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The Earth and Its Peoples 3 rd edition Chapter 10 Christian Europe Emerges, 300-1200 Cover Slide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Ardagh silver chalice, 800 This chalice formed part of the treasure of Ardagh Cathedral in County Limerick, Ireland. It has been called one of the most sumptuous pieces of ecclesiastical metalwork to survive from early medieval Europe. The circular filigree decoration resembles that of Irish manuscript illumination. (National Museum of Ireland) Ardagh silver chalice, 800 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Bayeux Tapestry The Bayeux Tapestry was commissioned by the brother of William the Conqueror. This detailed design of needlework is wool embroidery executed on eight bolts of natural linen cloth, employing only two types of stitches. It narrates the story of the Norman invasion of England in 1066 from the perspective of the Normans, depicting both the triumphs and brutality of war. Designed to run clockwise around the nave of the Cathedral of Bayeux in Normandy, the tapestry is 230 feet long and 20 inches high. Scholars assume that it was fashioned by the women of Queen Matilda's court. This scene portrays the death of the Anglo-Saxon king, Edward, and the coronation of Harold. The people on the left rejoice at the news of this event, whereas the people on the right view it as a portent of disaster. (Reproduced with permission of the Tapisserie de Bayeux) Bayeux Tapestry Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Book of Kells The manuscript of the Book of Kells, housed in the Trinity College Library, Dublin, was illuminated between 760 and 820 in southeastern Ireland, at Iona. This page, one of the most famous, contains the first three Greek letters of Christ's name: Chi (X), Rho (P), and Iota (I). (Trinity College Library, Dublin) Book of Kells Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Consecration of Cluny This manuscript illumination depicts Pope Urban II surrounded by mitered bishops. Abbot Hugh of Cluny (with cowled monks) is on the right. A French nobleman who had been a monk of Cluny, Urban coined the term curia as the official designation of the central government of the church. (Bibliotheque nationale de France) Consecration of Cluny Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Crusades: Capture of Jerusalem During the First Crusade western armies and bands of followers crossed the Balkans and the Byzantine Empire in 1096 and 1097; in July 1099, after a bitter siege, they entered Jerusalem. This thirteenth-century miniature from the manuscript of the History of William of Tyre shows the siege and capture. On the right soldiers bombard the city with stones from a catapult and attack the walls from a tower on wheels. Above are scenes from the Passion and, on the left, the Dormition and Assumption of the Virgin. (Bibliotheque nationale de France) Crusades: Capture of Jerusalem Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Hagia Sophia, interior The design of the interior of Hagia Sophia blends the longitudinal axis of a basilica with features of a centralized plan. The nave was constructed using four great piers on which were built four great arches forming a basically square unit. Half domes were placed at each end of the nave to give the interior an elliptical shape. At each level, the windows flood the interior with an ethereal light. (Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY) Hagia Sophia, interior Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Homage and fealty Although the rite of entering a feudal relationship varied widely across Europe and sometimes was entirely verbal, we have a few illustrations of it. Here the vassal kneels before the lord, places his clasped hands between those of the lord, and declares "I become your man." Sometimes the lord handed over a clump of earth, representing the fief, and the ceremony concluded with a kiss, symbolizing peace between them. (Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek) Homage and fealty Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Ivory with Pope Gregory One of the four "Doctors" (or Learned Fathers) of the Latin church, Gregory (r. 590-604) is shown on this ivory book cover writing at his desk while the Holy Spirit, in the form of a dove, whispers in his ear. Below, scribes copy Gregory's works. (Kunsthistorisches Museum/Art Resource, NY) Ivory with Pope Gregory Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Jelling Stone King Harald Bluetooth of Denmark (d. ca. 984) erected the Jelling Stone with its runic inscription as a memorial to his parents. It reads, "King Harald had this monument made for his father Gorm and his mother Thyri. This was the Harald who won for himself all Denmark and Norway, and made the Danes Christian." (National Museum, Copenhagen) Jelling Stone Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Justinian On the sidewalls of San Vitale is the processional mosaic of the Emperor Justinian. To the left of the altar, Justinian is accompanied by courtiers, soldiers, and priests. He is robed in the imperial purple and gazes serenely ahead as he offers Christ a golden bowl. (Scala/Art Resource, NY) Justinian Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Layout of a manor In 1440 Edmund Rede, lord of Boarstall Manor, Buckinghamshire, had a map made showing his ancestor receiving the title from King Edward I (lower field). Note the manor house, church, and peasants' cottages along the central road. In the common fields, divided by hedges, peasants cultivated on a three- year rotation cycle: winter wheat, spring oats, a year fallow. Peasants' pigs grazed freely in the woods, indicated by trees. (Buckinghamshire Record Office, Aylesbury) Layout of a manor Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Matilda, Gregory, and Henry IV A staunch supporter of the reforming ideals of the papacy, the Countess Matilda of Tuscany (ca. 1046-1115) arranged the dramatic meeting of the pope and emperor at her castle at Canossa near Reggio Emilia in the Apennines. The arrangement of the figures--with Henry IV kneeling, Gregory lecturing, and Matilda persuading--suggests contemporary understanding of the scene where Henry received absolution. Matilda's vast estates in northern Italy and her political contacts in Rome made her a powerful figure in the late eleventh century. (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana) Matilda, Gregory, and Henry IV Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Monument to an early Turk The Turks originated in the northern part of what is now Mongolia. The flat expanses of the steppes, shown here in present-day Tuva, in Asiatic Southern Russia, suited the Turks and their herds. Steppe geography allowed constant communication between eastern