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The Legislative Branch

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1 The Legislative Branch
Article I Of the U.S. Constitution Created by Mrs. Anderson And Ms. Koleczek

2 What is the Legislative Branch?
The Legislative Branch is outlined in Article I of the United States Constitution. Our national legislature is called Congress.

3 What is Congress? Congress is our nation’s legislature.
Congress is bicameral which means it has two houses. The two houses are the Senate and the House of Representatives.

4 What is Congress? Senate House of Rep.
The Senate is based upon equal representation. Each state has 2 senators. We in Illinois have 2 senators in the United States Congress. The number of members of the House of Representatives is based upon population. The state with the most reps. is CA which has 52 representatives. The Dakotas, Delaware, and Wyoming only have 1 rep. each. IL has 19. There are 435 representatives in Congress!

5 Illinois’s Leaders Senators U.S. Representatives Mark Kirk
Aaron Schock Dick Durbin John Shimkus

6 Think About It…. If there are 100 Senators and 435 members of the House of Representatives, then how many members of Congress are there total?

7 Answer! 535 members of Congress!

8 Powers of Congress Some of the powers of Congress are:
1. The power to tax the people 2. The power to create a court system 3. The power to declare war 4. The power to pass all laws necessary to carry out its duties 5. The power to provide for the general welfare of the United States

9 How Does Congress Make a Law?
Congress provides for the common good of the people by passing bills that it thinks will help the people.

10 Basic Steps of Creating a Law
Every bill begins as an idea! 1. Write a bill 2. Get a majority vote from each of the 2 houses. 3. Get the President to approve the bill by signing it. If it is vetoed, then it will take 2/3 majority vote of both houses of Congress to vote for it to become a law!

11 Responsibilities of Congress
Main job of Congress is to make the laws! These laws protect our rights and promote our general welfare. Congressmen/women study our nation’s problems, talk to people, read letters from those they represent, and listen to debates and attend committee meetings.

12 How Are the Powers of Congress Limited?
Congress cannot make a law that completely limits your rights! If it did make a law that limited your rights, who has the power to declare a law unconstitutional? The Judicial Branch If this happens then the law may not be Constitutional! The Judicial Branch would then rule the law unconstitutional and it would be outlawed.

13 Our Legislative Branch is bicameral, which means there are two houses!
Review Time! The U.S. Capitol Building The Capitol building in 1800 The Capitol in 1846. The South wing is the House of Representatives chambers. The North wing is the Senate chambers! Our Legislative Branch is bicameral, which means there are two houses! What are the two houses?

14 Washington is located between what two states? Look at the map closely!
Therefore, Washington, D.C. is NOT part of any state! It is a neutral area!

15 REVIEW! What are the two political parties in Congress? Republicans

16 Who is the leader of the House of Representatives? (Review)
The Speaker of the House of Representatives! Our present Speaker of the House is JOHN BOEHNER.

17 Who Presides Over the Senate?
The Vice President of the United States! Joe Biden

18 Who is the Leader of the Senate?
president pro tempore - A constitutionally recognized officer of the Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the Vice President. The President Pro Tempore (or, "president for a time") is elected by the Senate and is, by custom, the Senator of the majority party with the longest record of continuous service. Daniel Inouye of Hawaii is our President Pro Tem of the Senate!

19 Requirements of being…
A Representative A Senator 30 years old 9 years a U.S. citizen Must live in the state they represent 6 year term of office 2 senators per state 100 senators total Tries an impeachment case IL has 2 senators. Do you remember who they are? 25 years old 7 years a U.S. citizen Must live in the state they represent 2 year term of office 435 members total Population of the state Begins the impeachment process IL has 19 representatives in Congress in 2010.

20 What Does Congress Do? Some issues that Congress deals with … 1. Crime
2. Social Security 3. Foreign Aid 4. Health 5. Taxes


22 POWERS OF CONGRESS 1. Congress has the power to raise taxes, but only for the 3 main reasons. A. To pay the National debt B. To defend our country in times of war/terrorism C. To meet the needs of the people of the U.S.

23 POWERS OF CONGRESS 2. Borrow money 3. Control over trade
A. With other countries B. Among the states C. With the Indians 4. Establish Naturalization and Bankruptcy guidelines Naturalization-the process of becoming a U.S. citizen Bankruptcy-the loss of $ when someone goes broke

24 POWERS OF CONGRESS 4. Coins money—this means to make money at a mint.
"The Congress shall have the Power To Coin Money." (Constitution of the United States, Article I, Section 8.) The United States Mint operates six facilities across the United States with each facility performing unique functions. Current facilities are located in: Washington, DC; Philadelphia, PA; West Point, NY; Fort Knox, KY; Denver, CO; and San Francisco, CA.

25 United States Mint Washington D.C. Mint Old US Mint
New Mint as of 1999

26 POWERS OF CONGRESS Congress also establishes a system of weights and measures. This system makes sure that you, as a consumer, get what you pay for. Example: gasoline pumps, scales at grocery stores. Congress establishes post offices and roads. Therefore, did you know it is a federal offense if anyone tampers with the mail or mailboxes? It’s true!

27 POWERS OF CONGRESS 6. Congress grants copyrights and patents
A. Copyright-protection for written material B. Patent-protection for inventions or ideas

28 Think about it—how has piracy changed since 1787?
POWERS OF CONGRESS 7. Sets up the lower courts system 8. Makes laws against piracy or crimes of the sea and violating customs (agency that controls what comes in and out of the country). Think about it—how has piracy changed since 1787?

9. Declare war! 10. Calls up the state militias otherwise known as the National Guard. 11. The Elastic Clause (Clause 18)—this clause allows Congress to make any laws necessary to help it carry out its duties. It is called the Elastic Clause because it lets Congress STRETCH its powers. We will fondly refer to this clause as the _______________ clause! It is Clause 18 of Article I of the Constitution.

1. Clause 2-Habeas (to have) Corpus(a body)—a person cannot be held in jail without a just cause. An officer must explain the charges. This is known as a writ of habeas corpus. “Why am I in jail? I didn’t do anything wrong! I want my writ of habeas corpus!”

Clause 3- Bill of Attainder –Congress may not pass a bill of attainder which would convict just one person of a crime. Example—In the 1920’s Al Capone was a gangster responsible for many crimes. Congress could not pass a bill to arrest him. Congress does not have that power.

Ex Post Facto Law—An Ex Post Facto law is a law passed after someone has committed a crime to convict that person of he crime they did before the law was passed. Example—seat belt law in the state of IL

Clause 8—Congress cannot grant titles of nobility like king, queen, princess, lord, lady, duke, etc.

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