The Concept of Marketing in the Commercial World The whole of the organisation should be driven by a constant concern for its customers Firms usually enter a business by creating products/services but stay in business only by creating and retaining customers at a profit The whole business seen from the point of view of its end result, that is from the point of view of the customer
The Concept of Marketing in Libraries/ Information Services involves: Define who users / potential users are Focus on their needs Co-ordinate all activities that affect the users Meet Budget Requirements User Satisfaction
Difficulties in Adoption Library and Information Service Managers may lose the emphasis on the user as they get involved in the complex and demanding process of managing the organisation as the central purpose of their activities. Financial Management Personnel Management Production Management Promotional Management The User
Production Orientation The focus and emphasis is on having the latest service, technology and database Little attention is given to marketing research and service planning If users are unhappy, it’s because they don’t use the service properly
Sales Orientation The focus is on volume of users, not on cost effective service provision. The prevailing point of view is that all users should be given whatever he wants. There tends to be weak linkage between true user needs and wants and the planning of the services to be offered
Financial Orientation The emphasis tends to be on short range cost savings at the expense of the future sustainability of the service. Cost reduction efforts may sacrifice service quality The focus is not on user requirements but on internal considerations and reporting mechanisms
For the Marketing Concept to Work: All decisions must be preceded by the question: WILL OUR DECISION AFFECT OUR USERS? When in doubt, ask the user. Image is as important to the user as actuality: as long as the user thinks the decision will affect them, it does!!
For the Marketing Concept to Work: Opinions about users’ views will no longer do, we must have facts. With marketing research data, the number of bad decisions is reduced, as well as the number of arguments.
For the Marketing Concept to Work: Loyalty to the organisation and the service is not as important as loyalty to the user. When a wise organisation creates a successful new service it should immediately plan the next successful version which will destroy the first one: if you don’t users may seek that service elsewhere. If the user thinks the service is good, it’s good. If the user thinks the service is poor, it’s poor. Educating the user to think differently is an expensive and time- consuming business.
User Segments Users have different preferences and requirements when seeking information The priority they put on each of these will vary The different priorities will determine the user segments Need to determine the different ways of delivering information to meet these different needs and priorities
Example of Benefit Segmentation in the Toothpaste Market
Example: Cabinet Towels Hand Drying In Public Washrooms In Staff Washrooms In Kitchens 1. Vandal proof 2. Reliable Servicing 3. Inexpensive 4. Appearance quality popular 1. Inexpensive 2. Low Maintenance 1. Hygiene 2. Multi-use 3. Space saving
So what do your user segments require? 24 hour access Info comes to user Help to access correct information Self help Immediate availability Updating service Very technical information Ability to browse Somebody to gather the information On-site resources Free information Most recent information
Prioritise the Segments Determine the key target segments for your service Who are the secondary or tertiary user segments? Is this reflected in the way you run the service? Remember, it is unlikely you can satisfy all of the people, all of the time.
The Service Encounter Moment of Truth Perceived quality is realised when the service provider and the user meets Interaction impacts on service differentiation and service quality Interactions need to be managed A service is an experience
The Service Encounter Cascade Hotel Visit Check in Porter takes to room Restaurant Meal Wake up Call Checkout A failure at one point results in greater risk for dissatisfaction at each ensuing level Same for a physical or virtual library visit
Questions that should be asked Which phases of the user service sequence provided by your service most concern? What goes wrong, why, and what might be done to improve it?
The User Service Sequence Finding out about the Service Requesting the Service Delivery of the Service Packaging / Presentation of the Service Invoicing/ Charging for the Service Providing Feedback Market Research
Evaluation of the Service Asking Users User surveys ( various formats) User groups / group discussions Monitoring Complaints/ Feedback Observation Mystery Shoppers
Communicating and Promoting Your Services What do we want to say about our Service?
The Virgin Brand Quality Innovation Value for Money Fun Sense of Challenge
An Integrated Service Brand The Service Staff Behaviour CommunicationEnvironment Brand Values
Communication Decisions 1. What are the communication objectives 2. Who are the target audience 3. How much can be spent 4. What message should be sent 5. What method should be used 6. How should the result be evaluated
Communicating with Users Personal Contact Telephone Contact Advertising Public Relations Direct Mail Newsletters Exhibitions Posters Leaflets Signage Brochures Directories Internet
Assessing Communication Activities Does it address our objectives? Will it reach the Correct Audience? Is the Message Clear? From the users’ perspective, is it jargon- free? Does it have initial impact? Does it attract attention by addressing potential user needs and suggesting how we can satisfy them? Is it clear what the potential user should do next? Is the style consistent with our other services and communications?
In summary: Develop a Marketing Oriented Service Identify and Target your Key User Groups Deliver a User Oriented Service Communicate and Promote Your Services