Iran and western China. This monument to an unknown Turkic leader, probably of the late 500s, looks out over lands similar to those through which the Silk Road passed. (Courtesy, Sergei I. Vainshtein, Institute of Ethnography, Moscow) Monument to an early Turk Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Mosaic, Vandal landowner The Vandals settled in Spain for less than twenty years before entering North Africa in 429 where they successfully founded a national state centered in Carthage. This North African mosaic, of the late fifth or sixth centuries, shows a prosperous Vandal landowner leaving his villa. His costume and facial type are characteristically barbarian. (Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum) Mosaic, Vandal landowner Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Oseberg Ship Discovered in 1880, the Oseberg ship was buried in Norway in (probably) the tenth century. The ship may have belonged to a king, and contained the remains of Queen Asa. It is 21.6 meters long and 5 meters wide. Its crew would have been thirty to forty men. (University Museum of National Antiiquities, Oslo) Oseberg Ship Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Oxteam plowing From an eleventh-century calendar showing manorial occupations for each month, this illustration for January--the time for sowing winter wheat--shows two pairs of oxen pulling a wheeled plow, which was designed for deeper tillage. One man directs the oxen, a second prods the animals, and a third drops seeds in the ground. (British Library) Oxteam plowing Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Pantheon interior The Pantheon in Rome is a very large round temple whose interior is the best preserved, as well as the most impressive, of any surviving Roman structure. Originally a temple for the gods, it later served as a Christian church. As such, it symbolizes the adaptation of pagan elements to Christian purposes. (Alinari/Art Resource, NY) Pantheon interior Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Plan of Charlemagne's palace This model of Charlemagne's Palace in Aachen shows, in the foreground, the octagonal chapel and throne room. It is joined by galleries to the residential quarters in the background. The models for these buildings were found in Rome and Ravenna. (Romische- Germanisches Zentralmuseum) Plan of Charlemagne's palace Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Saint Benedict, 7th c This illumination from a manuscript in the Vatican Library depicts Saint Benedict holding his Rule in his left hand. The seated and cowled patriarch of Western monasticism blesses a monk with his right hand. His monastery, Monte Cassino, is in the background. (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana) Saint Benedict, 7th c Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Saint Matthew, Gospel Book of Charlemagne, 800 The Gospel Book of Charlemagne reputedly was found laying on Charlemagne's knees when his tomb was opened in 1000. Following the custom of manuscripts of the Palace School, they contain full-page portraits of the Gospel writers. This portrait of Saint Matthew shows him adorned in classical garb and seated on a stool. In his left hand he holds an inkhorn as he writes his Gospel with his right hand. Were it not for the large golden halo, this might almost be mistaken for a classical author's portrait. The landscape--with its soft brushwork and gentle colors--harkens back to the illusionistic tradition of the Romans. (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna) Saint Matthew, Gospel Book of Charlemagne, 800 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Theodora On the right of the altar of San Vitale is the mosaic of the empress Theodora and her attendants. She, too, is robed in the imperial purple and offers Christ a golden chalice. (Scala/Art Resource, NY) Theodora Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Virgin of Vladimir Along with the Orthodox faith, icon painting spread throughout the Balkans and Russia, where it continued to flourish even after the disappearance of the Byzantine Empire. The "Virgin of Vladimir, " the holiest icon of Russia, once the miraculous protector of the city of Vladimir and later of Moscow, was painted in Constantinople in 1131. Rus, and later Russian, icons tended to follow Byzantine traditions very closely. (Scala/Art Resource, NY) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire The Sasanid kingdom of Persia spanned much of central Asia, while the Byzantine Empire straddled Asia and Europe. The series of wars between the two powers brought neither of them lasting territorial acquisitions; the strife weakened them and paved the way for Islamic conquest in the seventh century. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: The Carolingian World The Carolingian World The extent of Charlemagne's nominal jurisdiction was extraordinary. It was not equaled until the nineteenth century. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: The Germanic Migrations The Germanic Migrations The Germanic tribes infiltrated and settled in all parts of western Europe. The Huns, who were not German ethnically, originated in Central Asia. The Huns' victory over the Ostrogoths led the emperor to allow the Visigoths to settle within the empire, a decision that proved disastrous for Rome. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: The Islands of Japan The Islands of Japan Korea and Japan are of similar latitude, but Korea's climate is more continental, with harsher winters. Of Japan's four islands, Kyushu is closest to Korea and mainland Asia. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: Raid and Invasions in the Era of Political Disruption Raid and Invasions in the Era of Political Disruption Early invasions focused on the primary care centers of Roman imperial authority: Rome, Milan, Carthage, and Constantinople. Later invasions reflect the shift of power to northern Europe. In contrast to raids in the northwest, extensive Viking activity along the rivers of eastern Europe consisted partly of establishing authority over Slavic peoples and partly of opening up trade routes to Byzantium and Iran. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: The Routes of the Crusades The Routes of the Crusades The Crusades led to a major cultural encounter between Muslim and Christian values. What significant intellectual and economic effects resulted? (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Map: The Spread of Christianity The Spread of Christianity Originating in Judaea, the southern part of modern Israel and Jordan, Christianity spread throughout the Roman world. Roman sea-lanes and roads facilitated the expansion. (Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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