Presentation on theme: "Origins and DevelopmentsOrigins and Developments Roman architecture continued the style started and left by the earlier architects of Greece. The."— Presentation transcript:
Origins and DevelopmentsOrigins and Developments Roman architecture continued the style started and left by the earlier architects of Greece. The Roman respect for this tradition and their particular fascination for the established architectural orders, especially the Ancient Greeks style, which is evident in many of their large public buildings The Romans were indebted to their Etruscan neighbors and forefathers who supplied them with a wealth of knowledge essential for future architectural solutions The Romans absorbed the Greek Architectural influence both directly and indirectly. This influence is seen in many ways. Phidias (Famous Greeks Sculpture)
Continued The Romans were also known to employ Greek craftsmen and engineers to construct Roman buildings. Romans were also great innovators and they quickly used and created new construction techniques, used new materials, and uniquely combined existing techniques with creative design to produce a whole range of new structures Many of these innovations were brought up and made to suit the needs of the Roman people Roman Coliseum Aqueduct Triumphal Arch
Time PeriodsTime Periods Roman Architecture covers the period from the establishment of the Roman Republic in 509BC, to about the 4th century, after which it becomes reclassified as the Late Antique or Byzantine architecture. Most of the many survivals are from the later imperial period. Roman architectural style continued to influence building in the former empire for many centuries. This style was beginning in Western Europe about 1000 is called Romanesque architecture to reflect this dependence on basic Roman forms. An Example of Romanesque Architecture
Context Factors such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new architectural solutions of their own. The use of vaults and arches, together with a sound knowledge of building materials, enabled them to achieve unprecedented successes in the construction of imposing structures for public use. Examples include the aqueducts of Rome, the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla, the basilicas and the Coliseums. The Ancient Romans intended that public buildings should be made to impress, as well as perform a public function. The Romans did not feel restricted by Greeks alone in order to achieve these objectives. Baths of Caracalla
Materials Tile covered concrete quickly supplanted marble as the primary building material and more daring buildings soon followed, with great pillars supporting broad arches and domes rather than dense lines of columns suspending flat architraves. The freedom of concrete also inspired the colonnade screen, a row of purely decorative columns in front of a load-bearing wall. In smaller-scale architecture, concrete's strength freed the floor plan from rectangular cells to a more free-flowing environment. Most of these developments are described by Vitruvius writing in the first century AD in his work De Architectura Tower of Hercules
Continued Although concrete had been used on a minor scale in Mesopotamia, Roman architects perfected Roman concrete and used it in buildings where it could stand on its own and support a great deal of weight. The first use of concrete by the Romans was in the town of Cosa sometime after 273 BCE. Concrete construction proved to be more flexible and less costly than building solid stone buildings. The materials were readily available and not difficult to transport. The wooden frames could be used more than once, allowing builders to work quickly and efficiently. Frigidarium of Baths of Diocletian today Santa Maria degli Angeli
Modern influenceModern influence During the Baroque and the Renaissance periods, Roman and Greek architectural styles again became fashionable, not only in Italy, but all over Europe. Today we still see those influences all around us, in banks, government buildings, great houses, even small houses. Americans, especially political buildings in America are heavily influenced by the Romans also. All across the US the seats of regional government were normally built in the grand traditions of Rome, with vast flights of stone steps sweeping up to towering pillared porticoes.
