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Western Civilization I HIS-101 Unit 7 – Late Antiquity.

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1 Western Civilization I HIS-101 Unit 7 – Late Antiquity

2  Diocletian  (284-305)

3 The Late Empire  While the Empire was on the verge of collapse during the 3 rd century, it rebounded during the 4 th century  This was due to two very strong emperors: Diocletian and Constantine  Both of them brought order and stability back to the Empire  However, this was done at the expense of the freedom of the citizenry  It is a period of a new government, economic, and social systems  It is also a period of a new religion: Christianity

4 Diocletian (284-305)  Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (284-305)  Born into a lower class family  Rose up in status in the army  In 284, the army chose him as the new emperor  Major change was in restructuring of the Empire  Reorganized into a much more efficient bureaucracy  Tetrarchy  The empire was divided into two parts, each with two prefectures (total of four)  Those prefectures were divided into a total of twelve dioceses  The total number of provinces was increased to almost 100  All of this was designed as a way of keeping greater control

5 Diocletian (284-305)  Economic problems  One of the largest problems was inflation  Stabilized the currency and new system of taxation  He “locked” people into certain key professions  The population was stagnating and there were not enough men able to work in certain jobs  Workers were not allowed to leave certain professions (e.g., baker, shipper, tax collector, farmer, soldier, etc.)  The positions also became hereditary  Sets the stage for serfdom  Small farmers begin working on the large estates due to the economic downturn

6  Constantine I  (306-337)

7 Constantine I (306-337)  Constantine I (306-337)  Born into a military family in Illyricum  Unfortunately, not much is known about his early life  Continued Diocletian’s military and economic policies  The army’s size was increased to 500,000  He focused on numerous building projects in the provinces  These put a heavy strain on the empire’s finances  In 330, built the new capital city of Byzantium  By this point Rome was no longer the center of power of the Empire as it was not centrally located  The location was perfect because it was easily defendable and located along the eastern trade routes

8  Mosaic of Constantine  c. 1000 CE

9 Religion in the Roman Empire  The official religion in the Empire was the worship of a pantheon of gods  Religious worship was done on both the state and personal level  Rituals were a key aspect to this religion  It was also a very tolerant religion that incorporated the worship of gods from other territories  Household cults were popular with the commoners  It gave them a greater sense of spiritualism  Also gave them closer contact to the gods than the official religion

10 Religion in the Roman Empire  Mystery cults were focused on the belief in a guaranteed afterlife  Coming over from Greek religion, Mithraism was very popular in the empire, especially among soldiers  In Rome, Mithras was known as the Unconquered Sun and would be worshipped on Sundays  Rome and the Jews  Romans first got involved with the Jews around 63 BCE  By 6 CE, Judaea was a Roman province  During this time period, there was unrest among the different Jewish groups

11 Judaism  Sadducees  Were the conservative group  Strictly followed Hebrew law and did not believe in immortality  Their worship focused around the Temple  Politically, they wanted cooperation with the Romans  Pharisees  Were strict on following Jewish ritual  Specifically emphasized the purity laws, including dietary rules  Unlike the Sadducees, they believed in expanding the Torah  They also focused more on private worship  They wanted to get away from Roman control but did not want to do so violently

12 Judaism  Essenes  Small Jewish sect near the Dead Sea  They too wanted to get away from Roman control  Did so by withdrawing themselves from society  Zealots  They were the militant extremists  They promoted a violent overthrow of Roman rule  What did they have in common?  The belief that a savior would come to liberate the Jewish people  The first three saw him as a spiritual leader while the zealots a political leader

13  Madonna and Child

14 Jesus of Nazareth  Jesus of Nazareth (c. 7-2 BCE – c. 26-36 CE)  Most of what historians know of Jesus is through the New Testament  These gospels were written quite some time after his death and by people who did not know him directly  Scholars disagree on most of the chronology of his life  Scholars do not know a lot about his first thirty years  His parents were Joseph, a carpenter, and Mary  He was born in Bethlehem and grew up in Galilee  Galilee at the time was a hot bed of militant Zealots

