Presentation on theme: "Vandalism Vandalism of a restored war memorial to students from Malvern Collegiate who were killed in World War I. The monument had just been restored."— Presentation transcript:
Vandalism Vandalism of a restored war memorial to students from Malvern Collegiate who were killed in World War I. The monument had just been restored prior to vandalism on Sunday, November 6, 2011.
Vandalism Assumption: Vandalism is not chance or senseless behaviour, but is determined (i.e., it has a cause and just doesn’t happen) like any other behaviour. Vandalism is not a crime in the Canadian Criminal Code Statistics on vandalism are not reliable, but are only very crude guestimates of the actual situation.
Note: The sections on arson and theft are also applicable!
Marcel Duchamp (1919) L. H. O. O. Q “Elle a chaud au cul.” “She has a hot a**.”
Vandalism: Before & After
Acid-etched Bus Shelter
Repaired Bus Shelter
Source: Kurlansky, M., Naar, J., & Mailer, N. (1974). The faith of graffiti. New York: Praeger.
Learning About Criminal Activity Police reports: possible bias, seasonal variation, special events may change practices, individual may not report certain crimes to police, biases of police my influence arrests. Victimology: corrective for police reports since individuals will record crimes not reported and provide explanations. Self-reports of criminal activity: gives perspective on extent of problem, allows check of possible police biases
General Social Survey (2009) Conducted every 5 years (1988,1993,1999,2004) Comparison with the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) survey of police reports 7.4 million Canadians aged 15+ reported being a crime victim during the preceding 12 months (unchanged since 2004 survey) Random digit dialing performed in all provinces and 3 territories 31,510 households contacted from February-November 2009 producing 19,500 usable interviews (61.6% response rate
Youth Self-Reported Delinquency, Toronto, 2006 Juristat Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics
Beaulieu, L. (1981). Vandalism: Responses and responsibilities: Report of the Task Force on Vandalism. Toronto: The Task Force
S. Cohen’s Typology of Vandalism Vandalism as institutionalized rule breaking: Ritualism Protection Play Writing off Walling in Ideological vandalism Source: Cohen, S. (1973). Property destruction: Motive and meanings. In C. Ward (Ed.), Vandalism. London, UK: The Architectural Press.
Vandalism as a Political Tool: Religious Hate
S. Cohen’s Typology of Vandalism Conventional vandalism: Acquisitive vandalism Tactical vandalism Vindictive vandalism Play vandalism Malicious vandalism Source: Cohen, S. (1973). Property destruction: Motive and meanings. In C. Ward (Ed.), Vandalism. London, UK: The Architectural Press.
Source: Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Educational Facilities Laboratories.
What’s Wrong with this School? From Zeisel, J. (1976). Stopping school property damage: Design and administrative guidelines to reduce school vandalism. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators and Eductional Facilities Laboratories. Accessible rooftops Hidden doorway niches Inviting unplanned hangouts Misplaced decorative plantings Vulnerable playground windows Unnecessary door hardware Visible panic bars Unclear entry statement Graffiti Misplaced planned pathways Reachable wall lettering
Aesthetics and Vandalism Based on the work of D. Berlyne at U of T on intrinsic motivation Implication: Choice of vandalized objects are not randomly chosen Relevance of aesthetic theory
Aesthetics and Vandalism Based on the work of D. Berlyne at U of T –Intrinsic Motivation = we engage in behaviours because we find them enjoyable –Aesthetics = the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature and expression of beauty –Berlyne: We can understand aesthetics by looking at drive theory –Drive theory is related to strength of nervous system research –Application of drive theory to vandalism Implication: Choice of vandalized objects is not random
Aesthetics and Vandalism Factors in aesthetics responsible for pleasure: Complexity Expectation Novelty Intensity Patterning
Where’s Waldo? Complexity
Novelty? Expectation disconfirmation?
Intensity & Patterning Intensity
Patterning Note: There is no animation or movement in this graphic!
Intensity & Patterning
Aesthetics and Vandalism Three stages of the destruction process: 1.Predestruction (alteration may be pleasing) 2.During destruction (complex, unexpected, and novel damage will be perceived as fun) 3.Postdestruction (the cycle may start again)
Aesthetics and Vandalism The enjoyment of destruction derives primarily from the visual, auditory, and tactile-kinesthetic (kicking, striking) stimuli during destruction. If breakage is: More complex More unexpected More novel Then there should be more enjoyment aroused Postdestruction: The anticipation of an object’s appearance after breaking may contribute to the destruction decision.
Aesthetics and Vandalism Pleasurability from destruction 1.Mirror glass (most pleasurable) 2.Plate glass 3.Tiles 4.Wood 5.Metal (least pleasurable)
Royal Bank, Toronto
Deopportunizing Design Assumptions: 1.Vandalism is opportunistic 2.Behavioural controls are similar for vandalism as they are for other environmental behaviours Analogy: Target hardening : boxing Deopportunizing design:aikido
Deopportunizing Design Deopportunizing a setting means: Design out the ways and means a setting can be damaged Designing in the props and cues that encourage nondestructive use Different setting will have different features that invite vandalism and require various kinds of controls to inhibit it
Deopportunizing Design Three principles of deopportunizing design: 1.Encourage an attitude that is incompatible with images or activities that lead to damage (this is similar to Wolpe’s notion of reciprocal inhibition). Provide cues or props that channel the user’s attention away from potentially damaging activities 2.Reduce the effects of natural processes on which vandals can build 3.Decrease vandal’s reward—make objects less fun to play with
Strategies for Vandalism Reduction/Prevention Target hardening Public education Increasing security Creating inhibitions against targets Increasing severity of punishment Recreation—provide acceptable outlets for the vandal’s energy “Deopportunizing” design concepts Design for defensible space Censorship/media “cooperation”
Creating Inhibitions: Receive a $500 reward for reporting graffiti artists
Intervention Strategies 1.Varied response may be necessary 2.Community level approach 3.Indentify the nature and extent of the problem 4.Interventions based on an assessment of the problem 5.Evaluation of the costs and benefits of the intervention strategy 6.Design a programme evaluation prior to implementation 7.Document the programme evaluation