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T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e HST 201 - Survey of Western Civilization I Session 10 The Rise of Christianity in the Mediterranean.

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Presentation on theme: "T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e HST 201 - Survey of Western Civilization I Session 10 The Rise of Christianity in the Mediterranean."— Presentation transcript:

1 T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e HST Survey of Western Civilization I Session 10 The Rise of Christianity in the Mediterranean World… Collapse of the Western empire and Florescence of the East

2 The fall of Rome, the Western part… Q of chapter 6 > What where the principles by which Diocletian reformed the Roman empire? > Why did the Germanic invasions succeed? Other Qs > How many stages can you establish in the management strategies of the Roman empire? > An overview of the relations of the Roman Republic and Empire with its neighbors: internal relations and “international” relations.

3 Hellenism…the historical context to the development of Monotheistic religions > Cosmopolitanism… > Modernity… > Degenerate Greek? > Model for Rome (transition period)? > Syncretism with Persia and other peoples? > Globalization… > Common language… > Joining in a single city diverse traditions and cultures > The liberties and advantages of the cities

4 The Greek influence on Israel (p. 151) > Maccabees revolt for traditions Multi-religious societies and the Mystery Cults of Hellenistic times (p. 162) > times of decline of the polis and rise of cosmopolitism > Demeter, Isis, Mithras, Eleusis, Magna Mater > Secret / restricted religious groups / revelations & hierarchies, initiations > Related to nature, fertility, war…role of women > Christianity fits well within the world of secret religious societies

5 Qs > Role of women in the formation of ancient mystery religions? > In what ways did the image and idea of the Magna Mater influence the development of mystery cults? > What effect did mystery cults have on the practice of early Christianity? Did the belief in the Magna Mater influence Roman women? > How was paganism necessary to the development of Christianity?

6 Emergence and Domination of Christianity > How did Christianity become the majority religion within the Roman empire? > Success predictable or inevitable, within the context of the Roman empire? > Persecutions aimed at taming it… > St Paul… confronts Jewish religious law… some Christian would still follow Jrl, but future on non- Jewish converts. > Who were they? Hellenism cultural context… > Interesting role of women…social origin vs other > Developing hostility Jewish vs Christian… defining their audiences… maintaining (Jewish) roots with Bible and Jesus as Messiah

7  Persecutions…Christians and pagan rites > Very low rates. By 300 AD 1-5%, East, 10%... In The Early Christian World Ed. Philip Francis Esler 2000 p. 296

8 > Constantine and Christianity in the Imperial family… “prestigious and potentially profitable religion for ruling classes to adopt…” > Role of bishops and great conversion by 400 AD > Then becomes official. > Philosophies / confrontations within Christianism

9 Important events in the history of the papacy 29 - Beginning of St. Peter's ministry as head of the Church 36 - St. Peter comes to Rome 64 - St. Peter martyred under Nero Pontificate of St. Clement I (letter to the church of Corinth) Martyrdom of St. Ignatius of Antioch in Rome (letter to the church of Rome) Pontificate of St. Anicetus: 1st Paschal controversy Pontificate of St. Victor I: 2nd Paschal controversy Death of St. Irenaeus of Lyon ("Against the Heresies") Martyrdom of Pope St. Pontian; building of the Crypt of the Popes in Catacomb of St. Callixtus, where seven martyred Popes of the 3rd century were buried Constantine's Edict of Milan, the Peace of the Church; grant of the property of the Lateran to the Church; building of the Arch basilica of the Most Holy Savior.

10 325 - First Ecumenical Council at Nicea; response to the Arian heresy, then Arianism prevails, Constantius II. (Consubstantiation, Son of a different essence...very popular with newly converted Barbarians) Consecration of the Basilica of St. Peter by Pope St. Sylvester I Constantine dies, shortly before baptized Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon (pope St. Leo I's 'Tomus ad Flavianum'); end of the major Christological controversies (i.e., the role of Jesus as Son/Prophet/God/ Savior) Fall of Rome Reign of Pope St. Gregory I "the Great" Martyrdom of Pope St. Martin I by the Emperor Constans II (last martyred Pope)

11 The Roman revival of Justinian, AD Reign of Justinian Publication of the Corpus Juris Civilis J conquers the Vandal kingdom of northwest Africa533 J conquers the Italian peninsula536 J defeats the last Gothic outposts563 J dominates the Mediterranean Basin 565 Death of J565 Germanic Lombards conquer the Italian peninsula568

12 The remaining Qs of chapter 6 > How did Christianity become the majority religion within the Roman empire? > What major changes did Christianity undergo during the fourth century? > What distinctive themes of western Christian thought were emerging during the 4th and 5th centuries? > How was classical culture Christianized? > Why did Justinian's plan to reunite the Roman empire fail?

13 Structure of the paper Introduction: presentation of the idea, hypothesis; why the idea is important and relevant in this course; the means that will be used to study it. Body: developing the arguments, evidence to support or reject hypothesis Conclusions: remind us of the starting point; a brief note on the facts and the conclusions reached References

14 > Athenian plague (1) > Phoenician Palermo (1) > Judaism and Monotheism (3) > Evolution of educational institutes in complex civilizations (1) > Athens vs. Sparta (2) > The Persian Wars (3) > Agriculture in Mesopotamia (1) > Art, early societies, politics (2) > State and hierarchies? Democracy and state? (1) > Persia and international relations… religion, administration (1) > Hellenism (1) > Neolithic Agricultural Revolution (1) > Modes of production in political evolution (1) > Athenian politics (1) > How does the depiction of the human body in Greek art reflect the social-political culture of the Greeks?

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