15 Jesus of Nazareth  Unlike the Zealots, Jesus did not believe in a violent revolution  Instead he believed in a heavenly kingdom  This attracted a large following  Theology  His message was simple: love God and love your neighbor  He did not call for strict adherence to Jewish laws  Instead, he believed in the interpretation of them  He focused on three concepts: humility, brotherly love, and charity  These ideas were new to the time period and very different from the Greco-Roman value systems  It was not his goal to undermine traditional Judaism

16 Jesus of Nazareth  For three years he preached his ideas in Judea and Galilee, gaining a large following  While some believed he was the Messiah, not everybody was a fan  Radical Jews denounced him for the idea of a heavenly kingdom rather than an earthly one  Conservative Jews believed he was just another false messiah who was undermining traditional Judaism  Roman authorities in Palestine saw Jesus as a potential revolutionary  His idea of a heavenly kingdom might somehow be used as a means to start a revolt against Rome  He was arrested by Roman authorities

17 Jesus of Nazareth  According to the Gospel of Mark, the Roman Prefect of Judaea, Pontius Pilate, did not want to execute him  He told the crowd to chose between Jesus and another insurrectionist named Barabbas  The crowd chose Barabbas  Did not end the threat of insurrection  Jesus was seen as a martyr  According to his followers, Jesus was resurrected three days after his death and then ascended into heaven  Jesus was named Christ (“anointed one” in Greek)  Many believed he would return and bring in the kingdom of God on Earth

18 Birth of Christianity  Christianity began as a movement inside of Judaism  For many decades, the Romans viewed them as a sect of Judaism  Paul of Tarsus (c.5-c.64 CE)  One of the most important figures to the birth of Christianity  While he never knew Jesus in life, he had a vision of his resurrection and became a follower  He spread the idea of Christianity to the non-Jews (the Gentiles)  This helped to transform it from a Jewish sect to a more broad based religion

19 Birth of Christianity  Many refer to Paul of Tarsus as the “second founder of Christianity” because of his work  It was Paul who identified Jesus as the Son of God  He also said that Jesus had come to cleanse all men of Original Sin, which was done through his death  He believed that salvation was available only to those who accepted Jesus as their savior  He created Christian communities throughout Asia Minor  He also wrote a series of letters that outlined Christian beliefs for the different communities

20 Birth of Christianity  Jerusalem had been the center of Christianity  The city was destroyed in 70 CE  This left many churches with considerable independence  By 100 CE, there were Christian churches in most of the major cities in the east  There were also some in the western part of the empire  Communities were loosely organized  Both men and women played significant roles  Women even held high positions including preachers  Christians were meet in private homes and share an agape to celebrate the Lord’s Supper

21 Birth of Christianity  Christians also used missionaries to spread the “good news”  Roman officials treated early appearance of Christianity with indifference  However, they began to view them as a threat to the state  Why were the Christians a threat?  Practice of Lord’s Supper led to rumors of ritualistic murder of children  Held secret meetings that were deemed “dangerous”  Were overly exclusive and did not participate in Roman state festivals or worship of Roman gods  This constituted atheism and an act of treason

22 Birth of Christianity  Persecution of the Christians  Persecutions were intermittent and short-lived  Started during the reign of Nero  Persecution actually helped strengthen the church  Helped make it a more centralized organization  The position of bishop was created as leaders to the church  Saw their power descended from the original Twelve Apostles  Created a new hierarchical structure  By 300, 1-5% of total Roman population were possibly Christians

23 Birth of Christianity  What was the appeal of Christianity?  By 3 rd century, it had spread throughout the empire  Offered a lot  Gave meaning to the everyday mundane things  Gave a personal relationship with the God  Promise of salvation  Not entirely unfamiliar  Similar to the other mystery religions of the east  However, it actually had a human figure instead of a mythological one  Did not involved difficult or expensive rituals

24 Birth of Christianity  Fulfilled the human need to belong  Created communities  Helped with assisting the poor, sick, widows, and orphans  Was not sterile or impersonal like the Roman religion  Attractive to all classes  Appealed to broad range of social classes  Offered new roles to women  Starting in the 2 nd century, church started believing women should be subject to men

25 Birth of Christianity  During the Terrible Third Century, the Christians were heavily persecuted  Decius (249-251) blamed the disasters of the time on the Christians  As they failed to worship the state gods, the gods were retaliating  Forced Christians to make sacrifices to the Roman gods  When they refused, they were executed  There was also heavy persecution under the reign of Diocletian  By this point, Christianity had gotten too powerful

