Presentation on theme: "The Byzantine Empire One God, One Empire, One Religion."— Presentation transcript:
The Byzantine Empire One God, One Empire, One Religion
The Eastern Empire As Western Europe succumbed to the Germanic invasions, imperial power shifted to the Byzantine Empire (the eastern part of the Roman Empire).
Objectives Students will be able to… *Identify factors that led to the Middle Ages. (6.H.2.1, 6.E.1.2) *Create a graphic representation of the feudal system and evaluate how it met the need for safety and security. (6C&G.1.4, 6.C.1.3) *Determine how Charlemagne’s Holy Roman Empire changed Europe. (6.H.2.4) *Assess the impact of the Battle of Hastings on Europe. (6.H.2.1, 6.H.2.4)
Objectives Students will be able to… Determine how the Crusades impacted and were important to Europe. (6.G.1.2, 6.C.1.2) Determine the importance of the Magna Carta. (6.H.1.2, 6.C&G.1.1, 6.C&G.1.2, 6.C&G.1.4) Describe causes and effects of the Black Death. (6.H.2.1) List and describe the events that led to the end of the Middle Ages. (6.C.1.3)
Essential Questions Why do people invade and conquer other people? How can people’s existence be affected by the wisdom of the decisions they have made in the past? Why do social structures change and what influence does social structure have on civilizations, societies and regions? Why do civilizations and societies need laws and systems to operate? What impact can people have on the development of civilizations? What are the positive and negative ways that invasions, conquests and migrations affect civilizations?
Essential Questions Why do religions vary in civilizations, societies and regions? How have people changed society? Has technological innovation been good or bad for the development of people in history? What kinds of events can be explained by charts and/or historical narratives? How has religion changed over time? For what reasons do people move?
Rise Of Christianity Rise of Christianity (BW) What is Christianity?
Bellwork On a note card, explain why you think the Byzantine Empire split from Rome and the impact the Christian religion had on that decision.
What are the Middle Ages The years between A.D. 500 and 1500 in Europe. Also called the Medieval Period Historians usually divide the Middle Ages into three smaller periods called the Early Middle Ages, the High Middle Ages, and the Late Middle Ages.
Invasion of Barbarians The Vikings were widely-feared, brutal, invaders who terrorized Europe from the 700’s through the 900’s. Their shallow boats made it possible for them move swiftly inland using rivers. They were indiscriminate in their destruction, attacking fortified castles and peaceful churches as well.
The Visigoths or Eastern Goths were part of the Barbarian Invasions. They attacked the Roman Empire and then eventually settled in France and Spain.
The Saxons were Germanic invaders who attacked Britain in the 400’s and 500’s. They were looking for farmland, and they were ruthless in taking it.
The Mongols were nomadic people out of China and helped begin the western push of the Invasions.
The Ostrogoths or Western Goths were also part of the Barbarian Invasions. They settled in Italy and ruled it during the 500’s.
The Moors were Arabic people who settled in the Northwestern African coast. They invaded Spain and were stopped from going further into Europe by Charles Martel, the grandfather of Charlemagne.
Goths 220s The Huns moving to Russia pushed Goths into movement toward the Black Sea. 267 Goths overrun Greece. 410 Eastern-moving Gothic tribes (Visigoths) sack Rome and end the Roman Empire's dominance. 415 Visigoths have now moved through lower France and are invading Spain, pushing the Vandals out of Spain and into Northern Africa and Sicily. 489 Western Gothic tribes (Ostrogoths ) have settled around the Black Sea and now govern Italy.
Vandals 220s Huns moving in Russia push the Vandals into movement into central Europe. 429 They pass from Spain directly into Northern Africa. They eventually settle in the northern most coasts of Africa, the island of Sicily and Southern Italy. 711 Most of the Vandal people are now Muslim. They push back into Spain and are stopped from taking France by Charles Martel (aka The Hammer) in 732.
Huns (From Central Asia — were nomadic horsemen) 372 The Huns have continued their movement out of Russia and are now invading Europe. 451 Attila the Hun leads the invasion into Gaul (France). 452 Attila the Hun leads the invasion into Italy. 453 Attila the Hun dies and the Hun invasion stops.
Saxons and Angles (Tribes from Germanic area) 367 The Saxons and Anglo tribes of Northern Germany invade Britain and continue to do so for hundreds of years. At the same time, the Picts of Scotland are also attacking England from the North. 446 What is left of the Roman armies pull out of Britain and leave it to the invaders.
Vikings (From Scandinavia) 793 They feared Vikings begin attacking Britain. Their shallow long boats make it possible for them to travel inland using rivers — and their attacks are swift and fierce. 866 Much of England is under Viking rule and terror. 990 Normandy (France) is under Viking rule and terror.
Feudal System Graphic Organizer http://regentsprep.org/regents/global/themes/politicalsys tems/feudalism.cfm Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HCPp7XWZfHo&list= PLD8DFEAB9C6923CD9 Assessment: Was life difficult or easy for people living during the Middle Ages. Cite specific examples to support your answer.
Constantinople Constantinople became the sole capitol of the empire and remained so until the successful revival of the western empire in the 8 th century by Charlemagne.
