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Slide 1 Byzantine Empire (330 a.d.- 1453 a.d.) Major Carlos Rascon.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Byzantine Empire (330 a.d.- 1453 a.d.) Major Carlos Rascon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Byzantine Empire (330 a.d a.d.) Major Carlos Rascon

2 Slide 2 Learning Objectives Identify some of the key leaders of the Byzantine Empire Identify some of the key leaders of the Byzantine Empire Understand Byzantinian Military Philosophy and the Treatises Understand Byzantinian Military Philosophy and the Treatises Identify the Byzantinian Military Organization Identify the Byzantinian Military Organization Identify the Military Innovations of the Byzantine Military Identify the Military Innovations of the Byzantine Military

3 Slide 3 The Dawn of a New Empire 306 a.d.- Constantine I takes power of the Roman Empire 306 a.d.- Constantine I takes power of the Roman Empire 312 a.d.- Christianity is adopted as religion of the State 312 a.d.- Christianity is adopted as religion of the State Constantine I lets the Church become involved in State affairs Constantine I lets the Church become involved in State affairs 330 a.d. -After the invasion of Rome, Constantine I moves the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantines. He re- names it Constantinople (modern day Istanbul, Turkey) and the Byzantine Empire begins 330 a.d. -After the invasion of Rome, Constantine I moves the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantines. He re- names it Constantinople (modern day Istanbul, Turkey) and the Byzantine Empire begins The new Empire is very prosperous and is concerned with defense rather than expansion The new Empire is very prosperous and is concerned with defense rather than expansion Knew that their survival depended on military strength Knew that their survival depended on military strength

4 Slide 4 Byzantine Empire in 330 a.d.

5 Slide 5 Reuniting the Roman Empire Justinian takes Power in 527 A.D. - wants to reunite the East w/ the West Justinian takes Power in 527 A.D. - wants to reunite the East w/ the West Felt that he was head of the Church - his wars took on the character of the Crusades -feels it is his duty to suppress the Arians and convert them to Christianity Felt that he was head of the Church - his wars took on the character of the Crusades -feels it is his duty to suppress the Arians and convert them to Christianity

6 Slide 6 Belisarius Age 27, he was Justinian’s bodyguard Age 27, he was Justinian’s bodyguard Chosen to lead the main Army Chosen to lead the main Army Dara 530 A.D. Dara 530 A.D. Ad Decimum 533 A.D. Ad Decimum 533 A.D. Tricameron 533 A.D. Tricameron 533 A.D.

7 Slide 7 Daras 530 A.D. Persian Frontier Persian Frontier Persians had 40,000 Persians had 40,000 Belisarius had 25,000 Belisarius had 25,000 Counted on Persian aggressiveness and built trenches around the fortress of Daras Counted on Persian aggressiveness and built trenches around the fortress of Daras Persians entered the trenches and were trapped! Persians entered the trenches and were trapped! Belisarius’s infantry and cavalry destroyed the Persians Belisarius’s infantry and cavalry destroyed the Persians

8 Slide 8 Ad Decimum Carthage Daras

9 Slide 9 Ad Decimum Africa 533 A.D. Africa 533 A.D. Justinian wants Carthage for Political and Religious reasons Justinian wants Carthage for Political and Religious reasons Belisarius lands troops in Africa Belisarius lands troops in Africa Vandal King Gelimer attempts to ambush Belisarius at Ad Decimum - Plan calls for 3 simultaneous ambushes Vandal King Gelimer attempts to ambush Belisarius at Ad Decimum - Plan calls for 3 simultaneous ambushes

10 Slide 10 Ad Decimum Cont.. The attacks did not go on time The attacks did not go on time Gelimer had success on one of the fronts, but did not exploit it Gelimer had success on one of the fronts, but did not exploit it Belisarius rallied his troops and dispersed the Vandals Belisarius rallied his troops and dispersed the Vandals

11 Slide 11 Tricameron 533 A.D. Carthage Ad Decimum

12 Slide 12 Tricameron 533 A.D. After taking Carthage, Belisarius is harassed by Gelimer’s remaining forces After taking Carthage, Belisarius is harassed by Gelimer’s remaining forces Gelimer retreats 18 miles west of Carthage at Tricameron Gelimer retreats 18 miles west of Carthage at Tricameron Belisarius marches on Tricameron Belisarius marches on Tricameron Gelimer retreats Gelimer retreats Gelimer finally surrenders to Belisarius in 534 A.D. Gelimer finally surrenders to Belisarius in 534 A.D.

13 Slide 13 Retaking Rome 551 A.D.-the Empire had marginal success in Italy for 5 years 551 A.D.-the Empire had marginal success in Italy for 5 years Goths had control of Italy Goths had control of Italy Justinian decided to send Narses into Italy Justinian decided to send Narses into Italy

14 Slide 14 Taginae Taginae

15 Slide 15 Taginae Narses lands in Italy with about Narses lands in Italy with about Gothic forces are about Gothic forces are about Narses let the Goths attack Narses let the Goths attack Narses formed a solid phalanx and reinforced the flanks with archers Narses formed a solid phalanx and reinforced the flanks with archers Goths attempted to push through the phalanx with cavalry Goths attempted to push through the phalanx with cavalry Archers picked off the Goths on the flanks Archers picked off the Goths on the flanks

16 Slide 16 Taginae Cont.. Goths take heavy losses Goths take heavy losses Italy is retaken under Justinian Italy is retaken under Justinian Last major battle under Justinian’s rule Last major battle under Justinian’s rule

17 Slide 17 Maurice 582 A.D.-Maurice takes control 582 A.D.-Maurice takes control Successful officer in the Military Successful officer in the Military Before taking the throne, he had published “Strategicon” Before taking the throne, he had published “Strategicon” Realigned the military structure Realigned the military structure

18 Slide 18 Maurices Military Structure Under Justinian rule, the standard unit was a numerous ( troops) Under Justinian rule, the standard unit was a numerous ( troops) Maurice introduces: - Turma (6-8 numeri) - Thema (2-3 Turmi) Maurice introduces: - Turma (6-8 numeri) - Thema (2-3 Turmi) Took away Generals powers of patronage by making officer promotion above Centurion (numerous commander) a direct appointee of the Emporer Took away Generals powers of patronage by making officer promotion above Centurion (numerous commander) a direct appointee of the Emporer

19 Slide 19 Military Structure Cont. Introduced: 1.Baggage trains 2.Medical Corps 3.Signals Corps 4.Chaplain Corps Introduced: 1.Baggage trains 2.Medical Corps 3.Signals Corps 4.Chaplain Corps Later outlined in the Treatises “Tactica” Later outlined in the Treatises “Tactica”

20 Slide 20 Themes System Under Maurice, the military was divided - frontier fortresses -interior fortresses Under Maurice, the military was divided - frontier fortresses -interior fortresses Maurice then divided the Empire into provinces (themes) Maurice then divided the Empire into provinces (themes) Military strength depended on strategic needs Military strength depended on strategic needs

21 Slide 21 Navy By 8th century, Byzantine Empire had 5 fleets By 8th century, Byzantine Empire had 5 fleets Relatively small ships Relatively small ships Each vessel had 2 rows of oarsman who were trained to fight Each vessel had 2 rows of oarsman who were trained to fight Each ship had Marines! Each ship had Marines! Ships also had bow tubes for dispensing “Greek Fire” Ships also had bow tubes for dispensing “Greek Fire”

22 Slide 22 Fall of the Empire After constant attacks from the Persians and Slavs during the 6th century, the military is weakened After constant attacks from the Persians and Slavs during the 6th century, the military is weakened Islamic attacks in the 7th and 8th century also hurt the military Islamic attacks in the 7th and 8th century also hurt the military Basil I ( ) and Basil II( ) neglect military Basil I ( ) and Basil II( ) neglect military 1063 Turks attack 1063 Turks attack

23 Slide 23 Fall of the Empire Cont Romanus Diogenes takes control Romanus Diogenes takes control Former General Former General Drove Turks back in the Battle of Manzikert Drove Turks back in the Battle of Manzikert Was betrayed by one of his officers and the Turks enveloped him and killed the Romanus’s Byzantine force Was betrayed by one of his officers and the Turks enveloped him and killed the Romanus’s Byzantine force 1453-Mohammed II takes Constantinople to end 1100 years of the Byzantine Empire 1453-Mohammed II takes Constantinople to end 1100 years of the Byzantine Empire

24 Slide 24 Byzantine Empire over the Years

25 Slide 25 Military Philosophy Constantly Analyzed their Enemies Constantly Analyzed their Enemies Published Studies Called Treatises 1. Strategikon-580 A.D. 2. Tactica-900 A.D. 3. Phoca’s Manual-980 A.D. Published Studies Called Treatises 1. Strategikon-580 A.D. 2. Tactica-900 A.D. 3. Phoca’s Manual-980 A.D. Believed in Strong Generalship Believed in Strong Generalship

26 Slide 26 Military Tactics Employed a Standard Tactical Doctrine Employed a Standard Tactical Doctrine Doctrines Emphasized: 1. Coordinated Action: -Between Weapons Systems (ie-missiles and shock) -Between Armies (ie-infantry and cavalry) 2. Envelopment-Preferred the Left Flank Doctrines Emphasized: 1. Coordinated Action: -Between Weapons Systems (ie-missiles and shock) -Between Armies (ie-infantry and cavalry) 2. Envelopment-Preferred the Left Flank 3. Retaining Fresh Reserves 3. Retaining Fresh Reserves

27 Slide 27 Military Tactics Cont. Had no Code of Honor -Guile and Fraud used whenever possible -Bribery and Trickery were used to Coerce the Enemy -Used Psychological Warfare on Enemies -Used False Propaganda to Raise the Moral of own Troops Had no Code of Honor -Guile and Fraud used whenever possible -Bribery and Trickery were used to Coerce the Enemy -Used Psychological Warfare on Enemies -Used False Propaganda to Raise the Moral of own Troops Relied Heavily on Native Troops vice using Mercenaries Relied Heavily on Native Troops vice using Mercenaries

28 Slide 28 Military Inovations Cavalry Cavalry Stirrups-video link Stirrups-video link Greek Fire Greek Fire Military Study Military Study Good Generalship Good Generalship Baggage Train Baggage Train

29 Slide 29 Innovations Cont. Signals Corps Signals Corps Chaplain Corps Chaplain Corps Medical Corps Medical Corps

30 Slide 30 Military Organization Numerous/Banda ( Men) Numerous/Banda ( Men) Turma (5-8 Numeri) Turma (5-8 Numeri) Thema (2-3 Turmi) Thema (2-3 Turmi)

31 Slide 31 Numerus/Banda Men Men Commanded by Tribune, Count, Centurian or Drungarios Commanded by Tribune, Count, Centurian or Drungarios Was the Basic Level of Military Was the Basic Level of Military Organization and is the equivalent to a modern day Battalion Organization and is the equivalent to a modern day Battalion

32 Slide 32 Turma Consisted of 5-8 Numeri Consisted of 5-8 Numeri Commanded by a Turmarch Commanded by a Turmarch Equivalent to a Modern day Division Equivalent to a Modern day Division

33 Slide 33 Thema 2-3 Turmi 2-3 Turmi Commanded by a Strategos Commanded by a Strategos Equivalent to a Corps Equivalent to a Corps

34 Slide 34 Questions?


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