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VANDALISMVANDALISM Tracy Fabri, Rebecca Kogon, Evan Shanahan 1.

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Presentation on theme: "VANDALISMVANDALISM Tracy Fabri, Rebecca Kogon, Evan Shanahan 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 VANDALISMVANDALISM Tracy Fabri, Rebecca Kogon, Evan Shanahan 1

2 DISCUSSIONDISCUSSION (A) In 1 word or so, what is vandalism to you? (B) Who is considered a vandal?

3 Is This What You Thought? Carrie Underwood - Before He Cheats – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WaSy 8yy-mr8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WaSy 8yy-mr8

4 What is Vandalism?

5 Vandalism “Re- defined” How would you define vandalism after seeing the previous photos?

6 Do you think the distinction should be based on the location? (ie. Downtown street corner or bus shelter vs. bricks outside school or bathroom stall)? Do you think the distinction should be dependent on what form of vandalism it is? (ie. graffiti vs. arson vs. broken windows?) City of Toronto has a Graffiti Panel Who Decides? Art or Vandalism?

7 Conflicting Views Vandalism is Inherently Bad Vandalism As Art Vandalism as a “Voice” Vandalism is not a crime in the Canadian Criminal Code Form of expression Form of expressing views (either negative or positive) Arson and related offences such as mischief and wilful damage are in the Canadian Criminal Code Means for artists to get their name out Toronto City Council and Committees Meetings, Agendas and Minutes. (n.d). Retrieved November 7, 2014, from GP133http://app.toronto.ca/tmmisdecisionBodyProfile.dofunction=doPrepare&decisionBodyId=821#Meeting GP133

8 Many Faces of Vandalism  ART  PEACE MESSAGES  POLITICAL MESSAGES  RELIGIOUS HATE: swastika-anti-muslim-graffiti-found-north-of-toronto  GANG SYMBOLS  REVENGE  RELATIONSHIP PROBLEMS:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZ9D5WTbjDQ (video) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZ9D5WTbjDQ  vandalized-women-cheated/ (images) vandalized-women-cheated/

9 A “Voice” for the Voiceless  What type of person do you feel is more likely to be interviewed on TV to discuss political issues or important economic and societal problems?  Do you often hear the voices of individuals who are marginalized or part of racial or ethnic minorities? Or of a lower socioeconomic status?  Justin Bieber  in-biebers-visit-to-bogota-opened-doors-for-colombian- graffiti-artists/2013/11/18/7721a63e-4f08-11e3-be6b- d3d28122e6d4_story.html in-biebers-visit-to-bogota-opened-doors-for-colombian- graffiti-artists/2013/11/18/7721a63e-4f08-11e3-be6b- d3d28122e6d4_story.html Justin Bieber's visit to Bogota opened doors for Colombian graffiti artists. (n.d.). Retrieved November 18, 2014, from bogota-opened-doors-for-colombian-graffiti-artists/2013/11/18/ 7721a63e-4f08-11e3-be6b-d3d28122e6d4_story.html

10 - Many people use vandalism as a way to speak out - They may use graffiti to convey a direct message - They may cause other property destruction as a means of protest Political Messages

11 Select Lyrics from Against Me!’s Baby, I’m an Anarchist “What I’m trying to say is that I burn down buildings while you sit on a shelf inside of them You called the cops on the looters and pie- throwers” “We marched together for the eight hour day and held hands in the streets of Seattle But when it came time to throw bricks through that Starbucks window you left me all alone” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ScFU0UxKWA

12 Let’s Discuss… 1. Do you think it is acceptable for people to be vandals when they make a statement? 2. Besides vandalizing, how else would people be able to get an idea across?

13 Let’s Discuss… 1. Are these statements acceptable? 2. Why do people do this?

14 Let’s Discuss… 1.We see evidence of graffiti in history, does this suggest something about human nature?

15 problem of vandalism is increasing and may be accelerating – potentially it is seen as okay to vandalize vandalism has taken a backseat as administrators deal with the “bigger problems” like weapons etc. aggression towards person or property is learned behaviour – vicarious modeling experiences - behaviour are not punished so they are more likely to reoccur this explains why certain areas become vandalized and also why these areas may have higher crime rates - progression toward more severe levels of infraction disinhibition (to be discussed in greater depth later in our presentation) Psychology and Vandalism Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp.1-86.

16 Commercializing Grafitti “As a kid I was always wondering, is this what life is about? How can I cheat life? How can I make an impact on society? All these things came into my head about leaving a trace, you write your name under a bridge and you hope that it will be there in 100 years, somebody will discover it and ask themselves the same thing. You go to the museum and you wonder who are these people, why did they do it, what does it mean? That compulsion of wanting to leave a trace behind could be done through art.” - JonOne Meet the graffiti artist behind Perrier's latest collab - Elle Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from /http://www.ellecanada.com/blog/2014/10/16/im-listening-queen-clouds-tove-lo /

17 Who Participates in Vandalism?

18 Scratched a desk at school Broken a bottle at school, in the street or in a park Written on walls of buildings Broken a window in an occupied house Damaged Park Buildings Damaged machinery on a building site Damaged the tires of a car, track or bicycle Damaged street signs Beaulieu, L. (1981). Vandalism: Responses and responsibilities: Report of the Task Force on Vandalism. Toronto: The Task Force. Adapted from Wiesenthal, D. (Director) (2014). Vandalism. Lecture conducted from, Toronto. Have You…?

19 Beaulieu, L. (1981) Percent Admitting to One or More of Each of a Selected Number of Acts of Vandalism During the Preceding 12 Months Type of VandalismPrimary SchoolsSecondary Schools Scratched a desk at school 71.9%88.7% Broken a bottle at school, in the street or in a park 45.8%42.4% Written on walls of buildings 25.7%21.7% Broken a window in an occupied house 6.0%12.0% Damaged Park Buildings 8.6%5.9% Damaged machinery on a building site 9.9%10.9% Damaged the tires of a car, track or bicycle 28.9%19.2% Damaged street signs 25.1%22.2% Beaulieu, L. (1981). Vandalism: Responses and responsibilities: Report of the Task Force on Vandalism. Toronto: The Task Force. Adapted from Wiesenthal, D. (Director) (2014). Vandalism. Lecture conducted from, Toronto.

20 - Ultimately, anyone can be a vandal - Dependent on factors such as motivation, environment, and circumstance - White males are the most likely demographic to be vandals The Vandal Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp.1-86.

21 - Peaks in 7th grade - Generally in other trouble at school - Tend not to be concerned with or even understanding of the full range of consequences of their vandalism School Vandals Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp.1-86.

22 - Like other vandals in general, typically white and male - Typically below-average intelligence - Problems with alcohol and/or sex Arsonists Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp.1-86.

23 Why do people vandalize? What are the underlying theoretical motivations from the perspective of psychologists and sociologists? We’ve discussed the who, now…

24 Examples of Psychological Variables Gardner, L. (n.d.). The Psychological View of Why Children Vandalize. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from View.htm  Peer pressure  Rebellion  Boredom  Novel/exciting

25 Martin (1959) - Typology 1. Predatory Vandalism  perpetrator motivated by material gain (ie. theft) 2. Vindictive Vandalism  express animosity or anger or intimidate 3. Wanton Vandalism  motivation less clear “without reason” - sheer annoyance of others Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp.1-86.

26 Cohen (1974) - Typology 1. Acquisitive Vandalism  trying to do something that leads to damage 2. Tactile Vandalism employ vandalism as a means to another end 3. Ideological Vandalism  social or political cause to deliver a message 4. Vindictive Vandalism  revenge 5. Play Vandalism  damage in the course of play 6. Malicious Vandalism  express rage or frustration often directed at middle-class property Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp.1-86.

27 1992 Los Angeles Riots

28 Peaceful Protests Don’t Always Work…

29 And protesters feel they must take direct action

30 Vancouver Canucks Riot - Wanton AND Vindictive?

31 - Believed vandalism is, at the root, caused by the nature and design of its targets – E.g. the design of buildings, desks, stalls, etc. Weinmayr (1969) Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp.1-86.

32 - Potentially large factor of vandalism - Can be defined as “the loss of self-awareness in groups” - When in a group, people lose their sense of individuality and self and feel anonymous - Can lead people to do things they wouldn’t normally do or deem as proper Deindividuation Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp.1-86.

33 Reporting Vandalism

34 - Vandalism is underreported to police - It is reported more than assault but less than robberies and B&Es - In 2009 there were self-reported cases of vandalism of the home Reporting Vandalism Criminal victimization in Canada, (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2014, from x/ /article/11340-eng.htm. Adapted from Wiesenthal, D. (Director) (2014). Vandalism. Lecture conducted from Toronto.

35 Not important enough Police couldn’t do anything It was dealt with another way The incident was a “personal matter” Did not want to get police involved Police refused to help Insurance would not cover it Nothing was stolen, or if something was stolen it was recovered No confidence in the police and/or courts Potential police bias Fear of revenge by the vandal Fear of publicity or news coverage Reasons for Not Reporting Incidents to Police Criminal victimization in Canada, (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2014, from x/ /article/11340-eng.htm. Adapted from Wiesenthal, D. (Director) (2014). Vandalism. Lecture conducted from, Toronto.

36 MONETARY COSTS: – hard to obtain reliable estimates – physical costs associated with repairs and paying workers – clerical costs – security costs to investigate the act – schools have additional costs such as loss of specialized teaching facilities, loss of income from cancelled events (ie. student sport game), loss of classroom availability and transporting students elsewhere etc. Cost of Vandali$m Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp.1-86.

37 SOCIAL COSTS: – stress enhancing effects on victims – study by Lavrakas (1982) shows vandalism increases victims feeling of abandonment and insecurity – incivility leads to greater incivility – in educational settings: impact on schools educational system psychological impact on students and adults degree of disruptiveness in interpersonal relationships Cost of Vandali$m Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp.1-86.

38 ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS: Cost of Vandali$m Tree Vandalism. (n.d.). Retrieved November 18, 2014, from

39 Theories of Causation Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp ENJOYMENT THEORY Csikszentmihalyi and Larsen (1978) AESTHETIC THEORY Allen and Greenberger (1978) EQUITY CONTROL Fisher and Baron (1982, 1988)

40 Theories of Causation Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp ENJOYMENT THEORY (Csikszentmihalyi and Larsen (1978) criminal activities are providing more enjoyment than what schools have to offer intrinsic reward or enjoyment of vandalism and other anti-social behaviours in a context in which many demands are intrinsically unenjoyable in their own studies teens rated themselves as more bored in school than any other setting

41 Theories of Causation Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp AESTHETIC THEORY (Allen and Greenberger (1978) Factors in aesthetics responsible for pleasure: Complexity: people prefer complexity in all sensory modalities in a study by the authors, 82% of ppts reported wanting to destroy the taller, irregular designed building built from smaller bricks Expectation/Predictability: violations of expectation yield surprise and arousal accompanied by positive affect Novelty Intensity Patterning

42 Theories of Causation Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp EQUITY CONTROL (Fisher and Baron (1982, 1988) 2-factor model (perceived inequity + perceived control) perceived control: strength of a persons belief that he or she can effectively modify existing arrangements core motive underlying vandalistic behaviour is perceived inequity (ie. perceived violations of norms of fairness in social or environmental arrangements) goal of vandalism is equity restoration vandalism most likely to occur under conditions of low perceived equity and low to moderate perceived control people with high perceived control are likely to employ socially acceptable means for restoring equity

43 Theories of Causation Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp EQUITY CONTROL (Fisher and Baron (1982, 1988) certain forms of vandalism (more expressive-cathartic forms) will be used to seek to restore psychological equity when the individual perceives low control high anger, high overt aggression and spontaneity a person-environment theory in addition to equity and control characteristics of potential vandal, physical and social qualities serve as moderator variables

44 Theories of Causation Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp EQUITY CONTROL (Fisher and Baron (1982, 1988) DeMore et al. (1988) METHODS: - measured perceived equity, perceived control and vandalism in university students in dorms RESULTS: - higher frequency of vandalism by students perceiving both low equity and low control DISCUSSION: - inequity-reducing, control-enhancing, students participation in dormitory and university administration and decision making has substantial impact for reducing vandalism

45 - Security - Education - Teach respect - Increase punishment - Aesthetics - difficulty vandalizing - Physical barriers - Access control - Deflecting offenders Prevention Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp.1-86.

46  Exit-entry screening  Formal surveillance  Natural surveillance  Target removal  Identify property  Remove inducements  Rule setting Prevention Cont’d Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp.1-86.

47 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5XSUce1yNKg Just for Fun

48 Discussion Questions

49 References Justin Bieber's visit to Bogota opened doors for Colombian graffiti artists. (n.d.). Retrieved November 18, 2014, from graffiti-artists/2013/11/18/7721a63e-4f08-11e3-be6b-d3d28122e6d4_story.html Goldstein, A.P. (1996). The psychology of vandalism. New York: Plenum Press, pp Tree Vandalism. (n.d.). Retrieved November 18, 2014, from Toronto City Council and Committees Meetings, Agendas and Minutes. (n.d). Retrieved November 7, 2014, from Meet the graffiti artist behind Perrier's latest collab - Elle Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from Gardner, L. (n.d.). The Psychological View of Why Children Vandalize. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from View.htm Criminal victimization in Canada, (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2014, from x/ /article/11340-eng.htm Wiesenthal, D. (Director) (2014). Vandalism. Lecture conducted from, Toronto.


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