The Reign of Justinian The height of the first period of Byzantine history (324-632) was the reign of Emperor Justinian (r. 537-565) and his wife Empress Theodora (d. 548)
The Imperial Goal: Unity The imperial goal in the East was to centralize government and impose legal and doctrinal conformity. One God One Empire One Religion
1 st Method: Law Justinian collated and revised Roman law. His Corpus Juris Civilis (body of civil law) had little effect on medieval common law. However, beginning with the Renaissance, it provided the foundation for most European law down to the 19 th century.
2 nd Method: Religion Religion as well as law served imperial centralization. In 380, Christianity had been proclaimed the official religion of the eastern empire. Now all other religions were considered “demented and insane.”
Between the 4 th and 6 th centuries, the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem acquired enormous wealth in the form of land and gold. Increase in Church Wealth
Increase in Clergy The prestige and comfort that the clergy enjoyed swelled the ranks of the clergy in the Eastern Church.
Independent Thinking Ideas thought to be heresies by the Roman Catholic Church received imperial support: – Arianism denied that Father and Son were equal and coeternal. – Monophysitism taught that Jesus had only one nature, a composite divine-human one. – Iconoclasm forbid the use of images (icons) because it led to idolatry.
3 rd Method: Strong Cities During Justinian’s reign, the empire’s strength was its more than 1,500 cities. The largest with 350,000 inhabitants, was Constantinople, the cultural crossroads of Asian and European civilizations.
Loyal Governors and Bishops Between the 4 th and 5 th centuries, councils were made up of local wealthy landowners, who were not necessarily loyal to the emperor. By the 6 th century, special governors and bishops replaced the councils and proved to be more loyal to the emperor.
Background “…By 711, Islamic people known as Moors pushed upward from Africa into the Iberian Peninsula. They took over and established a large area of Muslim people in Europe. They tried to expand into the areas held by the Franks, but Charles Martel stopped them. Martel was known as “The Hammer” and was the grandfather of the future king of the Franks, Charlemagne.”
Battle of Hastings Battle of Hastings Article/Questions How did this battle impact Europe? http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm? guidAssetId=C3EBB705-6E86-444E-BB0D- 98F4405BCDCD&blnFromSearch=1&productco de=US
Why Crusades The city of Jerusalem was the center of faith for three major world religions. For the Jews, it was their homeland. It had been promised to them by Jehovah, whom they believed had covenanted with Abraham to give him the land of Israel. To the Muslims, Jerusalem was the location where the Prophet Muhammad had ascended into heaven. After Makkah and Medinah, Jerusalem was Islam’s third most holy city. To the Christians, Jerusalem was both the location of Christ’s birth and the location of his death. It is also the location of much of the New Testament.
Decline in the 7 th Century In the seventh century the empire lost Syria, the Holy Land, Egypt, and North Africa to invading Islamic armies.
Recovery of Territory The Byzantines called upon the European states to push back the Muslim conquerors. The European states complied, successfully pushed back the Seljuks, returned territory to the Byzantines, and carved out kingdoms of their own in Syria and Palestine.
The Fall of Constantinople in 1204, the Crusaders attacked, conquered, and pillaged the city of Constantinople, a goal that the Muslims had been trying achieve for centuries
Conquered by the Ottoman Turks In 1453, the city was finally and permanently conquered by the Ottoman Turks and renamed Istanbul. Byzantine culture, law, and administration came to its final end.
Contribution to Western Civilization Throughout the early Middle Ages, the Byzantine Empire remained a protective barrier between western Europe and hostile Persian, Arab, and Turkish armies. The Byzantines were also a major conduit of classical learning and science into the West down to the Renaissance. While western Europeans were fumbling to create a culture of their own, the cities of the Byzantine Empire provided them a model of a civilized society.
Magna Carta On June 15, 1215, in a field at Runnymede, King John affixed his seal to Magna Carta. Confronted by 40 rebellious barons, he consented to their demands in order to avert civil war. Just 10 weeks later, Pope Innocent III nullified the agreement, and England plunged into internal war. Although Magna Carta failed to resolve the conflict between King John and his barons, it was reissued several times after his death. On display at the National Archives, courtesy of David M. Rubenstein, is one of four surviving originals of the 1297 Magna Carta. This version was entered into the official Statute Rolls of England. Enduring Principles of Liberty Magna Carta was written by a group of 13th-century barons to protect their rights and property against a tyrannical king. It is concerned with many practical matters and specific grievances relevant to the feudal system under which they lived. The interests of the common man were hardly apparent in the minds of the men who brokered the agreement. But there are two principles expressed in Magna Carta that resonate to this day: "No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, disseised, outlawed, banished, or in any way destroyed, nor will We proceed against or prosecute him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers and by the law of the land.""To no one will We sell, to no one will We deny or delay, right or justice.” Inspiration for Americans During the American Revolution, Magna Carta served to inspire and justify action in liberty’s defense. The colonists believed they were entitled to the same rights as Englishmen, rights guaranteed in Magna Carta. They embedded those rights into the laws of their states and later into the Constitution and Bill of Rights.The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution ("no person shall... be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.") is a direct descendent of Magna Carta's guarantee of proceedings according to the "law of the land."
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages lasted from 1300 to 1400 AD. This was time of tragedy and hope. The 100 Years' War between England and France and the bubonic plague known as the Black Death took many lives. The church was fighting. Hope began when the working people began to rise. New ideas grew. Overseas exploration lead to a modern time.