Presentation on theme: "T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e HST 201 - Survey of Western Civilization I Session 10 The Rise of Christianity in the Mediterranean."— Presentation transcript:
T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e HST 201 - Survey of Western Civilization I Session 10 The Rise of Christianity in the Mediterranean World… Collapse of the Western empire and Florescence of the East
The fall of Rome, the Western part… Q of chapter 6 > What where the principles by which Diocletian reformed the Roman empire? > Why did the Germanic invasions succeed? Other Qs > How many stages can you establish in the management strategies of the Roman empire? > An overview of the relations of the Roman Republic and Empire with its neighbors: internal relations and “international” relations.
Hellenism…the historical context to the development of Monotheistic religions > Cosmopolitanism… > Modernity… > Degenerate Greek? > Model for Rome (transition period)? > Syncretism with Persia and other peoples? > Globalization… > Common language… > Joining in a single city diverse traditions and cultures > The liberties and advantages of the cities
The Greek influence on Israel (p. 151) > Maccabees revolt for traditions Multi-religious societies and the Mystery Cults of Hellenistic times (p. 162) > times of decline of the polis and rise of cosmopolitism > Demeter, Isis, Mithras, Eleusis, Magna Mater > Secret / restricted religious groups / revelations & hierarchies, initiations > Related to nature, fertility, war…role of women > Christianity fits well within the world of secret religious societies
Qs > Role of women in the formation of ancient mystery religions? > In what ways did the image and idea of the Magna Mater influence the development of mystery cults? > What effect did mystery cults have on the practice of early Christianity? Did the belief in the Magna Mater influence Roman women? > How was paganism necessary to the development of Christianity?
Emergence and Domination of Christianity > How did Christianity become the majority religion within the Roman empire? > Success predictable or inevitable, within the context of the Roman empire? > Persecutions aimed at taming it… > St Paul… confronts Jewish religious law… some Christian would still follow Jrl, but future on non- Jewish converts. > Who were they? Hellenism cultural context… > Interesting role of women…social origin vs other > Developing hostility Jewish vs Christian… defining their audiences… maintaining (Jewish) roots with Bible and Jesus as Messiah
Persecutions…Christians and pagan rites > Very low rates. By 300 AD 1-5%, East, 10%... In The Early Christian World Ed. Philip Francis Esler 2000 p. 296
> Constantine and Christianity in the Imperial family… “prestigious and potentially profitable religion for ruling classes to adopt…” > Role of bishops and great conversion by 400 AD > Then becomes official. > Philosophies / confrontations within Christianism
Important events in the history of the papacy 29 - Beginning of St. Peter's ministry as head of the Church 36 - St. Peter comes to Rome 64 - St. Peter martyred under Nero 89-97 - Pontificate of St. Clement I (letter to the church of Corinth) 110 - Martyrdom of St. Ignatius of Antioch in Rome (letter to the church of Rome) 155-67 - Pontificate of St. Anicetus: 1st Paschal controversy 189-99 - Pontificate of St. Victor I: 2nd Paschal controversy 202-3 - Death of St. Irenaeus of Lyon ("Against the Heresies") 230 - Martyrdom of Pope St. Pontian; building of the Crypt of the Popes in Catacomb of St. Callixtus, where seven martyred Popes of the 3rd century were buried. 313 - Constantine's Edict of Milan, the Peace of the Church; grant of the property of the Lateran to the Church; building of the Arch basilica of the Most Holy Savior.
325 - First Ecumenical Council at Nicea; response to the Arian heresy, then Arianism prevails, Constantius II. (Consubstantiation, Son of a different essence...very popular with newly converted Barbarians) 326 - Consecration of the Basilica of St. Peter by Pope St. Sylvester I 337 - Constantine dies, shortly before baptized 451 - Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon (pope St. Leo I's 'Tomus ad Flavianum'); end of the major Christological controversies (i.e., the role of Jesus as Son/Prophet/God/ Savior). 476 - Fall of Rome 590-604 - Reign of Pope St. Gregory I "the Great". 654 - Martyrdom of Pope St. Martin I by the Emperor Constans II (last martyred Pope)
The Roman revival of Justinian, 527-568 AD Reign of Justinian 527-565 Publication of the Corpus Juris Civilis529-534 J conquers the Vandal kingdom of northwest Africa533 J conquers the Italian peninsula536 J defeats the last Gothic outposts563 J dominates the Mediterranean Basin 565 Death of J565 Germanic Lombards conquer the Italian peninsula568
The remaining Qs of chapter 6 > How did Christianity become the majority religion within the Roman empire? > What major changes did Christianity undergo during the fourth century? > What distinctive themes of western Christian thought were emerging during the 4th and 5th centuries? > How was classical culture Christianized? > Why did Justinian's plan to reunite the Roman empire fail?
Structure of the paper Introduction: presentation of the idea, hypothesis; why the idea is important and relevant in this course; the means that will be used to study it. Body: developing the arguments, evidence to support or reject hypothesis Conclusions: remind us of the starting point; a brief note on the facts and the conclusions reached References
> Athenian plague (1) > Phoenician Palermo (1) > Judaism and Monotheism (3) > Evolution of educational institutes in complex civilizations (1) > Athens vs. Sparta (2) > The Persian Wars (3) > Agriculture in Mesopotamia (1) > Art, early societies, politics (2) > State and hierarchies? Democracy and state? (1) > Persia and international relations… religion, administration (1) > Hellenism (1) > Neolithic Agricultural Revolution (1) > Modes of production in political evolution (1) > Athenian politics (1) > How does the depiction of the human body in Greek art reflect the social-political culture of the Greeks?