26  The Christian Martyr’s Last Prayer (1883)

27 Rise of Christianity  Under Constantine, Christianity flourished  Constantine converted to Christianity  After the Battle of Milvian Bridge (312)  Saw a vision of a Christian cross and the words “In this sign you will conquer”  Won the battle and began believing in the Christian god  Edict of Milan (313)  Signed by the two emperors  Granted religious tolerance to all religions in the Empire  Legally recognized the Christian religion  Call for a restoration of property seized by Diocletian

28 Rise of Christianity  Post-Constantine Empire  Almost all of the emperors were Christians  Only exception was Julian (360-363) who tried to restore the old state religion  Theodosius (378-395) made Christianity the official religion of the Empire  With state support, the Christian church was able to push for a monopoly  Used their influence to outlaw pagan religious practices

29 Development of the Christian Church  By the end of the 4 th century, Christianity was the predominant religion in the empire  Organization  Went through significant organizational and structural changes  Based these on the Roman territorial plans  Diocese  Territories were divided up into dioceses  Each was headed by a bishop  Bishops of Rome, Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch held special positions  Claimed their churches were founded by original apostles

30 Development of the Christian Church  Need for formal organization due to rise in heresy  Problem of heresy  Different, sometimes contradictory, interpretations emerged  Heresy – Teaching different theology than official beliefs of the church  Donatism  Donatus was a priest in North Africa  Argued that sacraments should not be given by priests who were either immoral or denied their faith under persecution  Constantine forced to call a council to denounce this  Was not until 411 that the church stated that the moral standing of the priest did not affect the efficacy of the sacraments

31 Development of the Christian Church  Arianism  Founded by Arius, a priest from Alexandria  Stated that Jesus was human and therefore not truly God  Bishop of Alexandria, Athanasius, argued Jesus was both  Constantine was forced to call the Council of Nicaea (325) in response  Stated that Jesus was of “the same substance of God”  Impact  Forced the emperor to become more involved in church affairs  Also called for one specific leader for the church

32 Development of the Christian Church  Rise of the pope  In the original church, bishops held most of the influence and power  It would be the Bishop of Rome that emerged as the true leader  Petrine Supremacy  Stated that the Bishop of Rome held the most important position in the church and this was founded in the Scriptures  According to Gospel of Matthew, “I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church”  Peter was considered the first Bishop of Rome  All of his successors were considered the “vicars of Christ” on earth

33 Development of the Christian Church  During the 4 th and 5 th centuries, the Bishops of Rome began to solidify their power  St. Damasus (366-384)  Addressed other bishops as “sons” rather than “brothers”  By the end of the 4 th century, bishops of Rome were using the title of papa  St. Leo I (440-461)  Pushed the doctrine of Petrine supremacy  Jesus chose Peter to be the head of the Christian church  Stated he was the heir to Peter  Supremacy of the bishops of Rome was established by the end of the 5 th cnetury

34  St. Leo I  Bishop of Rome  (440-461)

35 Roles of Church and State  Church and the Emperors  Once the emperors converted to Christianity, they saw themselves as God’s representatives on earth  Built churches and played an active role in church’s organization  Also became involved in church government and doctrinal controversies  Role of Bishops  With the fall of the Empire, bishops were able to play a more active role in government  Served as advisors to Emperors  Started playing independent political roles as the power vacuums were created

36 Roles of Church and State  St. Ambrose (339-397)  Bishop of Milan (374-397)  Was not even baptized when he was elected for the position  City population proclaimed him to be the Bishop  He created the ideal image of a bishop through his writings  Wanted to keep the independence of the church away from Imperial authorities  Conflict with Emperor Theodosius I  Ambrose wanted harsher actions against pagans  Theodosius refused  In 390, Theodosius massacred the people of Thessalonica for refusing to obey his commands

37 Roles of Church and State  Ambrose responded with a temporary excommunication  Made Theodosius take part in public penance in Milan  After this, Ambrose had greater influence over Theodosius  Creation of a dual power structure  With the bishops retaining their independence, emerges two ruling powers: temporal and spiritual  Church will become the higher authority as it provided the means to salvation  Temporal authorities would have to show subservience to the church

