Presentation on theme: "Byzantine and G. Tribes Museum Walk. Fall of Rome and Creation of Byzantine Empire Rome was once the largest Empire, but was divided by the Emperor Diocletian."— Presentation transcript:
Fall of Rome and Creation of Byzantine Empire Rome was once the largest Empire, but was divided by the Emperor Diocletian in order to avoid outside attacks. The Western Empire fell to attacks by the Germanic tribes, while the East grew and gained power. It will become the Byzantine Empire. Constantine was the first emperor and named the capitol Constantinople. The city was at an advantage because it was protected from invasions geographically and was a good port for trading.
Western Roman Empire = Red Eastern Roman Empire = Blue
Justinian and Byzantine Society Justinian focused on keeping the empire united. He also spent lots of money and raised taxes. Unfortunately this left the empire bankrupt. –His wife Theodora served as an important advisor for him. In Byzantine society the Emperors had a lot of power and controlled government and the church. They were considered to be above the law. They society was also very hierarchical. Laws applied to everyone, but your punishment depended on your status in society. The position that you were born into was often your status for life. Women were often not allowed to be educated and could not leave their home without permission. Their main duty was to raise children.
Role of the Church in Byzantine Society The church and government were considered to be one and the same. The Emperor was very tied to religion and the church and government ruled as one. The Byzantine Empire started the Iconoclast movement to end the worshiping of icons, statues, etc. Like was done in the Western Church. Western and Eastern Roman Empires grow increasingly divided and this leads to what is the known as the “Great Schism”. The Great Schism is the division between the Orthodox Church (in the Eastern or Byzantine Empire) and the Catholic Church (in the Western Empire)
Church divides into the Catholic Church controlled by Rome and the Orthodox Church controlled by Constantinople.
Fall of the Western Roman Empire Germanic tribes had lived in Roman territory in peace for many years. When the Visigoths arrive and begin to push West, Romans begin to mistreat them. The Tribes fight back with their leaders Alaric of the Visigoths, Attila the Hun, and Odovacer the Vandal. The Germanic tribes win the battle and begin to settle in Europe forming various countries. They accept Christianity and begin to adopt Roman law, government and culture as their own.
Artist’s depiction of the Germanic tribes conquering Rome.
Rise of the Turks The Turks form the Ottoman Empire during this time. Their society was based on Arab and Islamic values. They were nomadic people who lived by herding. Their society included Ghazis who were warriors for the faith, Sultans who were leaders of the state or government and Caliphs who served as spiritual or religious leaders.
Germanic Tribes and Their Culture… The Germanic Tribes were groups of people who migrated to Europe. There were many sects or groups of tribes including the Franks, Goths, Huns, Lombards, Vandals, etc. Their societies had the following characteristics…they were migratory/nomadic and lived off hunting fishing and herding. They often raided other villages and took supplies and resources. Families often helped each other out. They were patriarchal meaning the men had all of the power. Men had many wives and the women had purely domestic roles such as cooking and raising children.
Germanic Society The Germanic tribes were very warlike. They often raided villages and took their supplies, burned the villages and left people for dead. Many groups such as the Huns and Vandals were feared by others. Attila the Hun was especially feared by others. Their society was ruled by Chiefs and powerful familes. Men were chosen to be warriors due to their skills. Warriors received special treatment and were given food and other goods for their service.
Germanic Tribes and Roman Society After the Germanic tribes took over the Roman Empire they began to settle down in Europe. They adopted a lot of the same ideas, government, and societal structures as the Roman Empire. They kept the same hierarchy with Nobles at the top who owned the land, then there were Freemen who had certain rights, followed by Peasants who worked the land for some form of payment, and slaves at the bottom, without any rights.
On your sheet fill out the pyramid according to the 4 different categories of people.
Changes in the Church The Christian church begins to change. It becomes more formal and rigid. Missionaries traveled around Europe spreading the message of the church to all people. People believed that your earthly existence was only a step to a better life. Benedict developed the Benedictine Rule to guide Christian monks and missionaries. It preached very strict rules of humility, obedience, daily prayer, and created a set daily schedule.
The Franks and Clovis The Franks became the most powerful Germanic tribe in Europe. They conquered the Visigoths and won the support of the Romans because they converted their tribe to Christianity. Clovis was the first leader to convert to Christianity and hoped to use the church to help him as leader. He divided his land into counties and used counts to help him control the people.
Pepin and the Church The Frankish leader, Pepin, solidified the relationship between the Franks and the Church. He helped the Pope protect Catholic lands and won many victories. He turned over land that he won to the church. This land was called the Papal States. The Franks and the Church begin to work together hand in hand. His son Charlemagne will be the next leader and will start the Carolingian Dynasty.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great He was born in 742 and was very smart and extremely religious. His goal was leader was to unite all of the Germanic Tribes under Christianity. He was very successful and won many battles. He allowed counts to rule various counties and appointed dukes to control the border regions. All people answered to him.
Draw this diagram on your notes to represent the division of land by Charlemagne.
Charlemagne as Religious Leader Charlemagne continued to defend the Pope’s land. Pope Leo was so grateful that he named Charlemagne “Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire” This united all of Europe under the church with Charlemagne as their leader. This accomplished his longtime goal! He started the Carolingian Renaissance which expanded the Catholic religion and improved education throughout Europe.
Death of Charlemagne and Middle Ages When Charlemagne died his land was divided. Europe now lacks a strong leader. The Church and Popes try to fill this void by leading the people of Europe. This means the the church is gaining more and more power. We are entering the Era known as the Middle Ages or Dark Ages. The church is going to play a very important role because it provided hope, education, and aid for the poor. This time period is also marked by a lack of cultural development!
This is a picture of a religious Crusader from a modern day videogame. The Crusaders were defenders of the Catholic faith during the Middle Ages