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Chapter 8 – Administering Security

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1 Chapter 8 – Administering Security
Security Planning Risk Analysis Security Policies Physical Security

2 Security Planning Policy Current state – risk analysis Requirements
Recommended controls Accountability Timetable Continuing attention

3 Security Planning - Policy
Who should be allowed access? To what system and organizational resources should access be allowed? What types of access should each user be allowed for each resource?

4 Security Planning - Policy
What are the organization’s goals on security? Where does the responsibility for security lie? What is the organization’s commitment to security?

5 OCTAVE Methodology
Identify enterprise knowledge. Identify operational area knowledge. Identify staff knowledge. Establish security requirements. Map high-priority information assests to information infrastructure. Perform an infrastructure vulnerability evaluation. Conduct a multidimensional risk analysis. Develop a protection strategy.

6 Security Planning – Requirements of the TCSEC
Security Policy – must be an explicit and well-defined security policy enforced by the system. Every subject must be uniquely and convincingly identified. Every object must be associated with a label that indicates its security level. The system must maintain complete, secure records of actions that affect security. The computing system must contain mechanisms that enforce security. The mechanisms that implement security must be protected against unauthorized change.

7 Security Planning Team Members
Computer hardware group System administrators Systems programmers Application programmers Data entry personnel Physical security personnel Representative users

8 Security Planning Assuring Commitment to a Security Plan
Business Continuity Plans Assess Business Impact Develop Strategy Develop Plan Incident Response Plans Advance Planning Response Team After the Incident is Resolved

9 Risk Analysis Risk impact - loss associated with an event
risk probability – likelihood that the event will occur Risk control – degree to which we can change the outcome Risk exposure – risk impact * risk probability

10 Risk Analysis – risk reduction
Avoid the risk Transfer the risk Assume the risk Risk leverage = [(risk exposure before reduction) – (risk exposure after reduction)] / cost of risk reduction Cannot guarantee systems are risk free Security plans must address action needed should an unexpected risk becomes a problem

11 Steps of a Risk Analysis
Identify assets Determine vulnerabilities Estimate likelihood of exploitation Compute expected annual loss Survey applicable controls and their costs Project annual savings of control

12 Identify Assets Hardware Software Data People
Procedures (policies, training) Documentation Supplies Infrastructure (building, power, water,…)

13 Determine Vulnerabilities
Asset Confidentiality Integrity Availability Hardware Software Data People procedures

14 Determine Vulnerabilities
What are the effects of unintentional errors? What are the effects of willfully malicious insiders? What are the effects of outsiders? What are the effects of natural and physical disasters?

15 Risk Analysis Estimate Likelihood of Exploitation
Classical probability Frequency probability (simulation) Subjective probability (Delphi approach) Computer Expected Lost (look for hidden costs) Legal obligations Side effects Psychological effects

16 Risk Analysis Survey and Select New Controls Project Savings
What Criteria Are Used for Selecting Controls? Vulnerability Assessment and Mitigation (VAM) Methodology How Do Controls Affect What They Control? Which Controls Are Best? Project Savings Do costs outweigh benefits of preventing / mitigating risks

17 Arguments for Risk Analysis
Improve awareness Relate security mission to management objectives Identify assets, vulnerabilities, and controls Improve basis for decisions Justify expenditures for security

18 Arguments against Risk Analysis
False sense of precision and confidence Hard to perform Immutability (filed and forgotten) Lack of accuracy “Today’s complex Internet networks cannot be made watertight…. A system administrator has to get everything right all the time; a hacker only has to find one small hole. A sysadmin has to be lucky all of the time; a hacker only has to get lucky once. It is easier to destroy than to create.” Robert Graham, lead architect of Internet Security Systems

19 Organizational Security Policies
Who can access which resources in what manner? Security policy - high-level management document that informs all users of the goals and constraints on using a system.

20 Security Policies Purpose
Recognize sensitive information assets Clarify security responsibilities Promote awareness for existing employees Guide new employees

21 Security Policies Audience
Users Owners Beneficiaries Balance Among All Parties

22 Contents Purpose Protected Resources (what - asset list)
Nature of the Protection (who and how)

23 Characteristics of a Good Security Policy
Coverage (comprehensive) Durability Realism Usefulness Examples

24 Physical Security Natural Disasters Power Loss Human Vandals Flood
Fire Other Power Loss UPS; surge suppressors (line conditioners) Human Vandals Unauthorized Access and Use Theft

25 Physical Security Interception of Sensitive Information
Dumpster Diving - Shredding Remanence (slack bits) Overwriting Magnetic Data DiskWipe Degaussing Emanation - Tempest

26 Contingency Planning BACKUP!!!!! OFFSITE BACKUP!!!!!
Complete backup Revolving backup Selective backup OFFSITE BACKUP!!!!! Networked Storage (SAN) Cold site (shell) Hot site

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