Presentation on theme: "Morphology, Part 2 September 27, 2010. Mr. Burns Quick Write First off: a note on paying attention. Is it realistic to portray Mr. Burns as having a dictionary."— Presentation transcript:
Morphology, Part 2 September 27, 2010
Mr. Burns Quick Write First off: a note on paying attention. Is it realistic to portray Mr. Burns as having a dictionary inside his head?
The Last Word
In Our Last Episode Words and morphemes (meaningful “word parts”) Word-formation rules Free and bound morphemes Simple and complex words Affixes and roots
Cranberry Morphemes Cranberry morphemes are bound root morphemes. They have no independent meaning. They also have no parts of speech Some more examples: perceive, receive, deceive -ceive? infer, refer, defer -fer? commit, permit, submit -mit? Also: the liberation of cran?
Conjugation In many languages verbs are conjugated by adding affixes specifying person and number to a bound root form. Italian: parlare “to speak” SingularPlural 1stIo parlo “I speak”Noi parliamo“We speak” 2ndTu parli “You speak”Voi parlate “Y’all speak” 3rdLui parla “He speaks”Loro parlano “They speak” Lei parla “She speaks” Note: the root form /parl-/ never appears on its own, without an ending.
Bases (or Stems) Once an affix has attached to a root morpheme, it forms a base… to which other affixes may attach. Example: boy (root) + -ish (suffix) = boyish Round two: boyish (base) + -ness (suffix) = boyishness Another example: black (root) + -en = blacken Round two: blacken (base) + -ed = blackened In some linguistic circles, bases are called stems.
Lexical Categories Important: we know that word-building takes place in stages because specific affixes are particular about what kinds of words they can attach to. A quick and dirty review of lexical categories (parts of speech): 1.Nouns =people, places, things dog, cat, bike, person, planet, ball, etc. 2.Verbs =actions, sensations, states run, kick, scratch, scream, bite, walk, be, have, etc.
Lexical Categories, reviewed 3. Adjectives = properties or qualities happy, sad, angry, funny, clear, fuzzy, ugly, etc. 4. Prepositions spatial relationships (= pre + position) to, for, of, with, out, in, above, below, etc. 5. Adverbs = properties or qualities of verbs and adjectives often, seldom, rarely, purely, frequently, etc. We’ll talk about these again when we get to syntax…
Picky, Picky Affixes generally attach to a base with a particular lexical category. Examples: verb = [re-] + verb(“to do again”) recycle = [re-] + cyclereuse= [re-] + use adjective = [in-] + adjective(“opposite of”) insecure = [in-] + secure incomplete = [in-] + complete noun = [ex-] + noun(“former”) ex-wife = [ex-] + wife ex-president = [ex-] + president
Tricky Picky Other affixes attach to a base of a particular lexical category… And create a word of a different lexical category. noun = verb + [-er] sweeper = sweep + [-er]teacher = teach + [-er] verb = adjective + [-en] blacken = black + [-en]freshen = fresh + [-en] adjective = verb + [-able] desirable = desire + [-able] squeezable = squeeze + [-able]
Quiz Time Which affixes are being attached in the following sets of words? Which lexical categories do those affixes attach to? Which lexical categories are formed by adding the affix? 1.uncertain, unhappy, untrue 2.exactly, profoundly, deeply 3.moralize, vandalize, sermonize 4.deconstruct, decode, derail
Layers of Words Words that are formed through the addition of multiple affixes have a layered, or hierarchical structure. One (ugly) way to represent this structure is through bracket notation: [root][construct] [[affix] + [root]][[re-] + [construct]](=base) [[base] + [affix]][[[re-] + [construct]] + [-ion]] WORDreconstruction
Tree Structures In this class, we’ll primarily stick with tree diagrams to represent word structure. (because they look better and are easier to read) reconstructionundesire able Tree terminology: branches nodes: where two branches meet nodes represent constituents of the word
Building the Perfect Beasts To accurately capture all of the facts of word formation… tree structures should represent the lexical categories of all constituents at each node in the tree. Noun Adj Verb Adj AffVerbAffAffVerb Aff [re-][construct][-ion][un-][desire] [-able]
Test Case What should the tree diagram for “reassignment” look like? Noun Verb AffVerbAff [re-][assign][-ment] 3. reassignment 2. reassign 1. assign
Another Test Case How about the tree diagram for “miscategorization”? Noun Verb AffNounAffAff [mis-] [category][-ize][-ation] 4. miscategorization 3. miscategorize 2. categorize *miscategory 1. category
Ambiguity Some complex words can have more than one interpretation Different derivations can result in different interpretations Example: “unlockable” Note: [un-] can attach to both adjectives and verbs [-able] attaches to verbs and creatives adjectives
Unlockable, part 1 Adj AffVerbAff [un-][lock][-able] = not able to be locked
Unlockable, part 2 Adj Verb AffVerbAff [un-][lock][-able] = able to be unlocked
Inflections vs. Derivations Linguists draw another distinction among affixes: 1.Inflectional affixes: mark grammatical properties (person, number, gender, tense, aspect) don’t change other aspects of meaning are required by rules of sentence structure create a new “word form” 2.Derivational affixes: change meaning create a new word (typically) have clear semantic content may change the lexical category of the word
Inflectional Affixes There are precisely eight inflectional affixes in English: 1.-s3rd personwait --> waits 2.-ingprogressivewait --> waiting 3.-edpast tensewait --> waited 4.-enpast participleeat --> eaten 5.-spluralcard --> cards 6.-’spossessivedad --> dad’s 7.-ercomparativetall --> taller 8.-estsuperlativeweak --> weakest All of these are suffixes.
Inflectional Affixes Other languages can have a lot more inflectional affixes. Examples from French: parler “to speak” 1st person, plural: parlons“We speak” 2nd person, plural: parlez“You guys speak” Past tense: 1st person, singular: parlais“I spoke” 1st person, plural: parlions“We spoke” 2nd person, plural: parliez“You guys spoke” Plus many, many more. Note: Volapük. (http://www.visi.com/~dean/volverb.html)
Derivational Affixes In contrast to inflectional affixes, derivational affixes: Create new words when they’re attached to roots Examples: re-cycle --> recycle de-code --> decode -yfish --> fishy -izevandal --> vandalize Also: English has far more derivational affixes than inflectional affixes. For fairness’ sake: