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© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge 8-1 Information Systems: A Manager’s Guide to Harnessing Technology, version 2.0 John Gallaugher
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Published by: Flat World Knowledge, Inc. © 2013 by Flat World Knowledge, Inc. All rights reserved. Your use of this work is subject to the License Agreement available here No part of this work may be used, modified, or reproduced in any form or by any means except as expressly permitted under the License Agreement.http://www.flatworldknowledge.com/legal 8-2
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Chapter 8 Social Media, Peer Production, and Web
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Learning Objectives Recognize the unexpected rise and impact of social media and peer production systems, and understand how these services differ from prior generation tools List the major classifications of social media services 8-4
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Web 2.0 Internet services that foster collaboration and information sharing Peer production: When users collaboratively work to create content, products, and services – Leveraged to create open source software that supports Web 2.0 – Collaborative consumption: Participants share access to products and services, rather than having ownership 8-5
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Table 8.1- Web 1.0 versus Web
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Social Media Tools 8-7 Key Uses BlogsShare ideas, obtain feedback, mobilize a community WikisCreate a common knowledge base Electronic social networkDiscover and reinforce affiliations; identify experts; message individuals or groups; virally share media MicrobloggingDistribute time-sensitive information, share opinions, virally spread ideas, run contests and promotions, solicit feedback, provide customer support, track commentary on firms/products/issues, organize protests
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Learning Objectives Know what blogs are and how corporations, executives, individuals, and the media use them Understand the benefits and risks of blogging Appreciate the growth in the number of blogs, their influence, and their capacity to generate revenue 8-8
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Blogs Online journal entries made in a reverse chronological order Long tail: Phenomenon whereby firms can make money by offering a near-limitless selection of contents and products Trackbacks: Links in a blog post that refer readers back to cited sources Blog rolls: List of a blogger’s favorite blogs Corporations use blogs to distribute ideas and gather feedback from the public 8-9
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Benefits and Limitations of Blogs Benefits Voice of a blogosphere can wield significant influence Can be public, tucked behind a corporate firewall, or password protected Offer a two-way dialog Blogging software can be run on third-party servers Value of a blog is derived from a combination of technical and social features Limitations Comments can be a hothouse for spam and the disgruntled Employee blogging can be difficult to control Public postings can live forever 8-10
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Blogs - Revenue Generation Communication channels that is controlled by an organization Firm-run blogs, websites, apps, and organization accounts on social media Owned media Efforts where an organization pays to leverage a channel or promote a message Advertisements and sponsorships Paid media Promotions that are not paid for or owned, but rather which grow organically from customer efforts or other favorable publicity Earned media Leveraging online channels to draw consumers to the firm with compelling content, rather than conventional forms of promotion Inbound marketing 8-11
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Learning Objectives Know what wikis are and how they are used by corporations and the public at large Understand the technical and social features that drive effective and useful wikis Suggest opportunities where wikis would be useful and consider under what circumstances their use may present risks Recognize how social media such as wikis and blogs can influence a firm’s customers and brand 8-12
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Wikis Web site that can be modified by anyone directly within a web browser Serve as: – A shared knowledge repository – Knowledge management systems Acts as a collective corporate memory that is vital for: – Sharing skills – Learning – Preserving expertise 8-13
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Wikis What you see is what you get (WYSIWYG): Describes graphical editing tools Users can make changes to existing content and can easily create new content Roll back: Ability to revert a wiki page to a prior version – Useful for restoring earlier work in the event of a posting error, inaccuracy, or vandalism 8-14
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Wikis - Features All changes are attributedComplete revision history is maintainedAutomatic notification and monitoring of updatesAll the pages in a wiki are searchable Specific wiki pages can be classified under an organized tagging scheme 8-15
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Wikimasters Individuals employed by organizations to review community content – Used for jump-starting a wiki – Griefer: Internet vandal and mischief maker Employed by organizations to: – Delete excessive posts – Move commentary to the best location – Edit as necessary 8-16
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Wikis - Uses 8-17 Collect and leverage knowledge that would otherwise be scattered throughout an organization Reduce geographic distance Remove boundaries between functional areas Flatten preexisting hierarchies Allow organizations to leverage input from their customers and partners – Neutral point of view (NPOV): Editorial style that is free of bias and opinion
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Learning Objectives Know what social networks are, be able to list key features, and understand how they are used by individuals, groups, and corporations Understand the difference between major social networks such as Facebook, Google+, and LinkedIn Recognize the benefits and risks of using social networks Be aware of trends that may influence the evolution of social networks 8-18
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Social Networks Online community that allows users to establish a personal profile and communicate with others Feed - Powerful feature of social networks – Provides a timely list of the activities of and public messages from people, groups, and organizations that an individual has an association with – Inherently viral Viral: Information or applications that spread rapidly between users – Rapidly mobilizes populations 8-19
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Social Network – Prompts activism – Offers low-cost promotion and awareness of a firm’s efforts – Can be controversial and mismanagement can: Create accusation of spamming Create public relations snafus Lead to a reduction in the likelihood that a firm’s message will appear in a given fan’s feed Lead to user discontent and can potentially open up a site to legal action 8-20
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Corporate Use of Social Networks Have become organizational productivity tools Displaced the traditional employee directory Important since a large percentage of employees regularly work from home or client locations Firms are setting up social networks for customer engagement and mining these sites for customer ideas, innovation, and feedback 8-21
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Learning Objectives Appreciate the rapid rise of Twitter—its scale, scope, and broad appeal Understand how Twitter is being used by individuals, organizations, and political movements Contrast Twitter and microblogging with Facebook, conventional blogs, and other Web 2.0 efforts Consider the commercial viability of the effort, its competitive environment, and concerns regarding limited revenue 8-22
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Twitter and the Rise of Microblogging Microblogging: Short-message blogging, made through a mobile device Twitter - Microblogging service that allows users to tweet via the Web, SMS, or a variety of third-party desktop and smartphone applications – Tweet: Twitter post, limited to 140 characters – Hash tags: Method for organizing tweets where keywords are preceded by the # character 8-23
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Twitter and the Rise of Microblogging Firms leverage Twitter for: – Promotion – Customer response – Gathering feedback and up to date information – Time-sensitive communication 8-24
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Uses of Twitter Programming hooks, or guidelines published by firms that tell other programs how to get a service to perform a task such as send or receive data Application programming interfaces (APIs) When others take advantage of a user or service without providing any sort of reciprocal benefit Free rider problem 8-25
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Learning Objectives Know key terms related to social media, peer production, and Web 2.0, including RSS, folksonomies, mash-ups, location-based services, virtual worlds, and rich media Provide examples of the effective business use of these terms and technologies 8-26
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Other Key Web 2.0 Terms and Concepts Method for sending/broadcasting data to users who subscribe to a service’s RSS feed Used to manage information overload RSS reader: Shows the title or headline of any new content RSS (Really simple syndication and rich site summary) Keyword-based classification systems created by user communities as they generate and review content Folksonomies Combinations of two or more technologies or data feeds into a single, integrated tool XML: Tagging systems that make mash-ups easy Mash-ups 8-27
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Other Key Web 2.0 Terms and Concepts Network of satellites and supporting technologies used to identify a device’s physical location Global positioning system (GPS) Apps that can overlay real data on top of images from a GPS Augmented-reality Computer-generated environment where users present themselves in the form of an avatar, or animated character Avatar: Online identity expressed by an animated or cartoon figure Virtual worlds Digital audio files provided as a series of programs Podcasts Content that is more complex than simple text or photos Rich media 8-28
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Learning Objectives Understand the concept of the wisdom of crowds as it applies to social networking List the criteria necessary for a crowd to be smart 8-29
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Prediction Markets and the Wisdom of Crowds Wisdom of crowds: Idea that a group of individuals will collectively have more insight than a single or small group of trained professionals – Consists of untrained amateurs Prediction market: Polling a diverse crowd and aggregating opinions in order to form a forecast of an eventual outcome 8-30
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Criteria Necessary for a Crowd to be Smart DiverseDecentralized Offer a collective verdict Independent 8-31
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Learning Objectives Understand the value of crowdsourcing Identify firms that have used crowdsourcing successfully 8-32
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Crowdsourcing Taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people in the form of an open call Leveraged by several public markets – For innovation – As an alternative to standard means of production 8-33
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Learning Objectives Illustrate several examples of effective and poor social media use Recognize the skills and issues involved in creating and staffing an effective social media awareness and response team (SMART) List and describe key components that should be included in any firm’s social media policy 8-34
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Learning Objectives Understand the implications of ethical issues in social media such as sock puppetry and astroturfing and provide examples and outcomes of firms and managers who used social media as a vehicle for dishonesty List and describe tools for monitoring social media activity relating to a firm, its brands, and staff 8-35
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Learning Objectives Understand issues involved in establishing a social media presence, including the embassy approach, openness, and staffing Discuss how firms can engage and respond through social media, and how companies should plan for potential issues and crises 8-36
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Get SMART - Social Media Awareness and Response Team Key issues behind SMART capabilities – Creating the social media team – Establishing firm wide policies – Monitoring activity inside and outside the firm – Establishing the social media presence – Managing social media engagement and response 8-37
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Creating the Team Social media is an interdisciplinary practice, and the team should include professionals experienced in: – Technology – Marketing – Public relations – Customer service – Law – Human resources 8-38
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Responsibilities and Policy Setting Social media policies revolve around three Rs – Representation – Responsibility – Respect Security training is a vital component of establishing social media policy Creating sock puppets and astroturf violates FTC rules and can result in prosecution 8-39
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Responsibilities and Policy Setting – Sock puppet: Fake online persona created to promote a particular point of view, product, or individual – Astroturfing: Engineering the posting of positive comments and reviews of a firm’s product and services Ratings sites will penalize firms that offer incentives for positive feedback posts 8-40
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Monitoring Online reputation management: Tracking and responding to online mentions of a product, organization, or individual Many tools exist for monitoring social media mentions of an organization, brands, competitors, and executives Social media are easy to adopt and potentially easy to abuse 8-41
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Establishing a Presence Embassy approach to social media has firms establish their online presence at various services with a consistent name – Embassy: Established online presence where customers can reach and interact with the firm Firm’s social media embassies can be highlighted in physical space such as: – In print – On bags and packaging – On store signage 8-42
© 2013, published by Flat World Knowledge Engage and Respond Social media provides four Ms of engagement – Megaphone to send out messages from the firm – Magnet to attract inbound communication – Monitoring and mediation - Paying attention to what is happening online and selectively engage conversations when appropriate Engagement can be public or private 8-43
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