7In Our Last Episode Words and morphemes (meaningful “word parts”) Word-formation rulesFree and bound morphemesSimple and complex wordsAffixes and roots
8Cranberry Morphemes Cranberry morphemes are bound root morphemes. They have no independent meaning.They also have no parts of speechSome more examples:perceive, receive, deceive-ceive?infer, refer, defer-fer?commit, permit, submit-mit?Also: the liberation of cran?
9ConjugationIn many languages verbs are conjugated by adding affixes specifying person and number to a bound root form.Italian: parlare “to speak”Singular Plural1st Io parlo “I speak” Noi parliamo “We speak”2nd Tu parli “You speak” Voi parlate “Y’all speak”3rd Lui parla “He speaks” Loro parlano “They speak”Lei parla “She speaks”Note: the root form /parl-/ never appears on its own, without an ending.
10Bases (or Stems)Once an affix has attached to a root morpheme, it forms a base…to which other affixes may attach.Example:boy (root) + -ish (suffix) = boyishRound two:boyish (base) + -ness (suffix) = boyishnessAnother example: black (root) + -en = blackenRound two: blacken (base) + -ed = blackenedIn some linguistic circles, bases are called stems.
11Lexical CategoriesImportant: we know that word-building takes place in stages because specific affixes are particular about what kinds of words they can attach to.A quick and dirty review of lexical categories (parts of speech):Nouns=people, places, thingsdog, cat, bike, person, planet, ball, etc.Verbs=actions, sensations, statesrun, kick, scratch, scream, bite, walk, be, have, etc.
12Lexical Categories, reviewed 3. Adjectives= properties or qualitieshappy, sad, angry, funny, clear, fuzzy, ugly, etc.4. Prepositionsspatial relationships (= pre + position)to, for, of, with, out, in, above, below, etc.5. Adverbs= properties or qualities of verbs and adjectivesoften, seldom, rarely, purely, frequently, etc.We’ll talk about these again when we get to syntax…
13Picky, PickyAffixes generally attach to a base with a particular lexical category.Examples:verb = [re-] + verb (“to do again”)recycle = [re-] + cycle reuse = [re-] + useadjective = [in-] + adjective (“opposite of”)insecure = [in-] + secureincomplete = [in-] + completenoun = [ex-] + noun (“former”)ex-wife = [ex-] + wifeex-president = [ex-] + president
14Tricky PickyOther affixes attach to a base of a particular lexical category…And create a word of a different lexical category.noun = verb + [-er]sweeper = sweep + [-er] teacher = teach + [-er]verb = adjective + [-en]blacken = black + [-en] freshen = fresh + [-en]adjective = verb + [-able]desirable = desire + [-able]squeezable = squeeze + [-able]
15Quiz TimeWhich affixes are being attached in the following sets of words?Which lexical categories do those affixes attach to?Which lexical categories are formed by adding the affix?uncertain, unhappy, untrueexactly, profoundly, deeplymoralize, vandalize, sermonizedeconstruct, decode, derail
16Layers of WordsWords that are formed through the addition of multiple affixes have a layered, or hierarchical structure.One (ugly) way to represent this structure is through bracket notation:[root] [construct][[affix] + [root]] [[re-] + [construct]] (=base)[[base] + [affix]] [[[re-] + [construct]] + [-ion]]WORD reconstruction
17Tree StructuresIn this class, we’ll primarily stick with tree diagrams to represent word structure.(because they look better and are easier to read)re construct ion un desire ableTree terminology: branchesnodes: where two branches meetnodes represent constituents of the word
18Building the Perfect Beasts To accurately capture all of the facts of word formation…tree structures should represent the lexical categories of all constituents at each node in the tree.Noun AdjVerb AdjAff Verb Aff Aff Verb Aff[re-] [construct] [-ion] [un-] [desire] [-able]
19Test Case What should the tree diagram for “reassignment” look like? NounVerbAff Verb Aff[re-] [assign] [-ment]3. reassignment2. reassign1. assigndeploy - deploymentarrange - arrangementemploy - employment, etc.
20Another Test Case How about the tree diagram for “miscategorization”? NounVerbAff Noun Aff Aff[mis-] [category] [-ize] [-ation]4. miscategorization3. miscategorize2. categorize*miscategory1. categoryConstrue - misconstrueAppropriate (v) - misappropriatePlay (v) - misplayconfusion - *misconfusion
21Ambiguity Some complex words can have more than one interpretation Different derivations can result in different interpretationsExample: “unlockable”Note: [un-] can attach to both adjectives and verbs[-able] attaches to verbs and creatives adjectives
22Unlockable, part 1 Adj Aff Verb Aff [un-] [lock] [-able] = not able to be locked
23Unlockable, part 2 Adj Verb Aff Verb Aff [un-] [lock] [-able] = able to be unlocked
24Inflections vs. Derivations Linguists draw another distinction among affixes:Inflectional affixes:mark grammatical properties(person, number, gender, tense, aspect)don’t change other aspects of meaningare required by rules of sentence structurecreate a new “word form”Derivational affixes:change meaningcreate a new word(typically) have clear semantic contentmay change the lexical category of the word
25Inflectional AffixesThere are precisely eight inflectional affixes in English:-s 3rd person wait --> waits-ing progressive wait --> waiting-ed past tense wait --> waited-en past participle eat --> eaten-s plural card --> cards-’s possessive dad --> dad’s-er comparative tall --> taller-est superlative weak --> weakestAll of these are suffixes.
26Inflectional AffixesOther languages can have a lot more inflectional affixes.Examples from French: parler “to speak”1st person, plural: parlons “We speak”2nd person, plural: parlez “You guys speak”Past tense:1st person, singular: parlais “I spoke”1st person, plural: parlions “We spoke”2nd person, plural: parliez “You guys spoke”Plus many, many more.Note: Volapük. (http://www.visi.com/~dean/volverb.html)
27Derivational AffixesIn contrast to inflectional affixes, derivational affixes:Create new words when they’re attached to rootsExamples:re- cycle --> recyclede- code --> decode-y fish --> fishy-ize vandal --> vandalizeAlso: English has far more derivational affixes than inflectional affixes.For fairness’ sake: