crisis Rome itself a sprawling city of 1 million people – an incredible contrast of magnificence and slums

44 ANCIENT ROME – 20 th C Model in the ‘Museum of Rome’

45 Part V: The Later Roman Empire The constitutional monarchy established by Augustus was corrupted in the third century CE by a series of despots Emperors viewed as divine beings Rule of Commodus (180-192) foreshadowed this through its incompetence and cruelty Severan dynasty (193-235) attempted to restore order, but was thwarted by the military Commodus (180-192)

46 Third Century Crisis! After murder of last Severan, half century of civil war and foreign threats followed 26 emperors reigned – most died a violent death Economy stagnated: farmers forced off the land by large land owners Latifundia became fortified villages; tax base dried up; inflation rampant Diocletian (285-305) attempted to restore order Constantine seized power (306-337) and moved capital to old Greek city of Byzantium (renamed Constantinople) This meant that Rome and western empire were now open to attack from Germans, but it also ensured the continuation of Roman government in a new, safer location Constantine (306-337)

47 The Germanic Invasions and the Collapse of the Western Empire German tribes drawn into the power vacuum created by the chaotic Roman Empire in the 3rd century Western tribes (Franks, Angles and Saxons) adopted agriculture; easternmost (Goths, Vandals and Lombards) remained militarized and nomadic Tribes restless because of land shortages. Populations were growing; much of the land was swamp and forest - difficult to grow sufficient food

48 German Culture Tribes were divided by blood feuds; wrong behavior repaid by compensation rather than violent retribution To determine guilt or innocence, individuals subject to trials by ordeal (lifting hot stones out of boiling water, or being thrown into a stream to float or sink) Heavy drinkers and gamblers, but courageous in battle; enjoyed listening to old tales of gods and heroes Each leader had a war band that was personally loyal to him – the origins of the medieval bond between knights and their lords German Knight – Early Middle Ages

49 The Germanic Invasions to 378 CE – First Phase German restlessness exacerbated by arrival of Huns (nomads from Central Asia) Huns defeated the Ostrogoths; Visigoths (next in line) settled in Roman territory but were mistreated by corrupt Roman officials Visigoths went on the rampage - defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378

50 German Invasions – Second Phase Romans held the Germans back for a few more years, but finally under Alaric they invaded Italy, and Rome was sacked in 410 Romans ceded southern Gaul to the Visigoths, who also conquered Spain; Vandals forced on to Africa by the Visigoths In 455 a Vandal raiding force crossed from Africa and sacked Rome for a second time The Vandals Sack and Burn Rome, 455 CE

51 The Visigoths Sack Rome in 410

52 Settlement of the Germanic Tribes Visigoths remained in Spain until Muslim conquests of the 8th Century Burgundians settled in the Rhone Valley in France (Burgundy) Franks spread across Gaul Angles, Saxons and Jutes invaded Britain Only the Franks (French) and Angles (English) established long- lasting kingdoms

53 Conclusion: End of the Western Roman Empire (395-476) Series of weak emperors (in Ravenna) hastened the decline of the Roman west German officers of the Roman army had real power; by 475 the German Romulus Augustulus was Emperor (pictured right) The following year he was killed by Odovocar (another German) This date 476 marks the traditional date of the fall of the Roman Empire And thankfully the end of this lecture!!

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