38  St. Ambrose  (339-397)

39 New Patterns of Thought  Embracing pagan heritage  Some in the Christian church were outwardly hostile to the pagan world  Others encouraged the church to absorb pagan history and culture  Influence of Greek culture  Church adopted Greek as its language  New Testament was written in Greek  Rise of Neoplatonism  Believed that a person could use reason to achieve a union with God  Helped to explain the difference between Jesus’ divine and human natures

40 New Patterns of Thought  St. Jerome (345-420)  Translated the Old and New Testaments into the vulgate (Latin)  His version of the Scriptures became known as the Latin Vulgate  This was the prominent edition for the church throughout the Middle Ages  St. Ambrose (c. 340-397)  Believed that human conduct should be based on reverence for God  God helps some Christians and not others (the “gift of grace”)

41 New Patterns of Thought  St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430)  Traveled to Milan and was influenced by St. Ambrose  Believed that divine revelation was necessary for understanding the complete truth  Writings had a major impact on the development of such concepts of free will, grace, and predestination  Confessions (397)  An account of his own personal and spiritual experiences  Designed as a guide to help others with their own search  City of God (410)  There was the City of God in heaven  City of the World was still necessary to keep people from falling to their primitive and sinful instincts

42  St. Augustine of Hippo  (354-430)

43 Rise of Monasticism  The growth of Christianity was greatly helped by the development of monasticism  Monachus - Latin word for “someone who lives alone”  Monk was a person who was divorced from the world  Lived outside of human society in order to pursue an ideal of godliness or total dedication to the will of God  Developed in Egypt  Eremitical Monasticism  First form of monasticism  Purpose was living a solitary life and forsaking all civilized society to pursue spirituality

44 Rise of Monasticism  St. Anthony (c.251-356)  Was the “father of eremitical monasticism”  Was a prosperous Egyptian peasant  Followed Gospel of Mark “Go, sell everything you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven. Then come, follow me.”  Gave away all of his possessions, including 300 acres of land  Spent the rest of his life in the desert  Impact  Changed the ideal Christian model from one of martyr to monk as they were no longer being persecuted  Goal was to achieve spiritual life through denial and solitude

45  St. Anthony  (c.251-356)

46 Rise of Monasticism  Cenobitic Monasticism  Not everyone was willing to live a life of solitude  Development of monasticism based upon communal life  St. Pachomius (c.290-346)  Organized communities of monks  Wrote the first monastic rules for living in communities  Stressed obedience and manual labor  St. Basil (329-379)  Founder of eastern monasticism  Believed communities were necessary for fellowship and work  Communal societies became ideal Christian societies

47 Rise of Monasticism  St. Benedict of Nursia (c.480-c.543)  Established the fundamental form of monasticism in the west  First attempted to hermetic solitude but was surrounded by followers  Set up a monastic house in Monte Cassino in 529  Became the foundation of other monastic groups  Benedict’s rules of monasticism  Did not follow the eastern practices (e.g., extended fasting and self-inflicting torments)  Believed in the ideal of moderation  Still included a hard and disciplined existence based on poverty, chastity, and obedience

48 Rise of Monasticism  Division of the day  Each day was to be divided up into a series of activities  Focused mainly on prayer and physical labor  Believed that “idleness is the enemy of the soul”  Prayer included private meditations and reading  Monks would meet seven times a day for common prayer and psalms  Abbots  Each monastery was ruled by an abbot (“father” of the monastery)  Elected by fellow monks  Had complete authority over them

49  St. Benedict of Nursia  (c.480-c.543)

50 Rise of Monasticism  Women also sought religious lives as well  They too wanted to dedicate their lives to God  Started organizing religious communities in the 3 rd century  St. Pachomius  Organized cenobitic communities for women after 320  Brothers took care of the material needs of the convent  Kept a close eye on the relations between the monks and nuns  St. Caesarius of Arles (c. 468-542)  Set up the first monastic rule for women in the west  Emphasized rigid cloistering of women to safeguard them

51 Rise of Monasticism  Some women set up religious communities in their houses  St. Marcella (325–410)  She set up her home in Rome as a center point of Christian worship  Promoted the ideals of asceticism and virginity as spiritual disciplines  Died at the hands of the Goths during sack of Rome  Impact of monasticism  Monks and nuns became the new heroes of Christianity  Their dedication was seen as the highest ideal of Christian life  Played a significant role in spreading Christianity

