3Bad RulersHistorians agree that Rome began its decline at the end of the reign of the last of the Five Good Emperors.Marcus Aurelius (A.D ) was the last ruler.Marcus Aurelius’ son, Commodus, was incompetent and brutal.Other Emperors that followed were incompetent also.
4Prosperity VanishesRomans had grown accustomed to a life of prosperity.Rome’s treasuries were enriched with gold and silver.They grew enough grain to feed the population.During the 3rd century, prosperity vanished.
5Economic Problems Hostile tribes and pirates disrupted trade. Wars were costly.The wealthy spent money on goods from China, India, and Arabia.This spending drained the empire of gold and silver.The empire’s expansion came to an end.
6Raised TaxesIn effort to pay for the rising cost of defense, the government raised taxes.They also began making coins with less and less silver.The economy soon suffered from massive inflation – a drastic drop in the value of money combined with rising prices.
7Agricultural problems Harvests became smallerThe soil was overworked and lost its fertility.Farmland was destroyed by warfareHigher taxes made poor farmers abandon their landsCheap slave labor discouraged improvements in technologySerious food shortages resultedDisease spread and population declined
8Military Upheaval Discipline and loyalty collapsed Soldiers gave their loyalties to their commanders instead of Rome.The commanders fought for themselves to become emperor of Rome.
9MercenariesThe government began to recruit mercenaries, foreign soldiers who fought for money.Mercenaries accepted lower pay than Romans.They had no loyalty to Rome. They were only in it for the money.
10Roman Politics Decay People lost their sense of patriotism. Holding a political office used to be an honor and a means for gaining wealth.By the 200s, local officials usually lost money because they had to pay for costly public circuses and baths out of their own pockets.
11Roman Chariot races (what they called a ‘circus’)
19Diocletian became Emperor in 284 Restored the Roman EmpireIncreased its strengthIn order for this to happen, he had to rule as an absolute ruler (having total power) and limit personal freedoms.
20Diocletian’s reforms Doubled the size of the Roman armies Drafted Prisoners of WarHired German mercenariesSet fixed prices for goods.Ordered farmers to remain on their lands and other workers to stay in their jobs for life.Passed a decree to persecute Christians.
21DivinityClaimed he descended from the Roman Gods, as the son of Jupiter.When he appeared in public, trumpets heralded.He made people kneel before him and kiss the hem of his robe.His shoes and clothing were adorned with precious gems.He wanted it to seem as ‘crime against the gods’ to kill him.
22Rome DividesDiocletian divided the empire in the Greek-speaking East (Greece, Anatolia, and Syria)Latin-speaking West (Italy, Gaul, Britannia, and Spain)He took the Eastern half for himself and appointed General Maximian as ruler of the West.Each ruler had an assistant, which was to be their sucessor.
26Diocletian became ill and retired in 305 A.D. His successor was supposed to take over, but instead a Civil War broke out.Four leaders emerged who fought for the throne.
27Christian God, remember? ConstantineConstantine took control of the western part of the Empire in 312 AD.In 324 AD, Constantine also gained control of the East, thus restoring the concept of a single ruler.He won the Western half,after praying to theChristian God, remember?
28This is the same Constantine that legalized Christianity.
29Capital movesIn 330 A.D., Constantine moved the Capital from Rome to the Greek city of Byzantium, in what is now Turkey.With the capital in the East, the center of power shifted from Rome to the newly named city of Constantinople.
31After Constantine’s death, the empire would divide again. This time the East would survive, but the West would fall.
32Invaders in the Western Empire From AD, large numbers of Germanic tribes poured into Roman territory.They overwhelmed the structures of Roman society.Eventually, they drove the Roman emperor from the throne.
34The Huns Fierce Mongolian nomads from central Asia. Invaded Europe They destroyed everything in their path.They were feared by many people.
35In order to run away from the Huns, people sought refuge in Rome. When the Rhine River froze during an especially cold winter in 406, Vandal warriors and families swarmed across the ice into Rome.The Western Empire was so disorganized, it couldn’t stop them.
36Rome became vulnerable to attack. More than 600 years had passed since the attacks from Hannibal.The Visigoths invaded Rome in 420 and plundered the city for 3 days
37The Huns become a threat The Huns unite under a powerful chieftain, Attila.His armies terrorized both the Eastern and Western empire.In the East, his armies attacked and plundered 70 cities.But, they failed to take Constantinople.
39The Huns weakenAttila’s army advances on Rome, but they were weakened by disease and famine.Attila died in 453.The Huns were no longer a threat.The Germanic Tribes continued to attack.
40The story is that he died from a nosebleed on his wedding night The story is that he died from a nosebleed on his wedding night. Attila suffered from chronic nosebleeds throughout his life. On his wedding night, he became so drunk that he suffocated in his own blood.
42In 455, Vandals attacked Rome, leaving it in chaos. Famine struck and population dropped to 20,000.
43The Roman emperor in the West had become powerless Spain belonged to the VisigothsNorth Africa was conquered by the Vandals.Gaul was overrun by competing tribes (Franks, Burgundians, and Visigoths)Britannia was invaded by Angles and Saxons.Italy was falling victim to the Ostrogoths.
45The last Roman Emperor 14 year old boy, named Romulus Augustulus. In 476, German general, Odoacer, exiled him to the castle of Lucullus in CampaniaAfter that, no emperor even pretended to rule Rome and the western provinces.The western half disappeared.
46Now known as Egg Castle, or Castelo do Ovo, or Castell dell’Ovo
48It is called Egg Castle because a Roman poet, named Virgil, supposedly buried a magical egg in the castle’s foundation.He said as long as the egg is never disturbed, the Castle would not be destroyed.
49Romulus AugustulusHis name was originally Romulus Augustus, but it became Augustulus to mean,' Little Augustus’.
51Byzantine EmpireThe Eastern half came to be known as Byzantine Empire.It survived and flourished.It preserved the Greek and Roman culture for another 1,000 years.They ruled from Constantinople and saw themselves as heirs to the power of Augustus Caesar.