Architects In the Roman world the credit for buildings was largely placed at the feet of he who conceived and paid for the project rather than the architect who oversaw the realization of it; therefore, he often remains anonymous. Apollodorus of Damascus, famed for his skills in bridge building, for example, and who was responsible for, amongst other projects, Trajan’s Forum and Baths in Rome (104-9 CE). Severus and Celer were the architects responsible for the fantastic sounding revolving roof of Nero’s Golden House. In general architects supervised whilst it was contractors, who actually carried out the project based on the architect’s measured drawings. Nero’s Golden House
Vitruvius Certainly the most famous Roman architect is Vitruvius, principally because his On Architecture, a 10-volume study of architecture, has survived intact. Not much about his own work - only a basilica he constructed in Fano and that he did work for Julius Caesar and Augustus. On Architecture covers all facets of architecture, types of building, advice for would-be architects, and much more besides. One interesting point about the work is that it reveals that the ancient architect was expected to have many skills which nowadays would be separated into different specialisations. Marcus Vitruvius
Types of artTypes of art Mosaic Painting Sculpture Drama and Theatre Sculpture Roman Mosaic interpretation of a fish Comedy & Tragedy Theatre Masks Roman Painting of a Bird
Roman SculptureRoman Sculpture Traditional Roman sculpture is divided into five categories: portraiture, historical relief, funerary reliefs, sarcophagi, and copies of ancient Greek works. The Roman copies of Greek works are the only reason that the knowledge of some of the Greek originals has survived. Much of the technique that the Romans used in sculpting comes from the Greeks. Roman statue of Zeus that is a Greek copy. Artwork on a Roman sarcophagus
Roman sculpture Roman sculpture  Portrait sculptures of the Republic era of Rome differ in style than the ones of the Imperial era. The sculptures of the Republic era tend to look more natural and realistic. The sculptures of the Imperial era were unrealistic in the sense that they were used mainly for propaganda. "A Roman Patrician with Busts of His Ancestors“ From the Republican Era “Augustus of Prima Porte” From the Imperial Era
Roman MosaicRoman Mosaic The mosaics were mainly used to decorate flooring. But, they soon moved from floors to vaults, columns and fountain decoration. The Romans developed new techniques for creating mosaics, from how the Greeks made them. The Roman mosaics were heavily influenced by the Greeks and Hellenistic culture. Roman floor mosaic of Alexander the Great battling King Darius III of Persia.
Roman paintingRoman painting Like most Roman art the technique and style was adopted from the Greeks. But, unlike the Greeks the Romans were able to develop a new form of painting landscapes, by incorporating new techniques of perspective. Apart from landscape, Roman paintings also consisted of portrait, panel paintings, tomb paintings, still life, and historical/mythological episodes. Roman landscape painting A Still Life painting of fruit in a jar. Still life is used to depict a variety of everyday objects. A historical landscape painting from the Odyssey
Roman Drama & theatreRoman Drama & theatre The Roman dramas and plays mostly adaptations of Greek originals. And like the Greek originals the Roman plays would have either been a comedy or tragedy. Roman drama was usually performed during festivals. There were many theatre buildings that were also an interpretation of the Greek theatres and amphitheatres. A Roman Amphitheatre Roman theatre masks, comedy & tragedy
Art & architectureArt & architecture The Roman art and architecture are very closely related. Many of the architectural designs of ancient Rome include outstanding artwork within them. It is similar to the Greeks before them how the Romans decorate their buildings with friezes, sculptures, and paintings. The Coliseum is a good example of the artwork and architecture combined by the Romans.
The influence of roman art todayThe influence of roman art today Roman art has had a strong influence in modern day architecture. The designs and styles are still incorporated in buildings that are seen today. The Capitol Building (Above) and the Lincoln Memorial (Left), Washington DC, United States. Were both strongly influenced by ancient Roman design.
Bibliography [photos]Bibliography [photos] Theatre Masks Bird painting paihttp://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/europe_a ncient_roman_paintings/img/1.jpg Sculpture Mosaic https://encrypted- tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSa6u8OMqLaurVj9VkOi2kdqt4B3SSAEwx zJ9Krd_vckgGHFqd-https://encrypted- tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSa6u8OMqLaurVj9VkOi2kdqt4B3SSAEwx zJ9Krd_vckgGHFqd- Sarcophagus sculpture _Garland_Sarcophagus_-_Walters_2329.jpg _Garland_Sarcophagus_-_Walters_2329.jpg Sculpture of Zeus Patrician statue Augustus statue Augustus.jpg/220px-Statue-Augustus.jpg Augustus.jpg/220px-Statue-Augustus.jpg Mosaic of Alexander the Great 0px-Alexandermosaic.jpg Roman landscape painting Odyssey landscape Roman theatre 16.jpg Roman masks masks.png The coliseum colosseum.jpg The Capitol Building content/uploads/2009/09/Picture-91.jpg The Lincoln memorial
Bibliography "Architecture in Ancient Roman - Crystalinks." Architecture in Ancient Roman - Crystalinks. (accessed May 4, 2014). "Roman Architecture." Ancient History Encyclopedia. (accessed May 2, 2014). "Roman Architecture." Roman Architecture. e.html (accessed May 4, 2014).