52  Barbarian Invasions of the Roman Empire

53 Fall of the Western Roman Empire  Diocletian and Constantine were only able to keep the empire going for another 100 years  After Constantine, the empire continued to divide  Clear division between east and west by 395  There were two independent state: western empire and the eastern one  Barbarian invasions  Beginning in the 4 th century, western Rome was attacked by a series of barbarian tribes  Continued until 476 when the last western Roman emperor was deposed  In the east, the Empire continued to flourish

54 Rise of the Germanic People  The Germanic people first moved from northern Scandinavia into eastern Europe c. 500 BCE  During the Roman Empire, they developed relations with the Romans  Romans even hired Germanic tribes to fight other Germanic tribes who were seen as a threat to Rome  Visigoths  These were the western Goths  Converted to Arian Christianity c. 4 th century  Were forced to cross the Danube in 376 due to the westward movement of the Huns  Sacked Rome in 410

55 Rise of the Germanic People  Emperor Honorius (395-423) encouraged the Visigoths to settle in Gaul  Set a precedent where Roman emperors made alliances with large groups of Germanic people  Vandals  Remained continuously hostile to Rome  Overran western Roman Empire throughout 5 th and 6 th centuries  Crossed the Rhine in 406 and eventually moved into Spain  Pushed out by the Visigoths and then settled in North Africa  Captured Hippo (531) and Carthage (439)  Eventually sacked Rome in 455

56 Rise of the Germanic People  Overthrow of the Western Emperor  In 476, Odoacer deposed Emperor Romulus Augustulus  Returned the imperial regalia to eastern Emperor Zeno at Constantinople  Odoacer claimed he would rule as the emperor’s regent  In reality, he put himself in power  Zeno responded by sending the Ostrogoths into Italy  Ostrogoths  These were the eastern Goths  Were subjugated by the Huns in the late 3 rd century  Settled in the eastern Empire

57 Rise of the Germanic People  Theodoric (471-526)  Leader of the Ostrogoths  Zeno made a deal with Theodoric to get Odoacer out of Italy  Marched into Italy in 493 and killed Odoacer  Set up the Kingdom of Italy in spite of Zeno’s wishes  Emergence of new Germanic kingdoms  By 500, the western Roman Empire was being replaced  There was the creation of new political kingdoms set up by German kings  Became a fusion of Roman and German politics and cultures

58  Europe (c. 500)

59  Justinian I  (527-565)

60 Justinian I (527-565)  By the 5 th century, the Eastern Roman Empire was continuing to flourish  Empire is later referred to as the Byzantine Empire  Justinian I (527-565)  The “last Roman and the first Byzantine emperor”  Main goal was to reunite the old Roman Empire  Expansion to the West  Invaded Vandal kingdom of North Africa in 533  Went on to Italy in 540 to “reconquer” it  Weakened Italy opening it up to later conquest by the Lombards  Successors were not able to hold most of the territory

61 Justinian I (527-565)  War in the east  Persian forces invaded from the east in 540  Sacked Antioch in 540  Justinian was able to keep the integrity of the eastern borders with small territorial gain  Very costly war  Centralization of government  Worked to centralize the imperial government by bringing all aspects (military, government, religion) into one system  This was the biggest success of his reign

62 Justinian I (527-565)  Corpus Iuris Civilis (Body of Civil Law)  His attempt to codify Roman law  Also included a compilation of imperial edicts  Became the basis of imperial law until the end of the empire in 1453  It would later be adopted in the west as it was written in Latin  Building Programs  Rebuilt Constantinople after riots destroyed the city in 532  Became an important religious and political center  Pushed through numerous public works projects including underground reservoirs  One of his significant buildings was the Hagia Sophia

63 Justinian I (527-565)  Ecclesiastical policy  Promoted good church government and orthodox beliefs  Worked hard to bring an end to numerous heresies  Council of Constantinople (553) confirmed that the dual nature of Jesus (human and divine)  Imperial control over church would start a divide between western and eastern Christianity  Problems during his reign  Growth of Monophysite heresy (Jesus was solely divine)  Extreme weather issues in 535-536 due possibly to volcanic activity  Justinian Plague (541-542) which was either bubonic plague or viral hemorrhagic plague

64  Byzantine Empire (527-565)

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